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UWM / History / ARTHIST 101 / What is toga in rome?

What is toga in rome?

What is toga in rome?


School: University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee
Department: History
Course: Ancient and Medieval Art and Arch
Professor: Richard leson
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Art History, Art, Histroy, uwmilwaukee, Studyguide, and Exam 2
Cost: 50
Name: ARTHIST 101 Study Guide
Description: this is a study guide that covers every monument and term you need to know for the second exam.
Uploaded: 11/10/2016
8 Pages 123 Views 3 Unlocks


What is toga in rome?


Note: bolded words are important vocab terms and highlighted things are names of monuments

Greek Art: Late Classical Period ca: 4th Century BCE 

∙ Classical period statues were 6 ½ heads tall

∙ Late classical period statues were 8 heads tall  

∙ Praxitiles. Aphrodite of Knidos. Roman copy of a marble statue. Ca. 350-340 BCE. Greek/ Late  Classical 

o First nude statue

o Leans forward in seductive pose

o Covering privates to be "humble" and mysterious in a way

o Drapery shows artists' ability to do different textures.

What cuirass mean?

o Was so realistic and lifelike it was said that visitors wanted to make love to it ∙ Lysippos. Apoxyomenos (Scraper). Roman Copy of a bronze statue. Ca. 330 BCE. Greek/Late  Classical 

o Athlete scrapping dirt off of body

o Right arm extended forward, breaks out of usual rectangular boundaries of earlier  statues

o Is meant to be seen in the round (able to walk around the object and see different views  of the figure)

o Naturalistic style- careful attention to details to make the figure as realistic as possible o Contrapposto in stance, swaying figure

∙ Anecdotal Moment- specific moment in someone's life showing emotion  

What triumphal arch mean?

Hellenistic Period: late 4th century to 30 BCE 

∙ Hellenistic will be marked by powerfully expressive and emotional qualities of sculpture, interest  in realism- takes aspects of how things actually appear and exaggerates them. Don't forget about the age old question of What makes a terrorist?

∙ Corinthian- third Greek order (Doric, Ionic, Corinthian)

∙ Epigonos? Dying Gaul. Roman Copy of a bronze statue from Pergamon, Turkey. Ca. 230-220 BCE.  Greek/ Late Classical 

o Represents enemies of Greeks

o Stares at ground with pain expression

o Laid out in pain, rope tied around his next and wounds visible

o Bulged veins in leg, showing that the man was powerful

o Pergameme Style- designed to get emotional reaction from viewer

∙ Philoxenos of Eretria. "The Battle of Issus (Alexander Mosaic)" Roman copy of Greek Hellenistic  painting ca. 310 BCE. Greek/ Late classical We also discuss several other topics like What are some examples of small molecule neurotransmitters and what are they typically made from?

o Battle between the armies of Alexander the Great and the Achaemenid Persian King  Darius III

∙ Nike of Samothrace ca. 190 BCE Greek/ Late Classical 

o Winged female figure

o Intricate detail in wings

o Ability to transition from smooth human skin to drapery

o Drapery hugs the figure almost as if it was transparent wet cloth

Roman Art: The Republic, Early Empire 

Republican period: 509-27 BCE 

∙ Roman art is an art of syncretism- combination of different beliefs and practices ∙ Hellenistic realism inspires taste for verism- true to natural appearance; super-realistic ∙ Man with portrait busts of his ancestors, Rome, Italy. Late first century BCE. Marble. Roman o Importance of genealogy We also discuss several other topics like What does osmosis mean?
We also discuss several other topics like What are the steps in the diffusion process?

o Busts of father and grandfather

o Toga- badge of Roman citizenship

o In reality, the busts were most likely not made of marble because they would've been to  heavy to hold

o Drapery shows artistic skill, cloth clings to body

o Blank facial expressions

The Early Empire: 27 BCE- 98 CE 

∙ Portrait of Augustus as general, from Primaporta, Italy. Early-1st century. Copy of a bronze  original ca. 20 BCE. Roman. 

o Cuirass- leather breastplate

o Body resembles a strong, younger male

▪ Eternally youthful If you want to learn more check out What does hypertonic solution refer to?

o Finger pointing up is a political power pose,  

▪ pointing to the gods, a pose known as the oration pose

▪ Visual tradition for senators

▪ Combining visual traditions is called syncretism

o Augustus was the first Emperor

o First roman to prop himself as a god

o Similar to the statue of the spear barer

o Cupid shows family history; claiming goddess Aphrodite as mother/ family member,  meaning that Augustus is a god If you want to learn more check out What are the theories of public opinion?

∙ West façade of the Ara Pacis Augustae (Altar of Augustan Peace). Rome 13-9 BCE. Roman. o Celebrates the emperors most important achievement, the establishment of peace. o Figural reliefs in marble precinct walls

o Four pediments on east and west ends depict mythological subjects, including a relief of  Aeneas making sacrifice

o Aeneas was son of Venus and one of Augustus' forefathers.

o Depicts family to show is genealogy

o Relief sculptures of Goddess of the earth surrounded by wildlife, animals, and babies ▪ Balanceful harvest and having children

▪ Shows prosperity

o Low and high relief sculpture

o Corinthian columns  

∙ Arc of Titus, Rome. After 81 CE. Roman. 

o Built by Domitian, leads to Roman Forum to honor his brother, emperor of Titus who  became a God after he died

o Triumphal Arch- a freestanding arch commemorating an important event

▪ depicts a victory in a battle abroad

▪ Depicts rituals

▪ Titus is displayed controlling chaos; for example he's depicted as controlling 4  horses with only one hand

o Reminder of leaders political power, and a message to people of the military abilities o Commemorated vary of events, ranging from victories won abroad to the building of  new roads and bridges at home.

o Roman Composite Capitals, an ornate combo of Ionic volutes and Corinthian acanthus  leaves

o Barrel vault- high and low reliefs within barrel vault depict the commemoration of  victories in the Holy Land (Israel), Roman army destroyed the spot where the Jews  believed the temple of solemn was located.  

▪ Inside, image of Titus is on the back of an eagle (Zeus/Jupiter) being carried up  to the gods as a symbol that he's been accepted as a god

∙ Emperor Vespasian (r. 69-79 CE)

o Father of Titus

o Builder of the Colosseum

o Wanted to send a message to the people of Roman life

o Wanted to improve relationships between emperor and public

∙ Detail of the façade of the Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheater) Rome, Italy ca. 70-80 BCE Roman o Built on top of artificial lake that Nero built for his own pleasure

o Called "Flavian" from Flavian empire/ dynasty

o Sat 65,000 people, circumference is 1/3 of a mile, 45,000 meters of marble o Lower 3 registers are decorated with Greek orders

▪ First level has doric columns

▪ Second level has ionic

▪ Third level has corinthian

o Roman's had appreciation of Greek culture and architecture

o 80 entrances divided up and assigned to by social class

The High Empire: 98-192 CE 

∙ Emperor Trajan (r. 98-117 CE)

o Emperor during the golden age?

o His rein marks the period of the High Roman Empire

o Built baths for public, to bathe and socialize, involved plumbing by running water from  another town

∙ Column of Trajan, Forum of Trajan, Rome. Dedicated 112 CE. Roman. 

o 128 ft tall

o When economic prosperity reaches a high point

o Located in the city of Dacia?

o Serves as Trajan's tomb

o Spiral frieze

o Relief sculpture wraps around entire frieze all the way to the top

o Illusionistic approach to sculpture, figures in foreground are in high relief, figures in  background are in low relief

o Continuous Narrative

∙ Emperor Hadrian (r. 117-138 CE)

o Ruler of roman empire after Trajan

o His facial hair is different from other emperors, he sets a style for men to wear a beard  during this time

o Was interested in classical Greek culture

o Was barely in Rome because he traveled to learn different cultures

∙ Pantheon, Rome. 118-125 CE. Roman. 

o Associated with Hadrian

o Pantheos means "all of the gods," meaning this building was dedicated to all gods o Combines classical porch with enormous cylinder (Rotunda) with a dome formally  covered in bronze  

o Archimedes- the architect that was aware of the math within structures

o Interior: a sphere set within a cylinder or drum

▪ Oculus- an open hole in the center of the building/ceiling. Helps illuminate the  inside of the building

▪ Has a set of 5 registers or rings, each has a square called coffers, where the  golden stars would've been

∙ Peristyle- sqaure/ rectangular space

∙ Atrium- a social space in house but is open to the outdoors

∙ Dionisiac mystery frieze, second style wall paintings in the Villa of Mysteries. Pompeii, Italy. Ca.  60-50 BCE Roman. 

o Was called villa of mysteries because of the subject matter in mural

o Depicts secret ritual , the initiation right into a cult or religion dedicated to Dionysos  (god of wine)

o Shows an erotic scene, no men present, mainly women

o Winged figure on the right hold a whip, hitting nude woman bent over someone's knee  with another woman watching

o Illusionism- shows bodies in front of other bodies, this shows depth and space Late Roman Empire (after 192 CE) 

∙ Diocletian (r. 284-305 CE), persecutor of Christian people

∙ Tetrarchy- rule of four. Two rulers were senior rulers called Augusti, backed up by two junior  rulers called the Caesars, who would become senior rulers when the current seniors "retire" ∙ Portrait of the four tetrarchs, from Constantinople (now in Venice). Ca. 300 CE Roman. o All looked worried, holding on to each other

o Seniors looked aged with beards

o Made out of porphrey, a hard medium to work with

o Blocky geometric approach to form in statue

∙ Colossal Head of Constantine from Basilica Nova, Rome. Ca. 315-330 CE 

o Large scale proportion of eyes compared to the rest of the face

o Exaggerated open-eyes are similar to the Statuettes of Worshipers from Iraq ca. 2700  BCE. Suggesting that their eyes are watching/protecting.

o Next to head is a colossal hand pointing up, oration pose

What does a statue of a person accomplish for you when the person is no longer living? ▪ Can represent an ideal for which that person stood for; ex: statue of Abe Lincoln  represents the freedom he brought  

∙ Arch of Constantine, Rome. Ca. 312-315 CE. Roman. 

o Builders of this structure took pieces from other monuments and put them on the arch,  known as Spolia

o Located in the middle of ancient Rome

o Only Roman monument that doesn’t commemorate a victory won abroad, but a victory  in Rome

o Details from frieze:  

▪ Hadrianic Roundels (117-138) on the top, made by Hadrian

▪ Adlocutio of Constantine, on bottom, Constantine speaks from the rostrum in  Roman forum, rectangular relief that was made during Constantine's life.

▪ Spolia- actual elements deliberately removed from other monuments and  

incorporated into a new one to create shape or meaning

o Difference between the styles of these details:

▪ Proportions of figures are smaller on rectangular relief, they're more  

compressed and dwarf looking

▪ The Roundels are more naturalistically proportioned, includes illusionism

Early Christian 

∙ Restored cutaway view of the Christian community house, Dura-Europos, Syria ca. 240-256 CE.  Early Christian 

o House Church- earliest type of building for Christian rights

o Modest space for meetings, communal meal (Eucharist)

o Includes atrium, open courtyard surrounded by different chambers or rooms o Was at the bottom of the house because Christianity wasn't legal until ca. 313 CE o Had a wall painting in baptistery room. Where someone could be ritually admitted to the religion

o Details of Baptismal Font Lunette:

▪ Painting depicts the "good shepherd," Jesus, carrying a sheep with flock of  

sheep around him.

▪ Typology- Christian theological framework in which Old Testament events or  statements are "types" pre-figuring an aspect of Christ and his revelation, who is  "anti-type" to each type.

▪ At the bottom of the painting are two naked people, referring to Adam and Eve. ▪ Old testament (type)- Adam, original sinner

▪ New testament (antitype)- Christ, the good shepherd

▪ This is called visual typology

∙ Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus, Rome, Italy. Ca. 359 CE. Early Christian.

o Top: Sacrifice of Isaac, Arrest of Peter, Traditio Legis, Christ before Pontius Pilate (in  order)

▪ Separated in 4 sections on top and bottom to depict different biblical stories? o Bottom: Job, Adam and Eve, Entry into Jerusalem, Daniel & Lions, Arrest of Paul o Marble sarcophagus

o Traditio Legis- transfer of the law

∙ Plan of Old St. Peter's, Rome, Italy. Begun ca. 319 CE. Early Christian 

o Appropriation of Roman Basilica form

o The basilica form was for different purposes than Roman Basilicas

o Nave- center opened hall of building

o Aisles- on each side of the Nave

o Courtyard/ atrium- open area outside that is connected to rooms/ chambers of the  building where a fountain would have been placed where you'd initially wash yourself o Transept- a hall/opening (at a 45 degree angle) leading to the baptistery and martyrium.  The transept is a crossing of the building, forms a cross in the buildings floor plan o Apse- where a high altar or statue of worship would be

o Martyrium- where someone was put to death, a commemorative space

▪ The martyrium idea comes from ancient Rome and Greece

▪ Similar structure seen in Theodoros, Sanctuary of Athena 400 BCE

▪ Another idea comes from the Mausoleum

∙ Santa Costanza, ROme, Itlay. Ca. 337-352 CE. Early Christian 

o A mausoleum for emperor's daughter, Constantina

o Details of sarcophagus have small cupids playing with grapevines, grapevines relate to  wine of the mass or the blood of Christ

o Ambulatory- vaulted circular passageway

o 12 double columns surrounding ambulatory space

o Rotunda or Dome- rounded at the top  


∙ Christ as Good Shepherd, mosaic from the entrance wall of the Mausoleum of Galla Placidia,  Ravenna, Italy. Ca.425 CE. Early Christian 

o Mosaic- images made from tiny, colored, cut glass called tesserae

o Byzantine art is known for mosaic art

o Shepherd is wearing imperial clothing, blue stripes, gold halo, and purple as a sign of  imperial power, and holding a cross as a sign of power and victory over death;  

identifying as Christ  

o Sheep represents us, the people; Chis is taking care of the sheep (us)

Early Byzantine Period: 5th century- 726 CE 

∙ Aerial View of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy. 526-547 CE. Byzantine. 

o It's central plan indicates that it's for one of these three functions, that someone of  great importance is put to rest

▪ Baptistry  

▪ Martyrium

▪ Mausoleum

o Octagonal shaped, projected apse.

∙ Justinian, Bishop Maximianus, and attendants, mosaics on the north wall of the apse, San Vitale,  Ravenna Italy. Ca 547 CE. Byzantine 

o Altar by mosaics

o There isn't a hierarchic scale between emperor and others

o Justinian is the only one with a gold halo and different colored robe which depicts his  importance

o He's holding a paten (bread), the liturgical/ ritual object

o Attendants holding a gospel book

o Soldiers have a shield with the Chi Rho symbol

∙ Anthemius of Trales and Isidorus of Miletus. Hagia Sophia, Constantinople. 532-37 CE.  Byzantine. 

o Anthemius and Isidorus are the architects

o Was the tallest building due to its dome but collapsed multiple times from earth quakes  and the structure was too heavy

o Dome has since been replaced in the 1300s

o Windows along the entire base of the dome, sunlight shines through each window for  the effect of illuminous space

o Naos- the space beneath the dome that is elongated by semidomes (conch domes) o Pendentives- triangular masonry sections that fill spaces between arches, these help the  half sphere distribute weight down to the base

o Exedra- small domes within conch domes

∙ Icon- Greek word for "image"  

∙ Most important Byzantine icon type: Christ Pantokrator: "all powerful" or "almighty" Christ  ∙ Christ blessing [Sinai Pantokrator] Mount Sinai, sixth century CE 

∙ Encaustic portraits, similar to Roman Egyptian mummy paintings  

∙ Encaustic- heated beeswax mixed with pigments, painted in a naturalistic way for mummy  to be recognizable  

∙ Icon can refer to an image of any sacred context or holy person in monumental form  ∙ How did they know what Christ looked like?

∙ They didn't, grafted iconographic traits  

∙ The painters would tell you that the images were made from life  

∙ Icon is not an idol, it’s a representation of the actual appearance of that person  made from life  

∙ First icon painter was said to be St. Luke, one of the gospels, was said to have  painted the Virgin and Child from life  

∙ Detail of the Pantokrator in the dome of the Church of the Dormition, Daphni, Greece. Ca. 1090- 1100 CE 

∙ Mosaic in the dome of a church  

∙ Holding gospel book  

∙ Recreated image of Christ  

∙ Icon of Christ Pantokrator, 16th century, Greek, UWM art history collection  

∙ Virgin (Theotokos) and Child between Saints Theodore and George, icon 6th or 7th century.  Monastery of Saint Catherine, Mount Sinai, Egypt. Byzantine.

∙ Panel painting icon in encaustic  

∙ Type of iconography of the Virgin and Theotokos (bearer of God)  

∙ Nestorian Heiracy- Christ could not have been both God and man in one being  ∙ It was believed that Christ was the in the flesh presence of God  

∙ Nestor didn't believe that  

∙ Council of Ephesus in 431 CE discussed term Theotokos,  

∙ Intercessor- somebody who goes between two people and brings a message for one  person to another

∙ Iconoclasm- the destruction of images (Greek for "image breaking")

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