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UNL - PSYC 287 - PSYC 287 Exam 3 Study Guide - Study Guide

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UNL - PSYC 287 - PSYC 287 Exam 3 Study Guide - Study Guide

School: University of Nebraska Lincoln
Department: Psychology
Course: Psychology of Personality
Professor: Pearce
Term: Fall 2016
Tags:
Name: PSYC 287 Exam 3 Study Guide
Description: This is a detailed study guide over content for exam 3
Uploaded: 11/05/2016
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background image PSYC 287 Exam 3 Study Guide Types of Research o Case Studies: involves a very close examination of a person or event Advantages A well­chosen case study can be a source of ideas, sometimes the 
method is absolutely necessary
Disadvantages/weaknesses The degree to which its findings can be generalized as unknown o Experimental: have to randomly assign to two or more groups; manipulate the  factor interested in  Advantages Gains insight into methods of instruction, researcher can have 
control over variables, intuitive practice shaped by research 
Disadvantages Subject to human error, sample may not be representative, human 
response can be difficult to measure
o Correlational: an associational research study; no experimental groups, everybody is treated the same Advantages Allows to collect much more data than experiments, the results 
tend to be more applicable to everyday life
Disadvantages/weaknesses Cannot provide a conclusive reason for a relationship, causation 
cannot be determined
Key Research Concepts o Person vs. Situation Debate Walter Mischel’s role in debate Reviewed personality studies & found that correlations between 
personality traits & behavior in different situations fell under .30
Caused psychologists to question whether the concept of 
personality traits was useful
Funder’s research responding to debate Reanalyzed classic social psychology studies Personality’s influence on situations (strong vs. weak)  Strong situations: situations where nearly all people act the same 
way; personality is useless
Weak/ambiguous situations: situations that allow for variations in 
behavior; personality is useful
The Personality Coefficient: the .30 from Mischel’s studies is labeled the 
“personality coefficient” 
Contexts in which personality or situational variables are better at 
predicting behavior
Personality
background image o Personality traits influence the situations a person finds  herself in o Personality traits influence how situations unfold o Classic interaction: 2 variables in combination have  meaningful effect Situational  o Situational variables are better at predicting how people act in an array of situations  Has led to data aggregation Interactions between personality & situations (moderator variables) Moderator variable: a 3 rd  variable that affects the strength of the  relationship between a dependent & independent variable Need for consistency – higher = greater predictive power of 
situations
Age – older = greater stability in personality traits o Reliability: a reliable measure gives you a result you can trust o Validity: measuring what you intend to measure o Generalizability: do your measures work on everyone? o What problems can affect these research concepts and how do researchers address them? Reliability Problems – participant error, experiment error, distractions, 
situations & temporary states 
Improvements – data aggregation, clear/carefully designed 
experimental protocol 
Validity Problems – when something doesn’t measure what it intends to 
measure, no validity w/o reliability 
Improvements – attempting new tests Generalizability Problems – will it continue to apply across time, ethnicity, gender, 
culture
Improvements – adapt measures to fit different cultures Key Statistical Concepts o Factor Analysis Method:  Confirmatory testing: can be used to confirm whether test items fall into 
hypothesized groups
Exploratory testing: can be used to explore whether test items fall into 
sensible groups
Advantages – helps with correlation Disadvantages – harming factors is subjective, sometimes factor structure 
is difficult to interpret
background image o Null hypothesis significance testing – the most common method used to  determine whether or not scientific results matter Tells us what % of the time we would find the same relationship between 
variables
Trait Theory and Personality Judgments o Big Five personality traits: neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness,  conscientiousness, & openness o Correlations between big 5 personality traits & behavior/life outcomes Neuroticism: people who score high on this trait tend to deal ineffectively 
w/ problems in their lives & react more negatively to stressful events
Openness: people scoring high are viewed by others as creative, 
imaginative, open­minded, & clever
Conscientiousness: organized, dependable, self­discipline Agreeableness: compassionate, cooperative, trusting Extraversion: positive emotions, assertiveness, sociability Humanism o Mihály Csíkszentmihályi’s theory of “flow”: the mental stage of operation in  which a person performing an activity is fully immersed in a feeling of energized  focus, full involvement, and enjoyment in the process of the activity  o Salvatore Maddi’s theory of hardiness: the coping strategies, attitudes, and beliefs that help people work through the stressors of life These traits tend to fall into three major categories – challenge, control, 
and commitment 
Personality and Culture o Emics – thoughts, concepts, feelings, or behaviors that are determined by a  culture’s customs and beliefs o Etics – thoughts, concepts, feelings, or behaviors that are more universally true  across cultures o Ethnocentrism: judging another culture from the point of view of yourself o Outgroup homogeneity bias: the tendency to view an outgroup as homogenous, or as “all the same” whereas the in­group is seen as more heterogeneous or varied o Cultural relativism: idea that all cultures are valid and should not be judged good  or bad Psychoanalysis (Freud and Later Theorists) o Identify the basic concepts underlying psychoanalytic theory  Psychic Determinism: the assumption that every that happens in a person’s
mind, and therefore everything that a person thinks and does, also has a 
specific cause Internal Structure Id – the repository of the drives, the emotions, and the primitive, 
unconscious part of the mind that wants everything now
Ego – the relatively rational part of the mind that balances the 
competing claims of the id, the superego, and reality

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School: University of Nebraska Lincoln
Department: Psychology
Course: Psychology of Personality
Professor: Pearce
Term: Fall 2016
Tags:
Name: PSYC 287 Exam 3 Study Guide
Description: This is a detailed study guide over content for exam 3
Uploaded: 11/05/2016
8 Pages 47 Views 37 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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