ART Appreciation Notes (with some topics, and medias shown in class) Chapter 2.1 Drawing ∙ Drawing is defined as the depictioDon't forget about the age old question of ua 1073
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n of shapes and forms on a surface, primarily by means of lines is a fundamental artistic skill o Artists draw for many reasons to define their ideas, to plan for larger projects, to resolve design issues in preparatory sketches, to record their visual observations ∙ Dry Media: o Pencil solid graphite; pencils have different degrees of hardness the B or black graphite pencils are softer and darker the H or hard graphite pencils create a relatively light mark o Chalk, Pastel, and Crayon these medias are made by combining pigment and binder Binders include oil, wax, gum Arabic, and glues Chalk is powdered calcium carbonate mixed with a gum arabic(a type of tree sap) binder Pastel is pigment combined with gum arabic, wax, or oil, while crayon is pigment combined with wax Conte crayon is a heavily pigmented crayon sometimes manufactured with graphite o Erasers and Fixatives Erasers are used not only for correction but also to create light marks in areas already drawn ∙ Wet Media: o The wet media used in drawings are applied with brushes or pens wet media will dry or harden as the liquid evaporates Names and Artworks shown/mentioned in Class for this section: Kathee Kolwitz, Self Portrait in Profile to Left, 1933. Charcoal on paper (pg.171) Michelangelo, Studies for the Libyan Sibyl, 151011. Red chalk (pg.172) Chapter 2.2 Painting ∙ Artists have painted surfaces of many kinds for tens of thousands of years Paint in its most basic form is composed of pigment suspended in a liquid binder that dries after it has been applied. o Pigments have been extracted from minerals, soils, vegetable matter, and animal byproducts.o Binders are traditionally beeswax, egg yolk, vegetable oils and gums, and waters, in modern times, art supply manufacturers have developed such complex chemical substances as polymers. o Encaustic to use encaustic, an artist must mix pigments with hot wax and then apply the mixture quickly. Artists can apply the paint with brushes, palette knives, or rags, or can simply pour it. A stiffbacked support is necessary because encaustic, when cool, is not very flexible and may crack. o Tempera painters who use egg tempera have different ideas about what parts of the work best for tempera painting, but artists during the Renaissance preferred the yoke. Tempera is best mixed fresh for each painting session. Tempera is usually applied with a brush and dries almost immediately. o Oil artists use oil paint during the Middle Ages, but have only done so regularly since the fifteenth century. The oil most used as a binder was linseed oil, a by product of the flax plant from which linen cloth is made. o Fresco this technique pigment mixed with water painted onto a freshly supplied limeplaster surface. The pigment is not mixed into a binder, as it is in other painting techniques. Once this chemical reaction is complete, the color is extremely durable, making fresco a very permanent painting medium. The earliest examples of the fresco method come from Crete in the Mediterranean (the palace at Knossos and other sites) and date to c.16001500 bce Names and Artworks shown/mentioned in Class for this section: Portrait of a boy, c. 100150ce. Encaustic on wood (pg.181) The Virgin and Child with Angels, Ferrarese School, c. 147080. Tempera, oil, and gold on panel (pg.181) Michelangelo, The Libyan Sibyl, 151112. Fresco. (pg.183) Jan van Eyck, The Madonna of Chancellor Rolin, 143034. Oil on wood. (pg.185) Joan Brown, Girl in Chair, 1962. Oil on canvas. (pg.186) Artemisia Gentileschi, Judith Decapitating Holofernes, c. 1620. Oil on canvas. (pg.187) Chapter 2.3 Printmaking ∙ Printing with inks was first used in China to print patterns on fabrics in the third century There are many different techniques, and each one gives a unique character to every work it creates ∙ There are three main printing processes: relief, intaglio, and lithography ∙ Context of Printmaking earliest existing printed artworks on paper were created in china and date back to the eighth century ce the woodblock was the primary vehicle for the development of the print in Asia, in the West a number of additional techniques developed over time. o Relief Printmaking Relief prints are made by carving away from a block of a suitably workable material, such as wood or linoleum, a certain amount of it, to create a raised image. The artist then applies the ink to the raised surface and transfers the image to a paper or similar material by applying pressure in a printing press. The areas of the block that remain print the image because the carved areas are recessed and are not inked. o Intaglio Printmaking intaglio is derived from an Italian word that means “cut into” a surface intaglio printing differs from relief printmaking because little of the base material is removed. The ink on the raised surface is also wiped away before printing, leaving ink in the scarred surface of the plate. The pressure of the printing press squeezes the plate against the paper, transferring the ink. o Engraving based on the careful scoring of a metal plate so that clean gouges are created in the surface. An engraving can achieve fine detail, making the resulting print more like the artist’s original drawing. o Etching a process in which a metal plate is covered with an acidresistant coating, into which the artist scratches the design. The plate is then immersed in a bath of acid. The acid “bites” into the metal where the covering has been removed, making grooves that hold the ink. o Lithography traditionally done on stone; German author Alois Senefelder devised the lithographic printing process in 1796 Some artists like lithography because it allows them to draw a design in the same way they do a drawing An artist first draws a design, using a grease pencil or other oilbased drawing material, directly onto a piece of specially selected, cleaned, and prepared limestone. The combination of the water absorbent stone and the oily drawing material work together so that a design in oil based ink is suspended on the surface to print Names and Artworks shown/mentioned in Class for this section: Albrecht Durer, Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, c. 14978. Woodcut (pg. 193) Kitagawa Utamaro, Lovers in an Upstairs Room, from Uta makura (Poem of the Pillow), 1788. Color woodblock print (pg. 194) Emil Nolde, Prophet, 1912. Woodcut, printed in black, composition (pg. 194) Katsushika Hokusai, “The Great Wave off Shore at Kanagawa”, from ThirtySix Views of Mount Fuji, 182633 (printed later). Print, color, woodcut. (pg. 195) Albrecht Durer, Adam and Eve, 1504. Engraving on paper. (pg. 196) Max Beckmann, Adam and Eve, 1917, published 1918. Drypoint (pg. 196)Chapter 2.4 Visual Communication Design ∙ The essence of visual communication design is the use of symbols to communicate information and ideas Traditional communication design was known as graphic design: the design of books, magazines, poster, advertising, and other printed matter by arranging drawings, photographs, and type. Advances in printing processes, television, the computer, and growth of the web have expanded graphic design to include many more design possibilities While based on simple ideas, visual communication design enables us to express our ideas with increasing clarity, style, and sophistication valuable qualities in a rapidly changing world. ∙ The early history of graphic arts The ancient Mesopotamians were the first people to employ picture symbols in a consistent language system the ancient Egyptians created their own version of picture symbols, known as hieroglyphics, as a written form of communication Western alphabets have now lost any of their earliest connections with representation of things Calligraphy expresses layers of meaning and feelings by means of the shape of written letterforms During the middle ages, European artists combined calligraphy and illustration to craft illuminated manuscripts. o Graphic Design is the art of improving visual communication design In text design headings, page numbers, illustrations, and the definitions of terms in the margin have all been carefully considered. In graphic design, the communication is intended to be instantaneous, clear, and direct. o Typography the visual form of printed letters, words, and text is called typography. Type, a word derived from a greek word meaning to strike, first came into existence with Johannes Gutenberg’s invention of the printing press in Germany around 1450. Gutenberg also created a technique for producing small cast metal letter shapes. VIDEO Typography Off Book PBS https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=eKKDL6lekmA Help visualize identity word has meaning type has spirit o Logos A logo is often simply a carefully designed piece of type, called a logotype, that is unique and easily identified VIDEO The art of logo design/ OFF BOOK / PBS Digital Studios https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x3jTSB2ezg Single image of something that represented o Illustrations are images created to inform as well as to embellish the printed page good illustration is critical in such fields as medicine and science, where it may communicate essential information more effectively than text or a photograph. o Layout Design the art of organizing type, logos, and illustrations in traditional print media Good layout design is essential if information is to be easily understood one of the main considerations in layout design is spacing Designersare very aware of white space the voids that lie between text areas and images and are careful in its organization and distribution in their layouts o Web Design the use of text and image in mass communication has evolved from the motionless design of print publications to the interactive designs used on the World Wide Web. The Web allows designers more freedom to add interactivity so that text and image can change as the reader progresses through the information presented. Names and Artworks shown/mentioned in Class for this section: Section of papyrus from Book of the Dead of Ani, c. 1250bce (pg. 204) Rubbing of stele inscription, preface of the Lanting Gathering, Ding WU version (pg. 205) Dutch History Bible, copied by Gherard Wessels van Deventer in Utrecht, 1443 (pg. 205) Chapter 2.5 Photography ∙ Recording the Image “Photography” derives from two greek works, together meaning “drawing with light” Collecting the image film: negative and positive digital: pixels, computer Camera vs. Human Eye camera is a mechanical recorder and an artistic tool ∙ The History of Photography Camera obscura Projection of outside scene First drawn, then captured on lightsensitive material Roomsized then portable (eighteenthcentury) camera obscura Negative/Positive processes Cyanotype Calotype Daguerreotype Digital Processes Pixels, digital files, display, manipulation ∙ Photographic Genres nineteenth century argument art is a creative endeavor, “a photograph is not a work of art…” (John Ruskin, 1850s) Genres of photography (same as traditional artistic media, portraiture, landscape, and still life. o Portraiture one of photography’s most popular early uses Substitute for costly painted portraits People could eventually take their own pictures. o Landscape pictures of the land and its natural features scenic records can highlight ecological concerns o Still Life artistic arrangement of objects allows the artist to study formal relationships light, shadow, texture. ∙ Photojournalism the use of photography to tell a news story dates back to the civil war, now we accept that photographs only give a partial view, they can be manipulated, altered, cropped. Can distort, exaggerate, even lie. Photography was once believed to be inherently truthful credibility is crucial for news reportage. ∙ The Art of Photography historical debate, record of “reality” or artform? Does photography have to be one or the other? Contemporary art photobased art is very widespread, Fineart museums began collecting photos in the 1980s ∙ Making “Artistic” Photographs How do methods used in other media relate to photography? (Painting, Sculpture, Drawing, Printmaking) What effects are distinctive to the medium of photography? Other ways to make “artistic” photography (clarity and realism, snapshots, photocollage and photomontage. VIDEO How to Transform a Room into a Camera Obscura https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yvWX60_VHUS Names and Artworks shown/mentioned in Class for this section: Rainer GemmaFrisius, first published illustration of a camera obscura, 1544 (pg. 213) Abelardo Morell, Camera Obscura Image of the Pantheon in the Hotel Des Grands Hommes, 1999. Gelatin silver print (pg. 213) Anna Atkins, Halydrys Siliquosa, 18434. Plate 19 from Volume 1 of Photographs of British Algae. Cyanotype (pg. 214) Dorothea Lange, Migrant Mother, 1936. (pg. 216) Nadar, Sarah Bernhardt, 1865. Albumen print (pg. 217) Ansel Adams, Sand Dunes, Sunrise Death Valley National Monument, California, c. 1948 (pg.217) LouisJacquesMande Daguerre, The Artist’s Studio, 1837. Wholeplate daguerreotype. (pg. 218) Lewis Wickes Hine, Ten Year Old Spinner, Whitnel Cotton Mill, 1908. Photographic print (pg. 219) Steve McCurry, Afghan Girl at Nasar Bagh Refugee Camp. Peshawar, Pakistan, 1984 (pg. 219) Steve McCurry, Sharbat Gula. Peshawar, Pakistan, 2002 (pg. 219) Steve McCurry, Dust Storm. Women Take Shelter from Strong DustLaden Winds, Rajasthan, India, 1983 (pg. 220) Chapter 2.6 Film/Video and Digital Art∙ The moving image is one of the youngest mediums used by artists Film, Digital, Video ∙ Moving images before film Illusions of movement ∙ Zoetrope (remember the toy) Images showing separate scenes of an action placed inside Viewed through slits in a rotating cylinder Gives the impression of continuous motion Basis of modern film and video technique ∙ Theory of persistence of vision Separate images presented to the human eye at regular intervals appear as a continuous sequence. VIDEO A Trip to the Moon 1902 Georges Melies (French magician and filmmaker) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_FrdVdKlxUk (12 min.) ∙ Color films, beginning in the late 1920s, a novelty to attract audiences ∙ Sound Before 1927: sound was performed live in theaters in 1927: integrated sound Dialog, Background noise, Music ∙ Animation Creates the illusion of movement Still images created separately (drawings, photos, etc.) Shown in a sequence ∙ Special Effects Models Props Makeup Postproduction FILM Hayao Miyazaki with Kirk Wise Spirited Away 125 minute film (required between 90,000 and 200,000 drawings FILM George Lucas, Star Wars Episode had special effectsearned $194 million at the box office Names and Artworks shown/mentioned in Class for this section Eadweard, The House in Motion, June 18, 1878. Albumen Print. (pg. 229) Chapter 2.7 Alternative Media and Processes ∙ “Alternative” media and processes describes artworks and outside traditional methods What are “traditional” methods, processes, outcomes? o Emphasis on actions, texts, and environments Artworks themselves can exist for a short period of time (ex. Monks creating the Sand Mandalas who influenced Jackson Pollock who splashed, dripped, and flung paint in the 1950s)∙ Performance Art Performed in front of a live audience includes all kinds of actions, not just singing, dancing, etc. Usually in an artrelated venue o Name for a new form of creative activity (1960s1970s) Influenced by John Cage (composer) Chance operations Experimental techniques Zen Buddhism Cage was one of the first to conduct “Happenings” Impromptu art actions Wanted people’s attention to the life around them. VIDEO John Cage’s 4’33” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JTEFKFiXSx4 VIDEO Jessica Pizana Roberts https://vimeo.com/55507749 ∙ Conceptual Art Ideas behind an artwork are the most important Often requires the viewer the viewer to complete the piece. o Promotes ideas as artworks in and of themselves Downplays artworks as products Influenced by the Dada movement, which began in 1916 Absurdist performances in Zurich Opened up possibilities for artmaking Includes everyday objects, popular imagery, ideas ∙ Installation Choreographs an entire space, not just a single artwork Names and Artworks shown/mentioned in Class for this section