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School: George Washington University
Department: Psychology
Course: Developmental Psychology
Professor: Peg barratt
Term: Spring 2015
Tags: developmental, Psychology, and gwu
Cost: 25
Name: Week 4 PSYCH 2013
Description: Filled in powerpoint
Uploaded: 11/06/2016
61 Pages 161 Views 0 Unlocks
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What does a skilled birth attendant do?




• Make correct use of the following terms: Experimental group, control group, random assignment, population, sample, validity, reliability, measurement choice (how will you measure “helping behavior?




Where does birth take place?



Developmental  Psychology 2013 OFFICE HOURS by appointment and: Prof. Peg Barratt Mondays 3:30-5:00, Tuesdays 11:30-12:30, Room 205, Psychology GTA Hannah Snyder Thursdays 1:00-3:00, Room 208 PIf you want to learn more check out math 1150 osu
We also discuss several other topics like gsu human resources
If you want to learn more check out biology 151 uw madison
We also discuss several other topics like basic level category psychology
We also discuss several other topics like john steenbergen uic
Don't forget about the age old question of What does ambiguity mean?
sychology February 3, 2015• Develop and justify a top 10 list of recommendations for  pregnant women.  • Recommendation: • Why?  • Citation • One of these recommendations may be your own idea,  not based on the book or lecture. As with other top 10  lists, put the more important ideas towards the top. Assignment for Feb. 3 • Random sample – randomly selected from among the  population. • Random assignment – random assignment to the  experiment or control group.Quiz Question! American Congress of  Obstetricians and  Gynecologists• Seek medical help • Eat healthy and exercise • Take a prenatal vitamin (iron and folic acid) • Stop drinking, smoking, and taking drugs • Share the news – for social/emotional support • You can’t do this by yourself!“Preparing to parent” • Malnutrition • Calories ~ 300 more! • Protein • Folic AcidTeratogens • Infectious diseases • HIV/AIDS • Other sexually transmitted diseases (e.g. gonorrhea) • Rubella • Toxoplasmosis – found in cat litter • Flu • Measles!!Teratogens Alcohol, tobacco and illegal drugs • Alcohol: FEA, FAE • Literally changes the way the brain functions • Kills cells that make the fetus grow! That makes facial  abnormalities • Tobacco • Narcotics – e.g., heroin morphine • Marijuana • Stimulants – e.g. cocaineTeratogens Medical drugs • Antiepileptic • Antidepressant • Over the counter pain/fever reducers • Thalidomide • Accutane acne medicineTeratogens Environmental • Radiation • Pollutants (e.g. World Trade Center) • There was an increase in birth defects with preg women  near 9/11 attacks • Lead • PesticidesTeratogens • Take a cell from the 8-cell zygote • Letting the test tube baby grow, then choose which embryo to  implant. • Ultrasound – looking at an image of fetus • Shows if there’s a likelihood of down syndrome/gender • Amniocentesis – fluid surrounding embryo to analyze  chromosomal abnormalities. • Not routine but recommended for women over 40 • Remote possibility of miscarriage, leakage, infection • Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS) • A test taken in early pregnancy to detect congenital abnormalities  in the fetus.  • A tiny tissue sample is taken from the villi of the chorion, which  forms the fetal part of the placenta.Prenatal diagnosis • Diagnosis of newborns – genetic sequencing?? • Prenatal diagnosis – with IVF • You can sort out which embryos you want to implant in the  test tube. • Three-parent IVF • Sperm • Egg genetic material • Egg mitochondria – all mitos come from mom! • One person provides egg genes, another donates mitochondria,  another gives spermDesigner babies Male: manufacturer -- quality or quantity of sperm • Female: problems with ovulation, quality of eggs • Overtime, eggs dry out • All your eggs are made while you’re in your mom’s womb • As you get older, its more likely that you release fewer  eggs/double eggs for fraternal twinsInfertility • Cameroon, Central African Republic, Democratic  Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Gabon • 17-32% childless women 45-49Worldwide infertility • Artificial insemination…. • Fertility drugs to stimulate ovulation – • Hormonal treatments to get women to produce eggs  • In vitro fertilization (IVF) – • Test tube baby, mix mom + dad and gets implanted • Surrogacy – • Paying for a woman to carry fetus of another woman’s genetic info • AdoptionTreatments of infertility Chapter 3, Section 3 Birth and its cultural  contextGetting the baby out….Contractions of the uterus – means its time to come out • Dilation of the cervix – needs to expand to 4 inches/10  cm to get the baby out!Labor • Delivery – • Actual baby coming out • Expelling placenta / umbilical cord – • Point of contact btw mother + babyDelivery, Expelling the  placenta and umbilical  cord • Breech presentation – feet first • Head could get stuck inside • Failure to progress – you’re having contractions but the  cervix isn’t dilating / baby isn’t coming down the birth  canal • Fetal distress – heart rate of fetus is going down until it  comes out. If it doesn’t go back to normal once it comes  out, it could be damaged.Complications Medication – epidural keeps you alert  • Cesarean delivery (probably essential in 5% of cases) • UNICEF suggests 5%, if the rate is lower, that means there  isn’t access to emergency back up care. Forceps – salad tongs to grip the baby’s head out Vacuum extraction – looks like a plungerSolutions Birth rituals – differs greatly! • Meaning of the placenta – animals eat their placenta.  Some people do, drink the blood etc for nutrients ☹Cultural variations • Doctor – bad idea for a while, bc they didn’t wash their hands!  So mothers/babies died • Nurse • Midwife • Father • Sibling – may bond better with the new sibling if they’re present  at birth • Friends • Doula – “birth assistant” not a midwife, just personal  cheerleader Technology – Electronic Fetal MonitoringWho/what helps? • Hospital • Maternity Center • HomeWhere does birth take  place? • E.g. Cuna Indians • Epidural • Twilight sleep • “Natural childbirth”Easing the pain  • 5.1 Maternal mortality ratio • 5.2 Proportion of births attended by skilled health  personnel • 5.3 Contraceptive prevalence rate • 5.4 Adolescent birth rate • 5.5 Antenatal care (at least 1 visit, at least 4 visits) • 5.6 Unmet needs for family planningUnited Nations Millennium  Development Goals • United States • Lifetime risk of maternal death 1/1800 • Maternal Mortality Ratio 28/100,000 live birthsMaternal mortality ratio • Africa 460 • Asia 140 • Latin America and Caribbean 85 • Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of  Independent States 27Maternal Mortality Ratio • Industrialized countries 15 • Developing Countries 230 • Least Developed Country 440Maternal Mortality Ratio • Since 1990 the Maternal Mortality Ratio declined 47%  from 400 to 210 per 100,000 live births• Sub-Saharan Africa 52 • Southern Asia 50 • South-Eastern Asia 25 • Latin America and Caribbean 10 • Eastern Asia 1 • Western Asia 26 • Northern Africa 18 • Caucasus and Central Asia 3Births NOT attended by a skilled  health professional • Research design: Design a study to examine the effect  on helping behavior of being present at the birth of a  sibling. • Make correct use of the following terms: Experimental  group, control group, random assignment, population,  sample, validity, reliability, measurement choice (how  will you measure “helping behavior?)Paper for Feb. 10 Developmental  Psychology 2013 OFFICE HOURS by appointment and: Prof. Peg Barratt Mondays 3:30-5:00, Tuesdays 11:30-12:30, Room 205, Psychology GTA Hannah Snyder Thursdays 1:00-3:00, Room 208 Psychology February 5, 2015• Measles – nearly eradicated, but parents aren’t  vaccinating their kids, think its freedom of choice smh.  The outbreak started in Disneyland. • 3-parent child – Britain ruled that this prevents passing  down of genetic diseases. If you have 2 eggs, the one  with better genes will be chosen.News we are following • Explain: • Random sample - randomly selecting people from among  the population. • Random assignment - randomly assign participants to  either the experiment or control group.Review • Contractions aren’t constant! Being in labor for 20 hours  doesn’t mean you’re in pain for 20 hours.Review: Birth • 5.1 Maternal mortality ratio • 5.2 Proportion of births attended by skilled health  personnel • 5.3 Contraceptive prevalence rate • 5.4 Adolescent birth rate • 5.5 Antenatal care (at least 1 visit, at least 4 visits) • 5.6 Unmet needs for family planningUnited Nations Millennium  Development Goals • United States • Lifetime risk of maternal death 1/1800 • Maternal Mortality Ratio 28/100,000 live birthsMaternal mortality ratio Goal 5.1 • Africa 460 – die in childbirth! • Asia 140 • Latin America and Caribbean 85 • Central and Eastern Europe 27 • Reasons they die – • Stillborn • Bleeding to death after placenta • Mom can breastfeed baby to release oxytocin + stop bleeding • Massaging uterus helps • Medications in developed countriesMaternal Mortality Ratio • Industrialized countries 15 • Developing Countries 230 • Least Developed Country 440Maternal Mortality Ratio • Since 1990 the Maternal Mortality Ratio declined 47%  from 400 to 210 per 100,000 live births • Worldwide, progress is being made!Since 1990 • 5.2 Proportion of births attended by skilled  health personnel What does a skilled birth attendant do? • Tell the woman about her body changes • Checks for blood pressure • Tells woman about nutrition • Should know signs of pregnancy/delivery  gone wrong • Needs to have access to emergency svcs • Attend to baby after birth! APGAR• UNICEF • World Health Organization • UNESCO • World Food Programme • The World Bank • The book below is all the info/take home msgs you need  to have safe pregnancy etc • Helps community too, so they know how to treat womenFacts for Life (Fourth Edition) • Sub-Saharan Africa 52 • Southern Asia 50 • South-Eastern Asia 25 • Latin America/Caribbean 10 • Eastern Asia 1 • Western Asia 26 • Northern Africa 18 • Caucasus + Central Asia 3% Births NOT attended by a skilled  health professional • The NeonateChapter 3, Section 2 • Vernix – white stuff that covers newborn.  “natural skin cream” • Fontanels – soft spots in the head makes it look  like a cone head lolAppearance of the  newborn • Color – baby is blue: okay for first minute, and again at 5  mins • Heart Rate – if baby’s heart isn’t beating, IMPORTANT • Reflex irritability – crying, coughing, sputtering • Activity – flaccid, lying there not moving – could mean it  needs oxygen • Respiration – is it breathing??!?! Scores of 3-5 could suggest problems down the line!Baby’s first test: taken @ 1  minute of life! Apar (Virinia Apar) • What can babies do? Done throughout the 1st month Habituation – getting used to a sound! They're born to get  used to new surroundings Brazelton Neonatal  Assessment Scale • Habituation – response decrement to stimulation • Orientation to stimulation – shaking a rattle & they pay  attention • Alertness – to stimulation • Motor maturity – arms wandering in a controlled way • Self quieting – can babies calm themselves down? • Consolability - how much does it take to stop crying? Do  you need to babytalk to them or pick them up etc • Lability of states– mood swingsBrazelton Neonatal  Assessment Scale • Low birthweight (below 2500 g, 5 ½ pounds) • Premature (37 weeks or younger) • 40 weeks is a full term baby • People don’t worry about + - 2 weeks • Small for dates (bottom 10%) • Comparing a 40 week baby to another 40 week baby. • Usually a nutritional problem!Low Birthweight and  prematurity • United States 8% • Lower in Europe • Higher in African American women in the US – 13% • World-wide 14% • India, Pakistan and some African countries >24%World-wide distribution  of low birthweight (p. 102) • Poor nutrition – preg women who are undernourished >  problems for their baby • Poor health • Lack of prenatal care – skilled health pros are necessary • NEED at least 4 visits! • Smoking – biggest cause of preterm birth in America! • Multiple births – twins etc have less room, so they pop  out early • Puts stress on the system • Drug and alcohol use • Maternal age <17 or >40Causes of low birthweight • Lungs (surfactant) – hard to get to work if baby isn’t old  enough • Central nervous system – problems at birth show up  later in academic etc • Body fat – have a harder time staying warm • Immune system – makes them more susceptible to  infections • Death and disability – early weeks determine if they  survive or not, or live with a severe disease • Cognitive problems – don’t show up til later, result of  blood in brain etcConsequences of low  birthweight • Use an incubator • Doesn’t have a lot of stimulation, so massage + movement  is recommended • “Kangaroo care” – putting baby against mother or  fathers’ skin. • Regulates heart/breathing rate • Helps match sleep/wake cycles to mom • Try to postpone delivery (using meds) • Give meds to mom to help baby develop as much as  possible until it’s bornHow can we help premies? • Prolonged awake period at birth Then lots of sleeping… • Could wake up every couple hours • (btw 15 – 21 hrs/day!) • And lots of REM sleepWhat do babies do? • Delay delivery – giving mom meds to develop baby as  much as possible before birth • Promote lung development • Kangaroo care – placing baby on mom/dad to regulate  sleeping, breathing, heart rates • Incubator • Infant massageTreatment for low  birthweight babies • Stepping – holding them and let their feet “walk” • Goes away and comes back after 12 months • Moro (or startle) – arms out/back in • Could break a fall but idk • Babkin – you push on palms, and baby opens eyes,  pushes head forward • Reflex to nurse • Sucking – they suck on anything that touches the inside  of the mouth These go away after 6 – 8 weeks!Neonatal reflexes • Rooting – baby turn to find the nipple once you  put them next to it • Grasping – holding onto mom for protection • Swimming – if they’re in water, they’ll hold their  breath automatically + “swim” • Tonic Neck Reflex – … around 1:06 • Babinski – stroke the bottom of the foot and  their … sticks outNeonatal reflexes STOPPED HERE First 3 are really developed • Touch + Pain • We use swaddling…. • Burrito baby • Taste and smell • By 4 days they can recognize breast smell of mom vs another  woman • Enjoy sweet things • Hearing • Reading to the fetus • When baby is born, they recognize mom’s voice • Prefer high pitched voices! Googoogahgah • Sight • 8 -14 inches of sight • Prefer faces/curves/bright contours (face against a background)Neonatal senses • Chapters 1, 2, and 3 • 20 short answer, fill in the blank. • 2 short essays (choice 1 of 2 for each)EXAM Feb. 12 • Research design: Design a study to examine the effect on  helping behavior(of 4 to 8 year olds) of being present at  the birth of a sibling. • Make correct use of the following terms: Experimental  group, control group, random assignment, population,  sample, validity, reliability, measurement choice (how  will you measure “helping behavior?)Paper for Feb. 17

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