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USM - PSYC 270 - Class Notes - Week 14

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USM - PSYC 270 - Class Notes - Week 14

School: University of Southern Mississippi
Department: Psychology
Course: Child Psychology
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: home, vygotsky, piaget, congitive, Theory, social, Cultural, memory, Language, tv, mind, preoperational, and stages
Name: PSY 270 Chapter 9 notes
Description: These are the notes that we covered in 3 sections on Chapter 9. It includes Piaget's Cognitive Theory and Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory during the preoperational stage of child development.
Uploaded: 11/04/2016
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background image Definitions Examples Important Information PSY 270 Chapter 9: Cognitive Development in Early Childhood Welcome to the Properational Theory for children ages 2­7 years Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development: ­ Underestimated the abilities of a child during the preoperational stage
­ Three Mountain Test resulted in errors attributing to the demands on child and language 
development ­ There’s a chance that the children didn’t understand the test
­ Errors in testing based on causality:
­ The results depended on how the task was presented
­ Open­ended questions are misleading
­ Questions asked during the Conservation of Volume test may be misleading  ­ A child may expect a change because a question was asked a certain way Symbolic Thought: ­ Preoperational thought is characterized by the use of symbols  (drawings, pretend play,  etc) ­ Pretend play: ­ Make believing that objects are something other than what they actually are  (imaginary friends) ­ 12­13 months: pretend play appears
­ 15­20 months: children shift focus towards others
­ 30 months: children believe that objects have active rolls
­ Imaginary friends:
­ 65%...
­ More common for the first born or an only child
­ Characteristics that correlate with pretend play: 1) Lower aggression 2) Higher cooperation with others
3) Better at problem solving
background image ­ Quality of pretend play matters ­ Violent pretend play leads to low empathy, unwillingness to help others,  and antisocial tendencies when the child grows up ­ Children who are more elaborate in their pretend play tend to do better in  school Operations: ­ The flexible and reversible manipulations of objects ­ Ex) in checkers, a player can picture potential moves (flexible), and they can reimagine  the board after the move AND before the move (reversibility) ­ Children lack reversible mental operation in preoperational stage Preoperational Logic: ­ Egocentrism­ only viewing the world through your own perspective ­ Due to maturation NOT selfishness, children aren’t capable of understanding that others  have different views ­ Ex) a child thinks that his/her parent knows everything that happened to them even if the  parent wasn’t present ­ Mountain Test: ­ a child views a landscape of mountains from one side of the table and describes  what he/she sees ­ when moved to the opposite side, they describe again what is in the landscape, but leave out what is on the other side because it’s no longer in their view ­ Causality: ­ Inferring a cause is influenced by egocentrism ­ Children think that everything happens for a reason, but if they do not know the  cause, the reasoning is based on the child ­ Ex) Why is it dark outside? So I can go to sleep.  ­ Natural causes and effects are often attributed to the object’s will even if its  inanimate ­ Types of logic: 1) Transductive reasoning
background image ­ Reason by going from one specific even to another specific  event and relating the two ­ Ex) I sleep because it’s dark 2) Animism ­ Giving intentions to inanimate objects ­ Ex) The sun sets because it’s tired 3) Artificialism ­ Reasoning that environmental features are made by people ­ Ex) The sky is blue because someone painted it that way ­ Children are often confused between metal and physical events ­ 2­4 year: confusion of symbols and what they represent
­ Children also believe that their thoughts resemble reality and often think their dreams are 
reality that everyone is able to see ­ Ex) if a child tells you to pretend you’re a “galaprock,” the child assumes you know what that is just because they do ­ 7 years: children understand that dreams are personal to the dreamer Conservation: ­ Properties remain the same even if the shape or arrangement of objects have changed ­ Children have no sense of conservation at this stage
­ Principles of conservation:
1) Centration ­ Focusing on the one dimensional situation and ignoring any other dimension ­ Ex) Conservation of volume: ­ Asking if two glasses of water are equal, pouring  one glass of water into a taller glass and again  asking if the glasses are equal. ­ Child answers that the taller glass has more water  even though it just left the glass that contained the  same amount ­ Conservation of number:

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School: University of Southern Mississippi
Department: Psychology
Course: Child Psychology
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: home, vygotsky, piaget, congitive, Theory, social, Cultural, memory, Language, tv, mind, preoperational, and stages
Name: PSY 270 Chapter 9 notes
Description: These are the notes that we covered in 3 sections on Chapter 9. It includes Piaget's Cognitive Theory and Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory during the preoperational stage of child development.
Uploaded: 11/04/2016
12 Pages 47 Views 37 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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