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COLORADO / OTHER / GEO 1972 / section 2 the environment and society answers

section 2 the environment and society answers

section 2 the environment and society answers

Description

School: University of Colorado at Boulder
Department: OTHER
Course: Environment-Society Geography
Professor: Professor travis
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: geography, Environment, and Society
Cost: 50
Name: 1972 Exam 2 Study Guide
Description: 1. First section goes over the sample exam & why answers are correct 2. Review: vocabulary, key players, big concepts. There is a Dead White Guy chart, as well as a chart on all examples (big & small) from lecture slides. At the top, there is a key for lectures, textbook & readings, etc. I've tried to include more bullet points, fewer text blocks
Uploaded: 11/05/2016
11 Pages 11 Views 14 Unlocks
Reviews


GEOG 1972 Midterm 2 Study Guide


Dominion Thesis comes from what book?



Hey guys! The format will be the more or less the same as with the first exam: the first  section will go over the sample questions & WHY they’re right. The second section will be more  of a review of content, major key players, examples, vocab, etc. I’ve tried to reduce blocks of  text (there’s still a lot of words), have more bullet points & more images/charts. A few suggestions:  

∙ I would highly recommend reading the Kates reading on Hurricane Katrina if you haven’t  already. Prof. Travis discussed it pretty heavily, and it’s a good example to know. ∙ Read Ch.7, at least the two sections about the two contradictions in capitalism in Marxist  thought.

∙ When reviewing lecture slides (you need to do that), pay special attention to the  examples & case studies

RESOURCE KEY

Material Covered  

∙ Lectures Weeks 7-10


High Reliability Theory refers to what?



∙ Textbook: Ch. 5-8, 12 If you want to learn more check out capitalizt

∙ Reading: Kates et al. (Reconstruction of New Orleans after Katrina)

∙ Colorado River basin as resource

∙ Recitation wolf debate assignment

Yellowstone Wolf Reintro Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ysa5OBhXz-Q 

Textbook Summary:  

Ch.5: Environmental Ethics  

- Looks at people (John Muir, Gifford Pinchot, Aldo Leopold)

- Ethics, utilitarianism  

Ch.6: Risks & Hazards We also discuss several other topics like dstl notes

- Environment as a danger

- Risk perception, risk as apart of culture

Ch.7: Political Economy

- Looking at Marxist theories applied to environment  

- Contradictions of capitalism

- Development in the modern world  

Ch.8: Social Construction of Nature  

Ch.12: Uranium  

- Case study: radioactivity, nuclear power  

- Hazards

Lecture Key  


what is the First Contradiction of Capitalism?



Week 7: Marxist critique of capitalism, political economy, environmental ethics (Ch.5),  environment as resource We also discuss several other topics like dr bidner

Week 8: Conservation, yields, utilitarianism, social construction of nature, wolf debate Week 9: Continuation of environment as resource, Colorado River Basin information, tragedy of  the commons example, supply vs. demand management

Week 10: Demand vs. supply management, Ch.6 Risks & Hazards, Kates reading & Hurricane  Katrina, technological hazards & adaptation

Week 11: Continuation of Hurricane Katrina recovery, Sandy recovery, 500 Year Flood recovery in Lyons. 11b: technological hazards & nuclear power risks

SAMPLE EXAM REVIEW

GEOG 1972 Midterm 2 Study Guide

1. The Marxist critique of capitalism identifies an essential contradiction:  

a. That labor by definition controls the means of production and thus labor has more  power than capitalism in a capitalist system.  

b. That over-production of commodities & over-accumulation of wealth eventually  undermines the conditions in which capitalism thrives.  

c. That natural objects like trees & water cannot be turned into commodities essential for  trade that supports capitalism.  

Sources: Ch.7: Political Economy, Week 7 lecture notes  

∙ This is the central tenant, a summary of the Marxist critique of capitalism.  ∙ There are 2 contradictions laid out:  

1. First Contradiction of Capitalism: The tendency in capitalism to undermine the  economic conditions needed for its own perpetuation.  

Ex: reducing wages of workers so much that they can’t even afford to buy the stuff  they’re making. Overaccumulation of wealth (the top 1%)  fewer people actually have  purchasing power.  Don't forget about the age old question of bms 111

2. Second Contradiction of Capitalism: The tendency in capitalism to undermine the  environmental conditions needed for its own perpetuation.  Don't forget about the age old question of bgsu sports management

Ex: In an effort to increase production, overexploitation of resources. Damaging the  health of employees taking the cheapest way out. Degradation of the site/resources.  ∙ If these are confusing, understand that capitalism relies on profits constantly increasing;  and you either need to achieve this by reducing wages or production costs in some way, or by increasing exploitation of resources. Either way, the end path is that capitalism  implodes in on itself, and capitalism is its own worst enemy.  

**Would highly recommend reading the two sections on these contradictions in Ch.7**

2. True OR False: The dominion thesis in environmental ethics holds that humans should be  dominated by natural processes.  

Sources: Ch.5 “Improving Nature: From Biblical Tradition to John Locke”, Week 7  lecture  

∙ Dominion Thesis is actually the opposite of what is said here.  

∙ Dominion Thesis: comes from the Book of Genesis in the Bible. Declares that humans are  the pinnacle of creation, and are granted the right and furthermore, a responsibility to  tame and use nature in whatever way deemed beneficial.  

∙ Leads to the concept of “stewardship”, that we have a responsibility to ‘care’ for nature

3. The Colorado River delta is increasingly the focus of attention because

a. The number of costly and destructive floods that are increasing with climate change.  b. It has been used as the set for a number of films and is becoming a cultural mecca.  c. The Colorado River never naturally reached the sea, but now, through diversions, we  have artificially constructed a delta.  

d. Except in rare cases the over-used river no longer flows through the delta to the sea. Don't forget about the age old question of purdue mse

Sources: Week 9b- there is a specific section about the CO River Delta ∙ Colorado River Compact of 1922: allocated 1/5 more water than we currently have! ∙ Serves almost 40 million people; diverts ~90% of US water for us

∙ Supply has steadily gone down & is pretty unreliable, while demand has increased w/  populations

GEOG 1972 Midterm 2 Study Guide

∙ Boulder: gets some water from CO River, “Colorado-Big Thompson project”, Adams Tunnel  to Boulder res.

∙ Colorado River Aqueduct: 242 miles long, brings water from CO River to LA

4. Managers use many strategies to manage water resources. Trans-basin diversions are  examples of _________and low flush toilets are an example of ____________.  

a. Supply management; demand management  

b. Demand management; supply management

c. High-technology solutions; low-technology solutions

d. Short-term management; sustainable management

e. Efficiency management; demand management

Sources: Week 10 lectures (10a at the beginning of lecture slides)

∙ Started to touch on this in the last question

∙ Super basic principle in economics: cycle of supply vs. demand

∙ Working w/ how the river is divided up is managing the supply of water; low- flush toilets  affects the people using that supply of water

5. Which is NOT an example of a demand management strategy for water?  a. Low-flow irrigation

b. Increased & tiered pricing systems  

c. Supplementing reservoir storage with groundwater 

d. Lawn watering regulations

Sources: Week 10 lectures (10a beginnings)

∙ Same principle as the last question

∙ Answers a, b & d affect the people using the supply (the demanders)

∙ Putting more water into the reservoir affects the amount of supply

6. True OR False: The Colorado River Compact was agreed in 1922, just after several years of  less-than-average flow of the river.

Sources: Week 9a (specific chart looking at CO River flows 1906-2010, 12th slide) ∙ Basically the opposite happened

GEOG 1972 Midterm 2 Study Guide

∙ Scientists didn’t start measuring flow, and didn’t really have a lot of data to pull from in  the first place.  

∙ Pretty much a coincidence that the years before 1922 has been higher than average water flow.  

∙ Implications are pretty huge: that means that the water “guaranteed” to states simply  doesn’t exist most years. It just isn’t there. So how do you deal with this?

7. The “proportionality” solution to a commons resource use problem, if applied to the  dividing up of Colorado River water among the riparian states, would suggest….  a. Users who contribute more to managing the overall commons should receive  proportionately more allocation.  

b. States with more population should get more allocation of water  

c. States should be allocated water in proportion to the runoff contribution that their  territory makes to the total flow.  

Sources: 9b (Slide title: “From Ch.4 on Commons”)

∙ Idea from tragedy of the commons, and commons management  

∙ Proportionality: The costs in managed should match the benefits received. Those who bear the most costs should have at least equal, if not higher access rights that others.

8. True OR False: The Endangered Species Act of 1973 required federal action to save species threatened with extinction unless doing so would hurt the economy.  

Sources: Week 8 slide (attached a massive block of text from ESA)  ∙ Pretty straightforward: any animal or plant species on the list gets regulatory protection,  regardless of economy.  

∙ Two things that gives ESA some good weight:  

1. Feds can’t do anything that would further jeopardize listed species, and held up pretty  firmly by federal courts

2. Prohibits killing of any listed species on ANY land, public or private. This was the  controversial part.  

∙ It got overwhelming support from Senate & House across both parties, and has had some  successes. Including the bald eagle, brown pelican (suffered from DDT). Snail darter case,  now common.

9. In natural hazards theory, and as mentioned in class and in the reading about the recovery of New Orleans following Hurricane Katrina, the “levee effect” is….  

a. The measure of a levee’s ability to hold back floods of a certain height.  

b. A measure of the inevitable leakage through a levee of minor floodwaters.  c. The levee causes ground subsidence under it due to its own weight.  

d. The perceived safety behind a levee that encourages further development.

Sources: Kates et al. reading! Go read it if you haven’t, Week 11a

∙ Levee effect: A false sense of security makes us feel okay about building in areas that are  more at risk.  

∙ Implication: If there is a disaster that breaches the defenses that creates this false sense  of security, there are more people harmed/killed, and more expensive and extensive  damages.  

∙ Lesson: the only foolproof way not to have any risk in this kind of situation is not to live in

GEOG 1972 Midterm 2 Study Guide

a high-risk area. Just don’t build there. Another lesson is that our human defenses will  inevitably fail: there will be a freak storm that goes above and beyond what we’ve seen,  the defenses won’t be maintained properly even if the defense in its prime would have  been enough, etc.

10.Global losses from natural disasters (above) even in constant dollars, is increasing. This is  most likely due to:  

a. Increasing development in hazard zones 

b. Global warming

c. Increased earthquakes and volcanoes

d. Inaccurate forecast and warning systems

Sources: Ch.6 textbook, Week 10 slides

∙ Kind of touches on the idea of levee effect again

∙ Increasing population worldwide: they have to live somewhere  

∙ Demographics: poor people have to settle on less desirable land, AKA the unsafe land ∙ Leaves the most economically vulnerable people the most vulnerable to natural disasters   less likely to recover from the storm, they’re less likely to have any many protections in  the first place, etc.  

∙ See this in the Hurricane Katrina example: the hardest hit neighborhoods were the poorer  sections of NoLa.

11.What did the American Society of Civil Engineers NOT list as a reason for the storm surge related losses from Katrina?  

a. Some levees were built poorly, so they were more vulnerable to failure.  b. Some levees were built properly, but poorly maintained.  

c. Good cooperation among the different levee agencies 

d. Some levee breaches for roads, utility lines, and railroads provided opening for  floodwaters.  

e. Subsidence and elevation errors resulted in levees that were shorter than expected,  making them prone to overtopping.  

Sources: Week 10a- big section on what went wrong in NoLa?  

∙ Yeah, there is rarely much inter-agency cooperation and this was no exception to that rule.

12.True OR False: Despite better warning and protection systems, the most deadly natural  disasters in world today still cause fatality rates as large as 100,000 or more.

GEOG 1972 Midterm 2 Study Guide

Sources: Week 10

∙ Honestly don’t like the way this T/F is phrased… I think the key is the “most deadly” part.  ∙ The deadliest of natural disasters do cause fatalities that high

13. True OR False: One of the conflicts that reduced the ability of New Orleans to be  reconstructed quickly and in a safer manner after Katrina was the one between a  preference for fast reconstruction and planning for safer reconstruction.  

Sources: Kates et al. reading, Week 10

∙ Kates reading: desire for rebuilding the familiar, even though this clearly was a terrible  idea.  

∙ The safest thing would have been to not live there- just to not allow people to live there.  But that’s not exactly fair, or legal, or ethical

∙ Even though it’s pretty easy to see that this is a bad idea, I would probably have the same  reaction. I would want my exact same house back, on land that I owned, in the same  neighborhood that was ‘mine’. Houses are very sentimental.

14.In terms of technological risks, “High Reliability Theory” refers to these qualities of  systems, EXCEPT…  

a. Complex, tightly coupled systems allow small mistakes/flaws to propagate in  unpredicted ways.  

b. Safety is high priority in technological systems & institutions

c. Training, monitoring can reduce accidents to zero

d. Redundancy, control systems, etc., can yield “failure free”  

Sources: Week 11b, getting to Ch.12

∙ High reliability theory: basically made up of the other 3 answers. Says that safety is a high  priority in risky situations, training & monitoring can reduce accidents to 0, redundancy,  control systems can make something ‘failure free’.  

∙ The answer sums up normal accidents theory, the contrasting theory in technological  hazards

15.The “Reactor Safety Study” conducted by MIT engineers in the 1970s on the safety of U.S.  nuclear power plants concluded that the annual probability of an accident causing at least  one death with 100 reactors operating was….  

a. 1 in 100

b. 1 in 1,000

c. 1 in 1,000,000

d. Smaller than 1 in 1,000,000

Sources: Week 11b, Ch.12  

∙ There was a risk assessment done on nuclear power plants

∙ Question asked: what would the risk of 1 person being killed with 100 nuclear reactors  running in one year?  

∙ Probability was about 1/10 million.  

∙ However, with all the meltdowns, this probably isn’t true…..

GEOG 1972 Midterm 2 Study Guide

Example Summaries  

This is a compilation of examples, big & small, from lectures. Important ones are highlighted. Prof. Travis just really likes asking questions about examples, so I don’t want to miss too much.

Example

Summary

Implications

People/Lessons

Hetch Hetchy  

Valley

(Week 9a & 9b)

Dam project in  Yosemite to  

provide water for  San Fran in 1914

-An early  

example of  

preservation  

(leave it wild), vs. utilitarianism

- Public  

awareness about  preservation,  

foundation for  

creation of NPS

John Muir: advocated for leaving it  wild.  

Gifford Pinchot: utilitarian ethic  (conservation ethic)

Wolf debate

Reintroduction of  wolves to  

national parks

-Danger to  

humans

-Potentially  

incredibly useful  for ecology

- Local residents, park rangers,  hunters, etc.

Colorado River  Basin **BIG  

ONE!!!***

(Week 9)

Huge water  

resource for  

multiple states &  Mexico, Colorado  River Compact of  1922

-Demand  

increases, supply  has decreased

-Politics  

can’t/don’t really  take into account natural variability

-Tragedy of the commons example?  -7 states & Mexico

- Feds, states, public  

utilities/municipalities, private users,  Native American nations, Mexico,  nature

Galveston  

seawall

(Week 10a & b  has a good  

portrayal of this)

A big structural  protection project

-A relatively  

successful  

project, though it  was topped by  Hurricane Ike.

- Example that even the best  

engineering and the smartest  preparations will eventually be  overcome

Indus River Valley (Week 10a, Ch.6  intro)

Engineering  

projects on Indus  Valley river to  

help w/  

agriculture

-Raised canal  

beds, making  

system more  

vulnerable  

overall.

- Took care of short-term regular  flooding, but made catastrophic  flooding more risky.

Mississippi River (Week 10a, Ch.6  intro)

Used levees only  (as opposed to  wetland  

floodplains or  

river outlets)

- Year after  

levees were built, they all broke

- Inevitable failure of our systems  against nature

New Orleans &  Hurricane Katrina (ANOTHER BIG  ONE)

Handling of  

evacuation, and  the post-disaster  was an absolute  failure. Huge  

losses of life &  

money

The prime  

example of the  interaction of  

demographics,  policies across all levels of gov’t,  and nature.

-Please please read Kates et al.  - Spent a ton of time on this  

example.  

- Learn it! Love it!

East Africa

Mixed cropping  system means

Does not result in maximum yield

Works well for subsistence  

agriculture, but not so much for

GEOG 1972 Midterm 2 Study Guide

that they still get  to eat if there is a flood or a  

drought

industrial size, market agriculture

U.S. Great Plains

Big industrial  

farmers grow one commercial  

(cereal) crop

There is  

technology,  

insurance,  

subsidies,  

disaster aid, etc.

This is a very different animal than  subsistence agriculture, but the  losses are still very real

Super Storm  

Sandy

Very bad storm  that hit East  

Coast quickly

Revealed that  

hospitals and  

transportation  

were particularly  vulnerable

Damages surpassed Katrina, second  costliest US hurricane since 1900

Great Japan  

Earthquake 2011

Most powerful  

earthquake  

recorded in  

Japan, triggered a huge tsunami

Costliest natural  disaster,  

Fukushima  

Nuclear power  

plant meltdown

No matter what the preparations are, we cannot see into the future. We are only as prepared, as we know from  the past.

500 Year Flood in  Lyons CO

Several days of  hard rain flooded  Lyons, Longmont, and Boulder.

Lower value  

homes hard hit,  rebuild projects  aren’t affordable.

Really only semi-prepared to tackle  this; poorest people & agriculture in  the low-lying areas suffered greatest  losses

GEOG 1972 Midterm 2 Study Guide

DEAD WHITE GUY CHART

Name

Big Message

Implications/Significa nce

Important Projects

Gifford Pinchot:  

Worked under  

Cleveland for Fed.  Division of Forestry,  and then under Teddy Roosevelt as chief of  US Forest Service.

Conservation ethic Utilitarianism,  

technocratic

“the greatest good for the greatest number”

Raised concerns that  ‘conservation’ wasn’t a  whole lot better than  the old-fashioned  

pioneer exploitation

Fought against open  access resources

Killing of bison

Unregulated forest

John Muir

Preservation- keeping  nature for nature’s  sake

“Father of National  

Parks”, clashed w/  

Pinchot, Hetch Hetchy  Vally Dam

Sierra Club, Yosemite  Natl Park

Gilbert White:  

geographer

Hazards are  

inevitable, adapt with  a variety of response

Single focus causes  problems (engineering  projects) isn’t enough.

Management of  

Mississippi

Aldo Leopold

Land ethic,  

environmental ethic,  one of the foremost  experts on wildlife  management

Opposed utilitarianism,  first to describe trophic  cascade

Books: The Land  

Ethic, Game  

Management

Karl Marx

Didn’t specifically talk about environment a  lot, but his thoughts  on economics/ethics  are relevant

Impressive beard, 2  Contradictions of  

Capitalism (above in  sample exam)

One of the single  

most influential  

thinkers of all time

GEOG 1972 Midterm 2 Study Guide

Review Summary  

Big concepts & ideas, vocabulary.  

Political Economy

∙ Contradictions of Capitalism:  

1. First Contradiction of Capitalism: tendency of capitalism to undermine the economic  conditions needed to continue existing.  

Examples: reducing worker wages so much that they can’t sustain themselves or even  purchase the products they themselves make, overaccumulation of wealth.  

2. Second Contradiction of Capitalism: tendency of capitalism to undermine the  environmental conditions needed to continue existing.  

Examples: overexploitation of resources, degrading worker’s health conditions

∙ Over-accumulation: the tendency for massive amounts of wealth to be accumulated in the  hands of a few elite (super wealth, the top 1%). This leads to economic slowdown, because the vast majority of people don’t have enough purchasing power to keep businesses  afloat, and inequality is bad for a healthy economy.  

∙ Surplus value: the wealth accumulated by owners when they reduce worker’s wages, or by overexploiting the environment  the reason why the contradictions exist.  Other important things:  

- Capitalism is profit driven: the system requires that something gives to increase profits,  either worker wages, or by increasing supply of resources.  

- Spatial fix: temporarily solving the periodic crises by moving to a new location, making a  new market, finding new resources, etc. Example: overexploited a raw resource, just move to a new location until that place also no longer works.  

 This is why we also see things like moving factories abroad

Risks & Hazards: week 10a and 10b review this really well

∙ Levee effect: a sense of false security, leading to development in risky areas ∙ Hazard vs. risk: hazards is anything that threatens people, risk is the known/estimate  probability that a hazard-related decision will have a negative consequence ∙ Sometimes, people & politicians aren’t willing to accept the level of risk, and the costs that doing anything truly useful would entail.  

**PLEASE PLEASE READ THE KATES READING. The textbook doesn’t go into great detail on this  section.** 

Hazard management:

GEOG 1972 Midterm 2 Study Guide

Hazard mitigation planning  emergency response  recovery/reconstruction

Resource Management

∙ Conservation vs. preservation: conservation means managing something intelligently &  using the resource sustainably, preservation is keeping nature as it is for nature’s sake. In  modern day, there doesn’t really seem to be much of a difference between these two  words.  

∙ Sustained yield: yield that repeats annually, a ‘harvest’.  

- Natural variability: yield of a natural resource will change, and it’s often dependent on a lot of different factors

- Demand can exceed the supply (seeing this with CO River)

∙ Maximum yield: getting the maximum amount of any resource, not necessarily  sustainability

∙ Supply vs. demand : managing the amount of a resource, vs. trying to control how  many/how people use the resource

Colorado River Compact 1922:

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