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UA - SCI 101 - CHEM 101 TEST #3 STUDY GUIDE - Study Guide

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UA - SCI 101 - CHEM 101 TEST #3 STUDY GUIDE - Study Guide

School: University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Department: Biology
Course: Chemistry 101 008
Professor: Bakker
Term: Fall 2016
Tags:
Name: CHEM 101 TEST #3 STUDY GUIDE
Description: This study guide covers cliff notes on chapters 7, 8, and 9. It contains important tables, worked through questions from class, and MyLabsPlus extra questions for you to practice with an attached answer key.
Uploaded: 11/05/2016
0 5 3 27 Reviews
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background image CHEM 101 STUDY GUIDE #2 TEST 3 HOW TO By Lauren Faris
background image Glossary Chapter 7 Cliff Notes pg.2-3 Chapter 8 Cliff Notes pg.4 Chapter 9 Cliff Notes pg.5-9 Examples of In-Class Worked Through 
Questions and Answers
      pg.10-14 Examples of MyLabsPlus Extra 
Questions for You to Try
     pg.15 MyLabsPlus Extra Answer Key       pg.16
background image 1 Chapter 7 Cliff Notes Oxygen is paramagnetic. Hybridization is where you mix at least 2 nonequivalent atomic orbitals (e.g. s
and p). Hybrid orbitals have very different shape from original atomic orbitals.
Number of hybrid orbitals is equal to number of pure atomic orbitals used in 
the hybridization process.
The valence electrons of the atoms in a molecule reside in quantum 
mechanical atomic orbitals.
A chemical bond results when these atomic orbitals interact and there is a 
total of two electrons in the new molecular orbital.  The electrons must be 
spin paired.
According to valence bond theory, bonding takes place between atoms when 
their atomic or hybrid orbitals interact.
To interact, the orbitals must do either of the following: o Be aligned along the axis between the atoms.
o Be parallel to each other and perpendicular to the interatomic axis.
Some atoms hybridize their orbitals to maximize bonding.  More bonds = 
more full orbitals = more stability.
Hybridizing is mixing different types of orbitals in the valence shell to make a 
new set of degenerate orbitals.  sp, sp2 , sp3 , sp3d, sp3d2
The same type of atom can have different types of hybridization. A sigma (σ) bond results when the interacting atomic orbitals point along the 
axis connecting the two bonding nuclei.
Either standard atomic orbitals or hybrids • s to s, p to p, hybrid to hybrid, s 
to hybrid, etc. • A pi (π) bond results when the bonding atomic orbitals are 
parallel to each other and perpendicular to the axis connecting the two 
bonding nuclei.  Between unhybridized parallel p orbitals.
The interaction between parallel orbitals is not as strong as between orbitals 
that point at each other; therefore, σ bonds are stronger than π bonds.
Atom with two electron groups are linear shape with a 180° bond angle. Valence Bond (VB) theory predicts many properties better than Lewis theory. 
– Bonding schemes, bond strengths, bond lengths, bond rigidity.
background image Resonance hybrids: VB theory presumes the electrons are localized in orbitals
on the atoms in the molecule, so doesn’t really address resonance structures.
In MO theory you apply Schrödinger’s wave equation to the molecule to 
calculate a set of molecular orbitals.  The equation solution is estimated.  The
estimated solution is evaluated and adjusted until the energy of the orbital is 
minimized.
The simplest guess starts with the atomic orbitals of the atoms adding 
together to make molecular orbitals; this is called the linear combination of 
atomic orbitals (LCAO) method.
2 Because the orbitals are wave functions, the waves can combine either 
constructively or destructively.
When the wave functions combine constructively, the resulting molecular 
orbital has lower energy than the original atomic orbitals.  Called a bonding 
molecular orbital.
o Designated: σ, π
o Most of the electron density between the nuclei.
When the wave functions combine destructively, the resulting molecular 
orbital has higher energy than the original atomic orbital.  Called an 
antibonding molecular orbital.
o Designated: σ*, π*
o Most of the electron density outside the nuclei.
o Nodes between nuclei.
Use Aufbau approach for MO’s (as we did for individual atoms). Electrons in bonding MOs are stabilizing. o Lower energy than the atomic orbitals. Electrons in antibonding MOs are destabilizing. o Higher in energy than atomic orbitals.
o Electron density located outside the internuclear axis.
o Electrons in antibonding orbitals cancel stability gained by electrons in 
bonding orbitals. Bond order = ½ (# Bonding Electrons – # Antibonding Electrons). Bond order = difference between number of electrons in bonding and 
antibonding orbitals.
Molecular orbitals (MOs) are a linear combination of atomic orbitals (AOs). MOs are named by type: σ, π, with a subscript to indicate what AOs they were
formed from.
When the combining atomic orbitals are identical and of equal energy, the 
contribution of each atomic orbital to the molecular orbital is equal.
When the combining atomic orbitals are different types and energies, 
contributions to the MOs are different.
The more electronegative an atom is, the lower in energy are its orbitals. • 
Lower energy atomic orbitals contribute more to the bonding MOs.

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School: University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Department: Biology
Course: Chemistry 101 008
Professor: Bakker
Term: Fall 2016
Tags:
Name: CHEM 101 TEST #3 STUDY GUIDE
Description: This study guide covers cliff notes on chapters 7, 8, and 9. It contains important tables, worked through questions from class, and MyLabsPlus extra questions for you to practice with an attached answer key.
Uploaded: 11/05/2016
20 Pages 185 Views 148 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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