Unit 2 Study Guide Chapters 7-9 To study for Exam 3 you should know the significance of eachWe also discuss several other topics like wsu.com
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term as discussed in class and outlined in the text. Also, you will need to be familiar with works of art that we discussed in class, and the documents in the back of the chapter. This study aid should guide you in what terms and concepts you need to study. This study guide should not replace reading the textbook, the slides, or your lecture notes. Chapter 7: Commerce and Culture (500 C.E – 1500 C.E.) ∙ The exchange of goods, culture, religion, diseases, etc. across the: o Silk Roads: Exchange across Eurasia - Generally, luxury products travelled the silk roads because transportation was so expensive - Obviously, silk was a huge export - Different areas wanted silk for different things China a. Luxurious fabrics as a sign of elite status. Also, used to buy horses Other areas a. Bought for its comfort and its value as a fashion statement - Led to the spread of BUDDHISM - Mahayana form of Buddhism was also embraced because it was less strict than the original Buddhism - Picked up influences from other cultures such as the Greco Persian mythological figures - Diseases also travelled (also accounts for spread of Christianity and Buddhism as it offered compassion during suffering) - Spread in well unified areas (black death) - Benefited those who survived such as workers who could demand higher wages o Sand Roads: Exchange across the SAHARA - Rooted in WEST Africa and started based on environmental variations - These varied environments which produced different goods is what encouraged the exchange of goods - North African coastal regions generated cloth, glassware, weapons, books, and other manufactured goods - Earliest long distance trade occurred mostly among agricultural people in an area called Sudan or the land of the black people - Exchanged metal goods, cotton textiles, gold, and various food products using boats and donkeys - Urban centers form around trade routes Most well know was Jenne-jenoa. Located at a crucial point on the Niger River where goods were transshipped from boat to donkey or vice versa o Sea Roads, Indian Ocean trading network - Connected distant people all across the EASTERN hemisphere (china to eastern Africa) - Grew out of environmental and cultural diversities of that region - Cheaper to use sea roads because ships could carry more (mass market) - Indian ocean commerce occurred because of monsoons - Grew from India because its ports bulged with goods from east and west - How it affected Southeast Asia a. Trade encouraged political change as rulers used money from trade to build larger and stronger states or cities b. Buddhism and Hinduism are widely and quickly accepted - How it affected East Africa a. Leads to Swahili, a set of commercial city-states stretching all along the East African Coast b. Swahili Civ. Rapidly became Islamic c. Islam linked Swahili to the larger Indian Ocean World causing a sharp divide from its African neighbors ∙ The impacts of the Silk, Sand, and Sea Roads on the different regions - Had roots for economic globalization - SEE ABOVE BULLET POINT ∙ The goods that were traded and their region of origin - Silk had origins in China - Gold had origins in Africa along with slaves - Ivory,Kola Nuts, and slaves = Africa - Sahara = horses cloth dates various manufactured goods and especially salt ∙ Srivijaya 1. State that arose from the strait of malacca due to mala sailors taxing trade ∙ Borobudur 1. Largest Buddhist monument. Javanese. 2. In Indonesia. Was buried when Java came under Islamic influence ∙ Angkor Wat 1. Temple complex dedicated to HINDU god Vishnu. Now used by BUDDHISTS. 2. In Cambodia. Demonstrates the spread of culture (Hinduism/Buddhism) along the sea roads. 3. Women had fewer restrictions and a greater role in public life (served as gladiators, warriors, members of palace staff, poets, artists, religious teachers) ∙ Pochteca 1. Professional merchants in AZTEC civ. Which undertook larger-scale trading expeditions both within and beyond border of their empire.2. Sometimes worked for state but usually acted on their own private businessmen ∙ Technological inventions/contributions from different regions 1. Indian oceans: sails, new kinds of ships, new ways to calculate latitude 2. China: paper, gunpowder 3. Yokes, saddles, and stirrups made the use of horses camels and oxen much easier ∙ Swahili Civilization 1. Collection of city states 2. Adopted islam 3. Language comes from bantu ∙ Great Zimbabwe 1. Sold goods to sofala 2. Build large stone enclosures 3. African state ∙ Ghana Developed because of trade across Sahara: provided incentives and resources to do so ∙ Mali 1. Sand road 2. Mansa Musa was the king – many times pictured with gold, sparked interest of other nations to come trade with Mali ∙ Songhay 1. In Africa, Developed because of sand road. ∙ Trade in the Americas 1. Spread of corn took a long time but was very important 2. Potatoes and writing didn’t spread 3. Didn’t have important animals such as horse and camel for long distance trade ∙ Maya ∙ Cahokia 1. Obsidian came from all over North America to Cahokia 2. Mississippi River Valley ∙ Aztec 1. Leopard skin, feathers and woven goods ∙ Inca 1. 20,000 miles of roads 2. Alpacas and foot travel 3. Less about trade-more about supply (warehouses) ∙ Thorfinn Karlsfeni 1. Viking who sailed to America from Greenland 2. His contact did not have a long lasting impact 3. It was hard for him to communicate – failed to communicate with America, Son was first European born in western hemisphereChapter 8: China and the World: East Asian Connections (500 C.E – 1300 C.E.) ∙ Order of the Chinese Dynasties 1. Sui to Tang to Song ∙ Song Dynasty 1. Marked a turning point in the history of Chinese’s patriarchy. 2. Offered a mixture of restrictions and new opportunities for women 3. Masculinity is contemplating and thinking 4. Paper money invented 5. Biggest change: tax paid in cash 6. Population doubles ∙ Tang Dynasty 1. Li Yuang Founder 2. Exams Reinstated 3. Pop 60 mil 4. Masculinity is fighting and horses ∙ Sui Dynasty 1. Reunited China with its canal system that connected northern and southern China 2. Explosion of art gives this era the distinction as the “golden age” 3. Neo Confucianism develops – Confucian thinking with elements of Buddhism and Daoism incorporated 4. Ruled by Emperor Wendi 5. Tang dynasty overthrew it ∙ Patriarchy in China 1. Before Song dynasty women had more freedom but as the song dynasty rolled around there was a revival of Confucianism 2. Led to foot binding. Yucky 3. There were some positive things such as women gaining property rights and inheritance of family inheritance 4. Education in women was also encouraged ∙ Foot binding 1. GROSS PRACTICE THAT WAS DONE BECAUSE OF STUPID PATRIARCHY 2. Smaller feet were supposedly more feminine and beautiful. YUCK 3. Distinguished elite women from commoners and peasants ∙ Grand Canal 1. Canal built in china during the Sui Dynasty that connected northern and southern china 2. ∙ Xiongnu 1. Group of nomadic people establish about the same time as the Han dynasty 2. Raided northern China 3. Had deal with China during tribute system ∙ Hangzhou 1. City in China2. Had a lot to offer such as specialized market, restaurants, inns, schools for musicians and numerous clubs 3. LARGE. Marco Polo was very impressed 4. Capita of SONG dynasty. 5. Specialized markets, restaurants with fancy foods ∙ Qin Shi Huangdi 1. Wanted to unify China 2. Brutally unified all the warring states 3. Set the stage for the Han Dynasty ∙ Taizong 1. Brought back the exam system in China 2. Came from the North 3. Loved horses 4. Tang dynasty ∙ Trung Trac Sisters 1. Trung Trac sisters were Vietnamese sisters who rebelled against the Chinese rule 2. Still regarded as heroes ∙ Emperor Wendi 1. Ruler of the Sui dynasty 2. Had monastaries constructed at the base of China’s 5 sacred mountains 3. Used Buddhism to justify his military campaigns 4. Promoted state support although it received backlash from many elite/literate peoples ∙ Empress Wu 1. Supported Buddhism 2. First Woman to become supreme ruler of China 3. Slept her way to the top ∙ An Lushan 1. Adopted by Xuangzong and Yang Guifei. An Lushan is a general from the North. 2. He starts the An Lushan rebellion and sacks Chang’ an 3. He is eventually killed and Yang Guifei is executed ∙ Shotoku Taishi 1. JAPANESE emperor that borrowed a lot from Chinese culture ∙ Bushido 1. Way of the warrior (samurai) ∙ China’s influence on/relations with: o Japan - Physically separated from china so all borrowing and influences were voluntary - Sent scholars to China to borrow cultural elements - Wanted to transform into a centralized bureaucratic state - Created samurai - Considered itself equal to china - Many rulers were women - Japanese women also escaped strict patriarchy - Had sacred spirits called kami (Shinto) o Korea- Adjacent to northeastern china - There was Chinese cultural influence in the form of Buddhism - Only joined forces with china to fight common enemies - Maintained their political independence but still participated in the tribute system - Developed phonetic alphabet called hangul o Northern Nomads - Located in the steppes - Chinas most enduring and intense interaction with foreigners - Interactions with them brought people of different environments and ways of thinking together - Relationship with them made china look good (superior) - Great wall: separated the two ecological zones o Vietnam - For a long time china was a part of Vietnam - Adopted Chinese traits - Elite adopted chinese culture - Adopted examination system - Women were allowed a lot more freedom o Steppe Nomads - See northern nomads ∙ Chinese Tribute System - Give a small gift in order to trade within china, receive an even larger gift back - Made china look real good ∙ Kowtow - Series of ritual bowings before you give your gifts ∙ Silla Dynasty - Korean dynasty allied with the tang ∙ Mahayana Buddhism - Branch of Buddhism that regards the Buddha as Divine. Mahayana Buddhism primarily took root in China. Theravada was never popular. Examinations to become a monk. ∙ Theravada Buddhism - Branch of Buddhism that regards the Buddha as a great teacher, but not divine. More concerned with philosophy. - Didn’t really take root in China, Mahayana was more popular. ∙ Pure Land Buddhism - Developed in Central Asia, especially India - Focused on Amitabha Buddha and his rebirth in the “pure land” - Buddhism combined with confucianism, emphasis on salvation by faith without study or meditationChapter 9: The Worlds of Islam: Afro-Eurasian Connections (600 C.E.–1500 C.E.) ∙ Muhammad - Founder of Islam - Wrote quran - “the seal of the prophets” - Part of the Quraysh tribe ∙ Muhammad’s “Night Journey” - 620. Muhammad was led one night by the Angel Gabriel from Mecca to Jerusalem, led prayers for earlier prophets such as Abraham. - Accompanied by angels, Muhammad was led through 7 heavens. - Allah spoke to Muhammad and commanded that they say 50 prayers a day, but then Moses changed it to 5. ∙ Medina - Also known as Yahtrib - The place where muhammahd and his followers moved to after gaining popularity - Journey here is known as the hijra ∙ Mecca - Home to the Kaaba, a prominent shrine in arabia - Birthplace of Islam - Ruled by dominant tribe called the quraysh ∙ Islam around the world and specifically in: o India - Brought to India through Turkic warrior groups - Small Muslim groups emerge in India - Islam never claimed more than 25% because Hinduism and islam contrasted each other - Sikhism developed which took elements from both islam and hindu (karma and rebirth) o Anatolia - 90% muslim by 1500 - Smaller population = more cultural weight - Cultural barriers are less severe o West Africa - Cam through muslim traders - Acceptance was largely peaceful and voluntary o Spain - Got along for a while until the Almoravids and Almohads came, their extreme military rule made the gap between Christians and Muslims larger, Christians reconquered Spain, still had some Muslim traditions but the religion was basically gone ∙ Rashidun - First four Caliphs of Islam after death of Muhammad. Consisted of people who knew Muhammad personally. (successors)∙ Sassanid Empire - Persian empire that is conquered by the arabs ∙ Umayyad Caliphate - First Islamic dynasty where the caliphs became like the king. Was overthrown by the abbassid. Very hypocritical and corrupt ∙ Abbasid Caliphate - Non-arabs played a large role in this empire (particularly Persians). Capital in Baghdad. Shortly after its formation, local governors became independent, though still loyal to the Abbasid caliph. ∙ Jihad - Greater and lesser jihad. Sixth pillar ∙ Hajj - Pilgrimage to mecca - Key to the spread of islam ∙ Umma - The just and moral society of Islam ∙ Jizya - Tax on non-muslims. They could practice their own religion, but had to pay the Jizya as a replacement for military service which was forbidden to non-Muslims. ∙ Dhimmis - People of the book (Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians). They were protected in Islamic society, but were still regarded as 2nd class citizens. ∙ Timbuktu - A major center of Islamic learning. A great library ∙ al-Andalus - Name given by Muslims to spain ∙ Sunni - Sided with the four caliphs they thought they should rule - Religious authority from ulama - Believed in the established order ∙ Shi’a - Branch of islam - Leadership should come from bloodline - Had imans who could interpret divine revelation and law - Believed there was a wrong turn in history. Correct it. ∙ Sufi - The hippies of the islam world - No material world - Charted their own course to god ∙ Hijra - Emigration of Muhammad and followers to Yathrib (Medina). - Marked the beginning of a new Islamic calendar ∙ Sharia - Islamic law developed by religious scholars, ulama- Detailed every aspect of life - Blueprint for authentic Islamic society - Living as muslim meant following the sharia ∙ Pillars of Islam - Generally five a. First – no god but allah b. Second- ritual prayer c. Third- almsgiving d. Fourth- a month of fasting during Ramadan, Self-purification e. Fifth- encouraged pilgrimage to Mecca ∙ Ulama - Religious scholars followed by the sunni ∙ Quran - Collection of muhammads revelations - Delivered through Muhammad - Corrective. An invitation to return to the old and pure religion of Abraham - Denounced prevailing social pactices and demanded social justice - Sought to return to the older values of arabitical life ∙ Surah - Chapter in the Quran - 114 surahs ∙ Mansa Musa - King of mal - Mansa Musa was the king – many times pictured with gold, sparked interest of other nations to come trade with Mali - Bankrupt cairo with his gold supply ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------ In addition to knowing these terms, you will need to be prepared to answer four essay questions, one of which is a PSA question. The extended essays require you to tell as much as you know about the question at hand. You should be very familiar with each of these subjects and be able to offer an in-depth response. Generally speaking it is not possible to get a full credit without the inclusion of one or two significant details such as specific dates, people, or advanced concepts. To receive full credit, your thoughts should be well organized, and your argument well-constructed. While it obviously varies from question to question: to get between an 8 and a 9 you will need to provide 5-6 specific details, ideas, or concepts that support your overarching thesis. For the Primary Source Essay (one of the two listed below) you will need to construct your argument primarily from the primary source response. You should have already done this as part of your PSA. You should be able to construct the arguments from those made in class and those found in the textbook.Be sure to write your answers on the test in normal essay format (including a thesis sentence and a conclusion sentence, but these don’t need to be fully developed intro or conclusion paragraphs). You CANNOT get full points if your actual essay is formatted with bullet points. You will be required to answer one of the following PSA questions on the test. (Both will appear on the test.) Be sure to include the names of all the documents involved. ∙ What information in the sources we reviewed in the chapter on Commerce and Culture would be most valuable for historians seeking to understand India, China, and West Africa? What statements in those sources might be viewed with the most skepticism? (Consider the authors’ purposes and their intended audiences in evaluating their writings.) ∙ No national culture develops as a single set of ideas and practices. This is also true for Japan, which adopted much from China, but had internal tensions of its own. What inconsistencies, tensions, or differences in emphasis can you identify in the documents from Japan (name each)? What changes over time can you identify in the sources? You will be required to answer 3 of the following prompts/questions on the test. Four will appear on the test. ∙ What motivated and sustained the long-distance commerce of the Silk Roads, Sea Roads, and Sand Roads? What goods were traded in each system? What were the differences between the three systems? ∙ What were the major economic social, and cultural consequences of Silk Road Commerce? ∙ Why were the Arabs able to construct a huge empire so quickly? ∙ What accounts for the widespread conversion to Islam? Describe the stages of spread and what factors influenced this spread. How did various geographical and cultural factors in each place Islam went influence its spread and power? ∙ Discuss the relationship between China and its northern nomadic neighbors and the tribute system more broadly, both in theory and practice. ∙ In what ways did women’s lives change during the Tang and Song dynasties?∙ Why are the Tang and Song dynasties in China sometimes referred to as a “golden age”?