Soc 301/G St 303 Fall 2016 EXAM III – Monday, November 14Lamanna & Riedmann: Ch. 12 “Power” (pp. 300310; stop at “Family Violence”) 1. What is power? What is conjugal power? Do we have as much research on unmarried couples’ relationships as we do on married coWe also discuss several other topics like mallyna
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uples? Power is the ability to exercise one’s will or agency, and conjugal power refers to power dynamics within a marital relationship. There is more research on married couples’ relationships because it was not until recently that researchers began to look at the power dynamics between unmarried couples as well. 2. What two kinds of measures do researchers use when studying relationship power? What is the difference between a perception of “equality” and a perception of “equity”? “Objective measures of power—who makes more, or more important, decisions, or who does more housework, for example—and, subjective measures of fairness—whether each partner feels that their relationship is a fair, or equitable one” (302). Equality – both partners feel that there is a fair balance of responsibilities and rights within the relationship (pay for a new TV together splitting it 50/50). Equity – whether the subjective rewards of the relationship balance out with each partner’s contributions (for example, if the couple buys a TV and the one who earns more money pays more money for it as opposed to splitting it 50/50). 3. What are “coercive power,” “referent power,” and “legitimate power”? “Coercive power is based on the dominant person’s ability and willingness to punish the partner with psychological—emotional abuse or physical violence or, more subtly, by withholding favors or affection…Referent power is based on a person’s emotional identification with the partner…In happy relationships, referent power increases as couples grow older together…legitimate power stems from the dominant individual’s ability to claim authority, or the right to request compliance” (303). An example of coercive power would be using “the silent treatment” against your partner or spanking a child. Example of referent power would be attending a party even if you’d rather not go, but wanting to go simply because your partner does (you have been swayed by their referent power). Example of legitimate power would be, in a traditional family structure, a family accepting the father as the head of the family.4. What is Blood and Wolfe’s “resource hypothesis” and on what grounds has it been criticized? What is the relationship between resources and gender? How does the culture influence this relationship, and in what cultural conditions does resource theory explain power? Their “research hypothesis” proposes that the partner with the most resources in the relationship can exchange them for more power—for example, the spouse with the greater income and more education making more decisions in the relationship. It has been criticized as ignoring other sources of power besides just individual resources such as “gender expectations, norms, and socialization” and also for assuming that patriarchal power structures had been replaced by egalitarian ones (304). “Powerbased resources are socially structured by gender,” and because our society is still more patriarchal than not, more resources are typically given to men and are therefore unevenly distributed in heterosexual relationships (304). “ The concept of resources in cultural context stresses that societywide gender structures influence conjugal power, tempering the impact of relative individual resources” (304). Resource theory only explains power in a society in which there is “no cultural norm for conjugal power,” whether it be egalitarian or patriarchal (304). 5. When people evaluate how household labor is divided between partners, do they necessarily define “fairness” as splitting housework 5050? On average, how to men and women compare in the number of hours they spend for combined child care, housework, and paid work (see Figure 12.1). No, it is not only defined by 50/50 labor distribution. Fairness in the distribution of household labor is determined by factors such as how many hours each partner works outside of the home (women whose husbands work more hours than they do see an unequal division in household labor as more fair) and religious views (some religions encourage women to take up household tasks, and typically the husbands are very verbally grateful and esteem their wives for their work). On average, when the childcare, housework, and paid work are added together, men typically work 1 more hour per week than do women which is a significant increase toward equal labor as compared to the past where women typically did more work than men. 6. In years past, through the 1950s, men typically controlled family money and how it was spent. Now that more women earn incomes through employment, has money control become completely equal? How do many men and women differ in the extent to which they control money? No, men still typically control the money in the relationship. Even if the couple has a pooled account that contains both of their earnings, men still use their legitimate power to override their wives’ resource power and typically have veto power over economic decisions. 7. What are “egalitarian unions”? Even today, most couples instead follow the “gender modified egalitarian model.” How is this more common model different from the egalitarian model? “In egalitarian unions partners share equally in the four components of couple power: decision making; division of household labor, particularly housework; money allocation; and ability to raise relationship issues” (308). In this union, each family members’ preferences are acknowledged equally, not primarily the husband’s. “In the gendermodified egalitarian model, absolute equality is diminished by the symbolic importance of maintaining fairly traditional, comfortable, and familiar gender roles…’spouses work together to construct appropriate gender identities and maintain viable marriages’” (308). Lamanna & Riedmann: Ch. 8 “Deciding About Parenthood” (pp. 192218) 8. What is the total fertility rate (TFR)? What is “replacement level”? How has the TFR changed over time in the U.S.? Why were the fertility rates of the late 1940s and 1950s unusual? What is the typical family size preferred in the U.S. today? TFR is the amount of births a typical woman will have in her lifetime. TFR has dropped sharply since the 1950s and has fluctuated in recent years. The TFR rates of the 40s and 50s were unusual compared to today because it was a time that was easier to have families; since then, fuel prices spiking, women focusing on education, the depression, and many other factors contributed to its decline. Replacement level is "the level of fertility necessary for a society to replace its population” (196). TFR below 2.0 means that a society is not reproducing enough to replace itself, so preferred family size is 2 children to replace the two parents. 9. Why do wealthier and better educated families tend to have fewer children? Because, with their increased income and higher education, they are afforded other opportunities that others are not to create a fulfilling life—such as traveling and other activities. 10. What is a “pronatalist bias”? What is “structural antinatalism,” and what are its possible consequences? Pronatalist bias is simply describing the social pressure to have children. Structural antinatalism argues that the U.S. is not structured in such a way that is supportive of parents and their children.11. What is the “value of children perspective”? What are some of the rewards and costs of having kids? What are the “opportunity costs” of having kids, and are they more often felt by mothers or by fathers? Value of children perspective posits that historically children are economic assets. Before the shift to industrial societies, children meant extra hands in the field and extra hands to help around the house. The became more of “economic liabilities” when societies became more industrial. School clothes, food that they didn’t help cultivate, toys, etc. They no longer added to the family but instead costed the family. Opportunity costs are “the economic opportunities for wage earning and investments that parents forgo when raising child” (199). These costs are most often felt by mothers. 12. Why do some people remain voluntarily “childfree” (also called “childlessness”)? How does American society generally view this choice? In what ways are childfree couples often different from couples with children? U.S. has strong, but weakening, childbearing norms that say couples should have at least 2 children as opposed to being childless (in 1990 70% of Americans said couples should have children, 2007 41%). Studies show that childfree couples are generally more satisfied in their relationships, and they typically have higher education and income. Others choose to be childless to reduce overpopulation and damage to the environment. For those who voluntarily choose childlessness, they are just as happy and less stressed than childbearing parents. 13. Why do some people delay childbearing, and how is delaying good/bad? Some women pursue their education and therefore postpone having children. Contraception aids in postponing childbearing as well. Pros to delaying: women and their partners reported that they needed the extra time for personal development and felt that waiting granted them greater maturity for parenthood. Psychiatrists suggest that those who wait have more patience and better parenting skills and even find more joy in their parenthood. Cons to delaying: fertility declines with age for men and women, though more so for women. Older age also leads to a greater possibility of birth defects, abnormalities, low birth weight, learning disabilities, and health problems. Older mothers have higher chances of miscarriages as well. 14. Are “only children” really more spoiled than children who have siblings? What are the advantages and disadvantages of the onechild family? Advantages: studies find that “only children” are more likely to develop strong leadership skills and be more mature, along with better life satisfaction. Parents with one child are more likely to place expectations on their education and to know the child’s friends and the friends’ parents, and save more money for their college education. Parents also say that they had more free time and more enjoyment as parents with one child and were better off financially. Disadvantages: some parents feel that they only have one chance to prove that they are good parents with one child, and fear that the loss of their only child would be much more devastating. For children, they do not have the opportunity to experience sibling relationships, which can provide social and emotional support. They may also feel more pressure from their parents and have no help in caring for their elderly parents. The book literally says nothing about these kids being spoiled, but it does say that studies show there are generally no negative effects to “only children” (which is also weird because right after that, it talks about the disadvantages I just described… I don’t know man.) 15. How have rates of birth to unmarried women changed over time? Why are unwed births an increasing proportion of total births in the U.S.? What are some common characteristics of women who become “single mothers by choice”? From the 40s to the 80s it increased from 45% unmarried women to 18%. Recently, the proportion of unmarried births has increased for the percentage of total births. It is increasing because of changing societal attitudes that have shifted to being more accepting and less discriminatory of unwed births. Most single mothers of choice are older women with education, an established job, and sufficient economic resources. 16. Are birthrates for teen moms rising, falling, or staying the same, compared to the past? Why do people see teenage pregnancy as more of a problem today than it was in the 1950s? They have fallen compared to the past, largely due to the use of contraceptives. They are currently at an alltime low. It rose in the 60’s (not 50’s) because sexuality was liberalized, but it wasn’t identified as a problem until it had already started to decline, so its seen as a huge issue when its actually much lower than it was in the past.17. When was abortion first prohibited in the U.S., and when did it become legal? When during pregnancy do most abortions occur? It was first prohibited in the mid19th century and became legal in 1973 in Roe v. Wade. Usually happens in the second trimester. 18. What is “involuntary infertility”? Why has infertility become a more “visible” issue? What kinds of new concerns have been raised by the availability of reproductive technologies? Involuntary infertility is wanting to bear a child but not being physically able to do so. “Infertility has become more visible because the current tendency to postpone childbearing until one’s thirties or forties helps to create a population of infertile potential parents who are intensely hopeful and financially able to seek treatment” (212). One reproductive technology, ART, fertilizes multiple eggs and sometimes multiple zygotes begin to develop, but they are discarded. Those that oppose abortion and believe that life begins this early would have an issue with this treatment. It is also not as readily available to those with lower incomes, so there is an inequality issue. Another issue is that the advertising of new techniques commercializes reproduction. 19. What are “public adoption” and “private adoption” (also called “independent adoption”)? What makes transracial adoption controversial? Why aren’t some adoptions of older and/or disabled children successful? Public adoptions take place through adoption agencies, private adoptions take place between the adoptive parent(s) and the birth mothers, typically with an attorney as well. Minorities in the U.S. claimed that transracial adoption was “cultural genocide” and could produce identity problems (216). Adopting older and/or disabled children can cause issues, such as older children being emotionally damaged or developing attachment disorder, genetically damaged from drug addicted parents, or psychological damage from physical abuse. Lamanna & Riedmann: Ch. 10 “Work and Family” (pp. 248274) 20. What is “role conflict”? Is role conflict simply a problem an individual may have, or are there broader “macro” or societal causes for such conflict? “Role conflict: meeting the demands of one institution conflict with meeting the simultaneous but different demands of another institution” (250). Such as a mother who needs to be at work but also monitor their teenager’s afterschool behavior. It is the macro level of conflict that results in the individual level of conflict. 21. Do men or women tend to work more hours in the labor force each week? What is the “male provider role” and when and why did this role emerge in the U.S.? What is the difference between “good provider” fathers and “involved fathers”? Why is it often hard to be an “involved” dad? Men do, as they continue to be the primary breadwinners. The male provider role is a role where the family men are expected to provide the resources and emerged in the 1830s. “Good providers” spend more time working than childless men to provide better, while “involved fathers” work less hours than childless men to spend time with their family. Hard to be involved because high powered careers expect a lot of dedication to their work. These men might also face challenges to their masculinity by coworkers or bosses. 22. Why did women enter into the labor force in such high numbers in the 1960s and 1970s? What is occupational segregation? Where is the “wage gap” between men and women the highest—in more elite occupations or in lowerpaid jobs? What is the “motherhood penalty,” and is it declining today? Because around this time, the earnings for men were declining rapidly and women needed to find work to bring in more income. Place, a rising divorce rate made women question being stayathome moms being dependent on husbands’ earnings. Occupational segregation is giving genderspecific jobs to men and women. The gap is greater in elite occupations. The motherhood penalty is the negative lifetime impact on income that motherhood brings onto women, and it is currently not declining. 23. What are some of the more common characteristics of “stayathome” moms? Young, Hispanic, foreignborn, have no more than a high school diploma, and typically a lower household income. Many stayathome moms also follow traditional family structures where the husband is the sole provider either because of religious views or difficulties in finding work (especially for foreignborn individuals). 24. How do careers differ from jobs? Are most twoearner families “twocareer” families? “…careers hold the promise of advancement, are considered important in themselves—not just a source of money—and demand a high degree of commitment” (257). Most twoearner families are not “twocareer” families, because usually the wife or husbands work is not considered a career while the other partner’s is. 25. What are the costs of working parttime and of doing shift work? Parttime: parttime work rarely offers health insurance or job security. It also rarely offers a sufficient salary. Shift work: shift work can cause stress as many shifts are at night, and the schedules frequently change. Shifts can also overlap with leisure time and negatively affect family relationships, leading to marital instability and poorer child behavior. 26. Is homebased working increasing or decreasing? What advantages and disadvantages do people who work at home cite? Does “teleworking” solve the problem of balancing work and family time? It has increased in the past few decades. Advantages of working from home are flexible schedules and privacy, but there are disadvantages as well as mothers have reported being expected to take part in unpaid family work, such as running errands for relatives, and also being interrupted by their children. I typed in “teleworking” in the search bar for the online version of the book, and the word “telework” and “teleworking” is not in the book once. No clue what she wants for that part. However, it does talk about telecommuting. It says that telecommuting does help balance work and family obligations but that it is a doubleedged sword for the reasons stated above. 27. What kinds of unpaid work are done within the family? What is “kin keeping” and who usually does it? Caring for dependent family members and maintaining the family home are 2 examples of unpaid work within the family. Kin keeping is “maintaining contact, remembering anniversaries and birthdays, sending cards, shopping for gifts” and women do it much more than men. 28. How has household labor changed compared to the past? Has men’s contribution to housework changed as women have entered the labor force? Why do women still do more unpaid housework than men, even when they are employed outside the home? Technology has changed household work substantially, and there is much less work being done now than in the past. For example, microwaves, dishwashers, washing machines, vacuums, etc. Yes, men, on average, do more household work now than they did in the past. 4 hypotheses for why women still do more household labor: 1) on average, wives contribute less than half of family income, therefore it could be based on partners’ relative earnings. 2) traditional gender roles and gender still persist and influence marriages. 3) the partner with the most power in the relationship, namely the one who has the most earnings which is typically the husband, can shirk unwanted duties. And 4) the time available to each partner influences the household work, such as men typically working more hours than their wives’ and therefore not having as much time to do housework. 29. Does research suggest that employment among mothers is harming children today or is it helping them? Did the “full time moms” of the past spend all of their time with their children? It helps. Working mothers does not correlate with behavioral issues or developmental problems, but poverty has a very strong correlation to both. Poverty is avoided easier by mothers working. No, they did not spend all of their time with their children. They spent a lot of time housekeeping and doing volunteer work. 30. What social policy problems persist today regarding the workfamily balance? 1) Inadequate family resources – many Americans, even with more than one job, do not make enough money to support a family; especially lower class families. Even middle class families feel economic pressure after a very slow recovery process after the 2007 recession. 2) Parental stress due to workfamily conflict – many parents struggle with higher stress levels which can lead to depression and less effective parenting skills. 3) Persistent gender inequality – women are more likely than men to minimize their work responsibilities in order to give more attention to their parental responsibilities, which can lead to less advancement opportunities and less career opportunities. Occupations with more flexible schedules are what most women opt for so they can make this transition of focusing on their family and these jobs normally pay less money. 31. What changes would help people to cope with the conflicts between work and family life? (See “What’s Needed to Address the Issues?”) 1) Adequate wages – minimum wage is not enough for a family to live off of, even if it were to be increased from the current amount to $9.00. States that have raised their minimum wage have reported that workers are happier and that it did not cost other workers their jobs. 2) Quality, affordable elder and child care – many individuals have the responsibility of caring for their elderly parents and even opt to retire early and deny promotions to be able to better care for them. Others have children to care for, and many dualearning families have to make career sacrifices to ensure that their child is being cared for. Both responsibilities are very expensive. The “sandwich generation” refers to those who have both responsibilities, sandwiched between elder care and child care. 3) Family leave – “involves an employee’s being able to take an extended period of time from work, either paid or unpaid, for the purpose of caring for their own healthy needs or for a newborn, a newly adopted or seriously ill child, or for an elderly parent, with the guarantee of a job upon returning” (270). 4) Flexible scheduling – flexible work schedules, even in high paying companies and careers, would greatly reduce the stress of parents who are worried about child care. Things such as job sharing (two people having the same position), working from home, flextime, compressed workweeks, and personal days are examples (270). 32. How does the U.S. compare to other nations on parental leave and child care policies? “…European countries remain committed to paid family policies…These nations have a more pronatalist and socialwelfare orientation than the United States and view family benefits as a right belonging to all citizens” (271). Some large corporations are initiating childcare centers within their companies and support policies that allow parents to better care for their children, but these policies are not shared amongst other corporations and their clerical workers, such as a KMart cashier. Managers and higher level positions have the most access to these policies as well. 33. What is a “gender strategy” in twoearner marriages? Why do marital conflicts occur in these marriages? Gender strategy: “how a couple allocates paid and unpaid family labor and justifies that allocation… [it is] a way of working through everyday situations that takes into account an individual’s beliefs and deep feelings about gender roles, as well as her or his employment commitments” (272). Many couples experience conflict because one of they are “finding it difficult to manage two careers, housecare, and childcare,” and “middle class couples may decide that the less well paid partner (usually the wife) will leave the labor force, or reduce her hours to parttime” (273).