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UNIVERSITY OF LOUISIANA AT LAFAYETTE / Geology / GEOL 110 / How did Dinosaurs went extinct at the end of the Permian Era?

How did Dinosaurs went extinct at the end of the Permian Era?

How did Dinosaurs went extinct at the end of the Permian Era?


Why aren’t a lot of these dinosaurs?

Where are they most commonly found?

Why did the Lystrosaurus survive?

Travonne Barnhill Elizabeth Boudreaux GEOL 110-001 September 14, 2015 1. After Permian Period and Before the Triassic Period was known as the  Mesozoic Era “the great dying” The Great Dying 2. About 90% of Dinosaurs went extinct at the end of the Permian Era.  3. Less than 5% of marine organisms survived 4. Less than 30% of terrestrial organisms survived We also discuss several other topics like Define what conservative force is.
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5. Trees and other plants died  6. Evidence increased volcanic activity Permian Period  a. Siberian Traps (extensive lava flows) b. Volcanic gases = acid rain, change in global temps, ocean  acidification  c. Ocean Acidification- when the ocean takes on  d. Calcium Carbonate- dissolves easily in acid watere. 1.6 million cubic km of lava f. Covers 337,000 square km of land  7. Decreased levels of oxygen in oceans  a. Marine fossils mainly in shallow water  b. Rocks that form in anoxic environments 8. What survived? a. Amphibians b. Archosaurs- dinosaurs are apart of that series c. Many species groups disappear from the fossil record – the  species we see later were distinctly different Mesozoic Era 1. Emergence of: a. Marine reptiles (NOT true dinosaurs) b. Flying reptiles (not considered part of the groups Saurishia or  Ornithischia) c. Evidence of the first Bird d. Mammals begin to evolve (small, shrew-like) e. Flowering plants 2. Angiosperms vs. Gymnospermsa. Ferns  b. Gymnospers i. Seed-producing plants ii. Conifers, cycads, ginkgos, etc. c. Angiosperms i. Dominant since Cretaceous (90 MYA) d. Transgressions- sea level rise /Regressions- sea level decreases i. Epeiric Seas  ii. Sequences e. Orogenies f. Break up of Pangea i. Gulf of Mexico begins to form  Early Triassic- Recovery 1. Lystrosaurus- survived Permian extinction  2. Fed on ferns that survived 3. Skull structure suggests it was a burrower 4. Roughly the size of a pig Early Triassic- Recovery Lystrosaurus 1. Why did the Lystrosaurus survive?a. Barrel chest= larger lung capacity i. Capable of pulling large amounts of oxygen b. Burrowing= able to spend time underground c. Dens d. Underground food resources e. Rapid growth rate f. Rapid sexual maturity g. Life span unknown h. First evolved about 270 MYA i. Lived until the Triassic Extinction September 16, 2016 2. Single most common vertebrate on land during early Triassic a. Great ability to adapt and evolve  b. Preceded dinosaurs 3. Small- to medium-sized, mammal-like reptiles dominated the Triassic  4. These disappear near the end of the Triassic 5. After this, reptiles continue to evolve and grow in size Other Survivors 1. Proterosuchidsa. Early Archosaur b. Crocodile-like reptile 2. Euparkeris a. An Archosaur b. Back limbs were slightly height i. Facultative biped ii. Normally moved like a crocodile c. Eye structure suggests it was nocturnal 3. Hyperdapedon a. Reptile b. Tusk-like beaks i. Powerfile teeth and jaws  ii. Herbivore c. About 4-6ft in length d. Fed on seesed ferns 4. Aphaneramma a. An amphibian b. Alligator- or crocodile-like c. About 7ft. in length 5. Thrinaxodona. A therapsid (ancestor to mammamls) i. Had many reptile featurtes b. Carnivore c. Burrower d. Fairly small: 1-1.5 ft. long Early Dinosaurs 1. Archosaurs a. Diapsid amniotes b. Includes dinosaurs, pterosaurs, and extinct crocodilian relatives c. Living relatives: birds, crocodiles 2. Quickly became dominant species after the Permian Extinction a. Dry environment b. Reptile characteristics 3. Dinosauriformes a. Clades of archosaurian reptiles b. Includes dinosaurs 4. Characterized by shortened forelimbs and hip structure 5. Nayasaurus a. As of now, earliest lknown dinosaur ancestor: Nyasaurusb. Only partial skeletons have been discovered c. About the size of a Chocolate Lab d. About 7-10 ft long  6. Asilisaurus (“ancestor lizard”) a. One of the oldest knowns animals on the dinosaur/pterosaur  side of the archosaurian tree b. 6ft. long c. Mid-triassic 7. Herrerasaurus a. Bipedal carnivore b. Resembled a smaller version of T-Rex c. 10-20 ft. long d. mid-to Late-Triassic 8. Eoraptor a. Bipedal b. Omnivore (teeth variability) c. Small, fast Mid- to Late Triassic 1. Evolutionary burst- “Triassic Turnover””2. Reptiles (including dinosaurs) gre larger and more varied a. Superior adaptations: speed, large teeth 3. World no longer in recovery from Permian Extinction September 21, 2016 Staurikosaurs a. Carnivore b. 6ft long c. Jawstructure: up and down movements, backward and forward  movemebt d. To get maximum nutrition from limited meals 4. Rauisuchids a. Predator i. Fast, agile hunters b. 25 ft long, head: 2 ft long c. Reptile, but not a true dinosaur 5. Saurisuchus a. Typr of Rauisuchids b. 25 ft long c. Quadruped6. Pseudosuchuans a. Thrived during mid- to late- Triassic b. Often had armor c. Aemi-acquatic d. Became top predators 7. Phytosaurs a. Armed; long, toothy snouts b. Nostrils closer to their eyes c. Largest terrestrial Triassic Predators Pseudocuhians Phytisaurs 1. Where are they most commonly found? Petrified Forest National Park 1. Upper (late) Triassic-aged rocks a. Floodpain environment- periodic floods. Left over would have  rivers and streams b. Phytosaurus most common terrestrial fossil Pseudosuchians 1. Aetosaurs a. Heavily armored (almost like an armadillo) b. Body of crocodile, snout of a pigc. 10 ft long d. primarily herbivores i. digging, and rooting 2. Redondasaurs a. Largest type of phytosaur b. Lived in North America c. 5ft tall Marine Reptiles 1. Terresterial reptiles returned to the water  a. Early species came on land to lay eggs b. Later: gave birth to live young (no eggs) c. One group kept knee joints and more flexible vertebral column;  other: more adapted for water 2. Placodonts a. 3 – 10 ft long b. ate mollusks – large, flat, protruding, teeth c. Early species: size protected, them later bony plates d. May have spent time on land awkward 3. Nothosaurus a. Lived on land and seai. Probably laid eggs on land b. Lived simiarily to todays seals 4. Pistosaurs a. 10 ft long b. similar to nosthosaurs ans plesiosaurs c. mostly stayed in water 5. Plesiosaurs a. Bread, flat body, 4 slippers: shorter taol  b. Breather air, live young 6. Ichthyosaur a. One of the first species to be fully acquatic b. Dolphin like c. Streamlined predators, fast d. Breathed air; live younf e. Dominant in oceans by Mid-triassic f. Anywhere from 3-50ft long Why aren’t a lot of these dinosaurs? 1. The term “dinosaur” is restricted to those land-dwelling organisms in  the groups Saurischia and Ornithischia  2.3. Dinosaurs (an pterosaurs) are more closely related to birds than  crocodiles What makes an dinosaur a dinosaur? 1. Early Archosaurs: a. Ankle bone could rotate, foot sprawled outwards 2. Early Orinthodirans: a. Ankle Bone is hinge-like, body moved over the foot b. Hind limbs are considerably larger than forelimbs c. Neck is longer and S-shaped, holding the head higher than the  backbone 3. Orinthodirans: “bird neck” a. Includes pterosaurs and dinosaurs (found dinosauromophs) 4. Dinosauromorphs: includes dinosaurs and some dinosaur-like reptiles a. More closely related to the dinosaurs than the pterosaurs are b. Features: fewer segments along the vertebral column: more  robust shoulder girdles; relatively small 5. Dinosaurs Features: a. Jaw muscles extend onto the roof of the skull b. Large muscle ridge on the humerous  c. Well-developed processes at the hip, knee, and ankle6. So- dinosaurs are dinosauromorphs, they are orinthodirans, they are  archosaurs, they are diapsids, reptiles, amniotes, vertebrates, ETC! 7. Dinosaurs are divided into two groups: Saurischia and Ornithischia a. These groups appeared during the LATE Triassic Late Triassic Pterosaurs 1. Earliest vertebrates known to fly 2. Ancestry is poorly understood- what did they evolve from?? 3. Became more diverse in the Jurassic and Crestaceous Periods a. Diverse in Triassic – BUT – only 32 confirmed pterosaur fossils  from Tirassic-aged rocks(rxs) 4. Distinguished features a. Wings, elongated 4th finger b. Vertebrae and long bones often holloe c. Large sternum – attached of flight muscles d. Legs very short compared to wings e. Some evidence(hair, etc) suggests pterosaurs were warm-blooded f. Earliest vertebrates known to fly 5. Scleromochlus a. Most primitive known member of pterosaur lineage b. Fast – running, terrestrial – may have hopped6. Eudimorphodon 7. Oldest flying pterosaur a. Wings: elongation of 4th finger that supported a flap skin (very  different form structure of a bird wing) b. Wingspan = 3ft  8. Peteinosaurus 9. On of the oldest flying pterosaurs a. Wingspan = 2ft, weighted less than a blackbird b. Insectivore, conical(cone shaped) teeth 10. Preondactylus a. Short wing span (18in) long legs b. One of teo fossils that been found were in a fish pellet 11. Austriadactylus a. Wingspan = 4ft largest Triassic pterosaur b. Teeth suggest varied diet  c. Crested unusal

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