HORT 102 Quiz 5 Study Guide
HORT 102 Quiz 5 Study Guide 4616 - HORT 102
Popular in Intro to Cultivated Plants
Popular in Agricultural & Resource Econ
This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Irene A. on Monday April 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 4616 - HORT 102 at Washington State University taught by Michael Pumphrey in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 238 views. For similar materials see Intro to Cultivated Plants in Agricultural & Resource Econ at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 04/06/15
HORT 102 OUIZ 5 STUDY GUIDE Less 01112 Describe what makes a weed species 39weedy39 and the processes by which weeds compete with crop plants 0 a plant that is competitive invasive persistent pernicious interferes with intended land use 0 take up space amp nutrients Describe the different weed origins and the competitive characteristics of weeds 0 native introduced escapedinvasive 0 Widely adapted rapid emergence amp growth quick to reproduce produces lots of seeds seeds disperse Widely many seeds are dormant Describe how the life cycle of a weed impacts timing of control 0 annuals biennials perennials kill them when they39re young small List some examples of vegetative structures that perennial weeds use to propagate reproduce themselves 0 roots stolons rhizomes 0 tubers bulbs rooting at nodes List the ve methods of weed control and provide examples of each 0 Prevention 0 avoid establishment O regulation 0 quarantine O sanitation 0 preventing seed production 0 Mechanical Control 0 hand pullinghoeing tillage mowing mulches fire ood OOOOO 0 Cultural control 0 rotation 0 cover crops I nutrient scavenging during winter weed suppression 0 planting dates 0 water amp fertilizer management 0 allelopathy 0 Biological control 0 animals 0 insects O diseases 0 Chemical control 0 selectivity placement timing mode of action 0 O O O spectrum of activity Describe the difference between a selective and nonselective herbicide and provide examples 0 selective 24D only kills certain species or type of plant ex kills broadleaf plants doesn39t injure monocots 0 nonselective RoundUp will kill anything Describe some factors to consider when deciding what weed management strategies to use 0 climate 0 soil factors 0 surrounding vegetation 0 weed biology Lesson 13 List the beneficial effects of insects 0 many insects act as pollinators for both crops amp weeds I ex alfalfa clover tree fruits vegetable crops O nutrient cycling breaking down amp recycling animalplant tissues which releases nutrients for other organisms to use 0 natural predators some insects feed on weeds others feed on crop pests I preying mantis amp ladybugs feed on aphids I klamath beetle feeds on klamath weed 0 wild diversity food source for fish birds etc Vital part of food chain Explain how insects can reduce the quality and quantity of harvested product 0 loss of leaf tissue reduces ability to photosynthesize I stem damage decreases translocation ability in phloem and xylem 0 seed damage lowers Viability reduces quality of seed products 0 fruit foliage ower damage reduces product quality amp value 0 root damage reduces ability to intake nutrients amp water I premature plant death reduces yield amp quality I insect excrement amp body parts contaminate grain lots List the other detrimental effects of insects on crops 0 Transmit diseases to plants I disease spread insects act as vectors from plant to plant I aphids mites leafhoppers can transmit Viruses I disease entry insect wounds on tissue allow disease to enter plants 0 indirect damage fields produce less dry matter reduces erosion protection I ex grasshoppers can leave a field bare Describe the difference between chewing and sucking insects and explain how each can be involved in spreading diseases among plants I chewing insects biteteareat parts of plant create wounds that pathogens can enter 0 piercingsucking insects or mites pierce plant phloem amp suck out sap can inject pathogens into the plant Describe the principals involved in establishing an effective pest control program I accurately identifying pest I accurately estimate population size to determine potential crop damage I use economicallyenvironmentally effective method De ne IPM then list the objectives of the program 0 Integrated Pest Management uses complete system of pest control to address problems reduce population below economic damage levels minimize environmental damage De ne the term action threshold 0 pest level at which control measures are warranted List the four types of insect control methods and provide examples of each 0 genetics plant breeders develop varieties resistanttolerant of pest feeding I advantages no chemicals genetic resistances tend to last longer I host plant does not suffer economic damage if infected O cultural control changing cropping sequence tillage cultivation weed control etc to reduce infestation levels I crop rotations reduce pest population levels I changing seed date plant earlier or later I plowing disking or burning I controlling weeds 0 biological control using other living organisms to reduce pests I parasitic insects ladybugs feed on aphids I pestspecific diseases I hormones or pheromones pheromones attract males to traps to prevent breeding 0 chemical control using pesticides insecticides miticides amp nematicides I most expensive type of control I greatest environmental effect I classified by mode of action 0 chemical may accumulate in plant parts harvested for food Distinguish among the different types of chemical control agents for insects I contact poisons kill by direct body penetration or through inhalation controls piercing insects amp mites I stomach poisons kill when ingested in stomach controls chewing insects I systematic poisons absorbed by plant then ingested by insect control any time of pest Lesson 14 Explain the detrimental effects of plant pathogens on crop yields in terms of photosynthesis and photosynthate translocation I chlorosis destroys chlorophyll reduces rate of photosynthesis I necrosis death of plant tissue 0 block vascular system disrupt translocation 0 interfere w photosynthesis amp respiration decrease plant growth 0 affects water use efficiency decrease plant growth Explain how plant diseases reduce crop quality 0 causes premature ripening of grainfruit grain doesn39t fill completely 0 disease evidence on leaves owersfruit reduces attractiveness amp quality I replace grainfruit with fungal bodies has toxic effect I seedhome diseases transmitted to next crop List and describe the four different types of plant pathogens 0 fungi I responsible for greatest number of crop losses I rusts smuts stalk rots down mildews I reproduce via spores carried by wind crop residue seeds I can reproduce sexually adaptovercome genetic resistance 0 bacteria I enter plant through openings like stomata or wounds I single celled organism reproduces via binary fission I colonize amp parasitize host I symptoms include soft rots leaf spots bacterial galls vascular disease 0 viruses I not considered living organisms I obligate parasites can only grow amp multiply within a host I invade cells amp disrupt functions I most common symptom is alteration of leaf chlorophyll pattern 0 nematodes I microscopic worms roundworms that attach to roots stems leaves owers I most feed on roots I reproduce via eggs I parasitize plant tissue I cause galls lesions stuntedinjured roots I cause plants to wilt stunts growth List the three requirements for disease occurrence 0 pathogen susceptible host proper environment for disease development List and describe each of the ve stages of disease development 0 inoculation inoculum some form of pathogen is transferred to plant I host amp pathogen must come into contact penetration of inoculum through natural openings or wounds I insects may inject pathogen when feeding I fungal pathogens may enter via root tissue infection occurs when pathogen becomes established in host I pathogen begins to multiply within host invasion pathogen spreads throughout plant disease symptoms appear I tissues rupture transport system plugged chlorosis amp necrosis occur I major economic crop losses reproduction dissemination spread by wind insects water people animals birds amp survival of pathogen List describe and provide examples of each disease control measure 0 O O Genetics I avoidance morphological structures that hinder pathogen penetration I sunken stomata thick cuticles I tolerance plant can withstand invasion ifwhen it occurs I true resistance infection does not occur despite inoculation Cultural Control I altering life cycle of host plant or pathogen I crop rotation to change host I changing planting date I best management practices to promote vigorous crop growth 0 healthy plants are less susceptible to disease I controlling weeds to eliminate alternate hosts Chemical Control I effective but expensive I used with high value crops I applied before inoculation I often reapplied I seed treatments protect seedlings from root disease andor insects
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