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Penn State - MICRB 201 - Microbiology 201 Exam 3 Study Guide - Study

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Schools > Pennsylvania State University > Microbiology > MICRB 201 > Penn State - MICRB 201 - Microbiology 201 Exam 3 Study Guide - Study

Penn State - MICRB 201 - Microbiology 201 Exam 3 Study Guide - Study

School: Pennsylvania State University
Department: Microbiology
Course: Introductory Microbiology
Professor: Olanrewaju Sodeinde
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Codon, anticodon, tRNA, rRNA, ribosome, translation, plasmid, replicon, episome, transposon, Transformation, conjugation, transduction, genotype, phenotype, mutant, mutation, operon, virus, lytic, and lysogenic
Name: Microbiology 201 Exam 3 Study Guide
Description: These are the answered questions from the study guides posted on Angel.
Uploaded: 11/05/2016
0 5 3 45 Reviews
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background image Microbiology 201
Exam 3 Study Guide
The Genetic Code 1. Nirenberg and Khohara discovered that the genetic code is read in 
codons. This discovery of 3 nucleotides per amino acid made it evident
that the genetic code is redundant.
2. The genetic code is redundant/degenerate because more than one 
codon can specify a certain amino acid
3. A codon is a sequence of 3 nucleotides that code for specific amino 
acids. There are 61 sense codons, one of which is the start codon AUG. 
There are 3 stop codons: UAG, UAA, and UGA.
4. The wobble hypothesis states that the first 2 nucleotides of a codon 
are the most important in specifying an amino acid. This relates to the 
degeneracy of the genetic code because codons that differ in only the 
last position of a codon may code for the same amino acid.
5. Ribosomes move on mRNA in a 5’ to 3’ direction. 6. tRNAs are associated with an amino acid based on their anticodon 
sequence. Once tRNA has found a matching mRNA codon, the amino 
acid it is associated with is added to the polypeptide chain being 
synthesized. rRNAs are part of the complex where translation takes 
place, the ribosome. They help to determine the structure of the 
ribosome, the site of translation initiation in prokaryotes, and aid with 
transpeptidation
7. Amino acyl-tRNA synthetases are enzymes that catalyze the reaction
that occurs when the appropriate amino acid is associated with the 
tRNA, or charged.
Translation 1. In a 5’ to 3’ direction, the sites of a ribosome are: the exit (E) site, 
the peptidyl (P) site, and the amino acyl (A) site.
2. This is false. There are not tRNAs that recognize stop codons, 
instead a protein release factor does.
3. The initiator codon is AUG. It codes for the amino acid methionine.
background image 4. The 16S subunit is important in the initiation step. It recognizes the 
ribosome binding site on the mRNA.
5. The primary nucleotides used as an energy source is GTP. 6. Peptidyl transferase cleaves the finished polypeptide chain during 
termination and catalyzes the reaction that attaches amino acids in the
A site to the growing chain in the P site.
Extra-Chromosomal DNA Elements 1. Plasmids and bacterial chromosomes are both circular and have 
their own origin of replication.
2. A replicon is a nucleic acid fragment with its own origin of 
replication.
3. Transposons are different from plasmids because transposons are 
not replicons.
4. An episome is a plasmid that has been integrated into the bacterial 
chromosome.
5. Some resistance factors are conjugative which is a method that 
transposons use to transfer genes.
6. Transposases are enzymes that catalyze the movement of 
transposons. Genes that encode transposase are the most abundant in
the genome.
DNA Transfer in Bacteria 1. Transformation is the uptake of naked DNA from the environment to 
the cell. Conjugation is the DNA transfer from a donor cell to a recipient
cell. Transduction is the introduction of foreign DNA into a cell by a 
virus.
2. A male strain of bacteria donates genetic material while a female 
strain receives it.
3. An Hfr strain is the strain that possess the entire F episome 
integrated into the bacterial genome.
4. An F’ plasmid is formed from incorrect excision from the 
chromosome. F plasmid carrying bacterial sequences are next to where
the F episome has been inserted.

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School: Pennsylvania State University
Department: Microbiology
Course: Introductory Microbiology
Professor: Olanrewaju Sodeinde
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Codon, anticodon, tRNA, rRNA, ribosome, translation, plasmid, replicon, episome, transposon, Transformation, conjugation, transduction, genotype, phenotype, mutant, mutation, operon, virus, lytic, and lysogenic
Name: Microbiology 201 Exam 3 Study Guide
Description: These are the answered questions from the study guides posted on Angel.
Uploaded: 11/05/2016
5 Pages 84 Views 67 Unlocks
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  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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