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RU / Psychology / PSYC 121 / stanly schachter

stanly schachter

stanly schachter


School: Radford University
Department: Psychology
Course: Introductory Psychology
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Psychology
Cost: 50
Name: study guide for exam
Description: These notes cover personality, memory, and psychosexual stages.
Uploaded: 11/06/2016
14 Pages 120 Views 0 Unlocks

How accurate are our memories?

-How do thinking and feeling interact?

How do these three fit together?

Casey Shore  Chapter 10 - Emotions What are emotions?  -Bodily Arousal  -Expressive Behaviors  -Conscious Experiences  How do these three fit together?  - What came first?  -Arousal or emotional feelings?  -How do thinking and feeling interact? James- Lange Theory: -Arousal emotion  -William James & Carl Lange Cannon- Bard Theory: -Arousal and emotion occur simultaneously.  -Walter Cannon & Philip Bard. Schachter-Singer’s Two Factor Theory: -Arousal + Label = emotion  -Stanly Schachter & Jerome Singer (1962). -Spillover Effect  - Emotion depends on label and interpretation. Zajonic & LeDoux: -2 Neural Pathways  -High Road: sensory organ-> thalamus ->cortex -> amygdala.  -Low Road: sensory organ -> amygdala. -Lazarus   - Cognitive appraisal  Psychology of basic emotions: -Sympathetic (ANS)   -Ignites that fight or flight response  -Adrenal release of hormones  -Sugar by the liver  -Pupils Dilate  -Heart rate, blood pressure increase -Parasympathetic (ANS):  -Calms your body back down  -Slows your body  -Heart rate, blood pressure decreases  -Return to homeostasis  Non-Verbal Communication: -We are good at detecting emotions in others… most of the time.  - Facial expressions, voice tones, gestures = important.  -Women’s emotion attribute to disposition.  -Men’s emotion attributes to circumstance. -Women are more likely to express empathy Culture and Emotions: -Gestures are cultural -Basic expressions are universal   -Happiness  -Sadness  -Fear   -Surprise  -Anger  -Disgust  Motivation: -Need or desire that directs behavior  -Instinct theory   -Drive-reduction Theory  -Arousal theory  -Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs  Instinct Theory: -Fixed pattern, unlearned. -Doesn’t explain most human behaviors.  Drives and Incentives: -Drive- Reduction theory  -Increase in psychological needs -> want to reduce it - Need for homeostasis -Role of incentives  Optimum Arousal: -Seek optimum levels of arousal. -Driven by curiosity.  -Yerkes-Dodson Law. -Think test taking. --Too much  stimulation can cause stress, you want just the right of  motivation and arousal.  Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: For example, some needs take priority over  others. Self-Transcendence is one step above self- actualization (you don’t need to  know this).MEMORY: Part 2  Forgetting! Much of what we sense we never notice Forgetting: influenced by age -Encoding Failure: when we fail to encode the info we sense  Ex: Forgetting names right after introduction -Retrieval Failure: failing to access encoded info  Ex: Tip of the tongue phenomenon -Sometimes, forgetting isn’t natural—it can an be caused by brain injury -Anterograde Amnesia: Inability to form new memories after brain injury, but  previous memories are intact, but you can remember all the old memories you have made. -Retrograde Amnesia: Inability to recall memories from before a brain injury, but can remember new stuff, for example the movies the Vow.  -Storage Decay: At first, info is rapidly forgotten, but the rate of forgetting decreases over time  -Ebbinghaus’ Forgetting Curve  -The speed of forgetting slows down each time you review the information…so  review it often! Ebbinghaus’ Forgetting Curve: Notice how the speed of forgetting slows down with each review session! Ebbinghaus: duz, nih, taw, fek -Effortful Processing  -Rehearsal and over-learningThe more time you study, the better you will know the material. That is what he is  saying.  Forgetting:  -Storage Decay -Retrieval Failure: sometimes we have the info, but just can’t grab it  -Interference: conflicting info reduces memory accuracy  -Proactive or Retroactive -Motivated Forgetting: sometimes forgetting is self-serving  -Repression (Freud) -Intrusion: often harder to forget traumatic memories Memory Construction ‘experiment’:  How accurate are our memories? Do NOT write down the words until the timer starts Candy Soda Good Cake Pie Nice Sugar Chocolate Taste Tart Sour Honey Bitter Heart Tooth Memory Construction: How accurate are our memories? -Memory is Constructive—we automatically filter info and fill in missing pieces in our memories -Makes the world more predictable, and (usually) makes memory more efficient False Memories: -Getting lost in the Mall http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=PQr_IJvYzbA&p=96F7DD007360D619&playnext=1&index=1 Bugs Bunny at Disney World http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_RLvSGYxDIs Memory Construction Errors: when people are exposed to misinformation,  we tend to forget what we really saw. -Misinformation Effect: “hit” vs “smashed” -Source Amnesia or misattribution… attributing to the wrong source. Thinking that  Jake told you something when it was really Justin.  -Déjà vuSeven Sins of Memory: 1)Absent-mindedness: inattention to details encoding failure 2)Transience: storage decay over time 3)Blocking: inaccessibility of stored information no retrieval. On the tip of your  tongue.  4)Misattribution: confusing the source of information 5)Suggestibility: the lingering effects of misinformation 6)Bias: belief-colored recollections. Your feelings now can affect your past memories (friendships or meeting someone for the first time).  7)Persistence: unwanted memories Applying Memory Principles: 1)Overlearn  2)Rehearse and actively think 3)Your own words, your own experiences  4)Use mnemonic devices, acronyms or make up a story 5)Activate retrieval cues 6)Minimize interference  7)Test your own knowledge How Can I use this when Studying? Mnemonics!  Acronyms Repetition Rehearsal NO CRAMMING!Personality Overview… Personality: enduring, distinctive pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting. Personality Perspective: (more common)  -Psychodynamics -Humanistic -Traits -Social- Cognitive Sigmund Freud (1856- 1939)—Controversial Australian Neurologist  -Specialty: nervous disorders -Believed psychological and neurological disorders were related.  -Proposed the unconscious mind  -Personality arises from conflict between impulses and restraint -We want satisfaction without guilt!  * we feel guilty if we go against our norms, but we want that satisfaction. * Key Concepts:  -Psychoanalysis: Freud attributes thoughts, feelings to unconscious motives, inner  conflicts. -Unconscious Mind: holds unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories.  -Free Association: patient relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how  embarrassing. -Dream Analysis: underlying motives/ thoughts we try to censor come out in  dreams.  3 levels of awareness  1) Conscious 2) Preconscious  3) Unconscious  -Current contents of your mind that you actively think of. -What we call working memory -Easily accessed all the time.  Conscious: -Current contents of your mind that you actively think of. -What we call working memory. -Easily accessed all the time. Preconscious: Contents of the mind you are not currently aware of. Thoughts, memories, knowledge, wishes, feelings Available for easy access when needed  Unconscious:  -Contents kept out of conscious awareness. -Not accessible at all. -Processes that actively keep these thoughts from awareness.  Freudian components of personality -The Id: primal desire, basic nature, your wild child. Fueled by unconscious energy;  driven to satisfy sexual, aggressive urges. -Operates on pleasure principles. – Wants instant satisfaction.  -The ego: reason and self-control, your practical “grown-up “self. The executive of  the personality. -Tries to compromise with the Id, ego, and reality---a referee.  -Operates on reality principles. -Finds realistic ways to bring long-term pleasure.  -The superego: The quest for perfection, your philosophical and spiritual ideals. –  The moral compass, the angel within. -Tells us how we “ought” to behave…  perfectionists! -Judges if actions will lead to guilt or pleasure. -The “ideal” moral  Self. Psychosexual Stages: Personality form as children pass through five psychosexual stages.  Psychosexual Stages: When the Id’s pleasure-seeking tendencies are focused on  specific pleasure-sensitive areas of the body- the erogenous zones Poorly Resolved Stages ... Deprivation or overindulges n these two stages can have consequences. 1)Fixation: Instincts are focused on a theme (e.g., sucking thumb or smoking)  2) Regression: A psychological retreat to an earlier psychosexual stage. Stages  1)Oral- the mouth… sucking, swallowing, etc.  2)Anal- withholding or expelling faeces 3)Phallic-The penis or clitoris- masturbation  4)Latent- little to no sexual motivation present 5)Genital -The penis or vagina- sexual  Phallic Stage: Complexes -During the Phallic Stages, boys seek genital stimulation.  -In boys, the Oedipus Complex emerges.  -They develop unconscious sexual desires for their mother, and jealousy/hatred for the father.  -Eventually, children cope by identifying with same gender parent.  -In females, the Electra Complex emerges. Defense Mechanisms: reducing anxiety by disguising threatening impulses as  something else.  -We “protect” ourselves (and our egos). -Repression.   -Most basic is repression.  -Try to hid anxiety-inducing memories from our consciousness.   -Underlines all other defenses mechanisms. -Need to be careful about repression!  -Man goes to jail after daughter allegedly recovers a murderous memory.  Neo-Freudian Theory: -Freudian concepts persist today:  -Personality structure (id, ego, superego)  -Unconscious mind.  -more emphasis on conscious mind, today.   -Defense mechanisms  -Alfred Adler, Karen Horney, Carl Jung  Carl Jung: -Projective Tests: use ambiguous shapes to uncover unconscious thoughts.  -Patient describes what they see.  -A “psychological x-ray”   -Descriptions reveal experiences that “haunt us” -Rorschach Inkblot tests: projective test where people interpret inkblots—not  reliable or valid! Critique of Psychodynamic: -Repressed memories--- Accurate?  -False memories?!  -Elizabeth Loftis – how to plant false memories.  -Cognitive psychologists— “slips of the tongue” caused by simple confusion. -Defense mechanisms – self-image preservation, not necessarily driven by  “unconscious”. Psychoanalysis: the take home -Freud laid the groundwork for some of today’s psychological perspectives. -But Freud’s theories don’t predict behavior (which is a main goal of modern  psychology).  - “It’s like betting in a horse race after it’s finished”  -His explanations are all after-the-fact and explanatory, instead of predictive. Humanistic Perspective NOTABLE People: Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers Humanistic Perspective: -Humanistic Perspective: Views personality with a focus on the potential for healthy  personal growth. -Pioneered by:  -Abraham Maslow (1908-1970)  -Carl Rogers (1902-1987) “To the humanist every man is a scientist by disposition as well as by right, every  subject is an incipient experimenter, and every person is by daily necessity a fellow  psychologist” – George Kelly Humanistic: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: Humanistic: Maslow’s “Self”:  -Studied healthy, creative people (not clinical cases):  -Thomas Jefferson  -Eleanor Roosevelt  -Abraham Lincoln - “Mature adult qualities”:   -self-awareness  -self-acceptance  -open and spontaneous  -loving and caring  -secure sense of self  -interested in solving problems  -not self-centered Humanistic: Carl Rogers’ Person-Centered Perspective -People are naturally good -People have “self-actualizing tendencies” -For personal growth, must meet 3 conditions:  -Genuineness: open, transparent, and self-disclosing -Acceptance: offer unconditional positive regard (valuing someone despite  shortcomings)  - Empathy: listen, understand, and share others’ feelings Comparing the Humanists: -Maslow and Rogers  -Believed in self-concept – “who am I”?  -Rejected personality tests  -Used interviews to understand people Humanist Perspective: The Critics:  -Too subjective? Too abstract? -Does emphasis on the ‘self’ promote selfishness? -Ignores the human capacity for evil? -Ignores balance between reality and the ideal Traits Perspective NOTABLE Person: Gordon Allport: Traits Perspective: -Gordon Allport--(early 1900s) -Rejected psychoanalysis!  -Said Freud was “too deep” -Defined personality in terms of traits -Traits: patterns of behavior or conscious motives  -Sought to describe, rather than explain, individual traits Trait Perspective on Personality: -Personality traits are product of both nature AND nurture -So the big question… -HOW to assess traits? Personality Inventories: -Personality Inventory: test that gauges feelings and behaviors; Used to assess traits -Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)  -Most common personality inventory  -Created to identify emotional disorders  -Now used for other stuff, too!  -Empirically derived The “Big Five”: Stability of Personality: -Are traits stable or do they tend to shift and change as time passes?” -Big Five stabilize during adulthood (usually)  -Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness decrease slightly in early and middle  adulthood  -Agreeableness and Conscientiousness increase in early and middle adulthood  -Conscientiousness increases the most during our 20’s, as we mature Trait Perspective: The Critics: -Person-Situation Controversy: is behavior situation-dependent, or are traits stable  no matter the situation?  -BOTHinner dispositions + environment = behavior  -Traits are stable, but behavior changes slightly depending on environment  -Behavioral instability calls into question validity of personality tests

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