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philosophy 1000

philosophy 1000

Description

School: University of Missouri - Columbia
Department: Philosophy
Course: General Introduction to Philosophy
Professor: Matthew mcgrath
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: philosophy
Cost: 50
Name: Philosophy 1000 Exam 2 - Study Guide
Description: This is a comprehensive study guide - it is VERY in-depth. If you have ANY questions are need a better explanation my email is: gtsb8d@mail.missouri.edu and I will be more than happy to help. Thanks and good luck!
Uploaded: 11/10/2016
11 Pages 134 Views 0 Unlocks
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Basic concepts to know 1) The three divine attributes:  - Omniscient – all knowing - Omnipotent – all powerful - Omnibenevolent – all good 2)Anselm’s definition of God as the greatest  conceivable being. - Comes from his Ontological Argument o Things can in the mind as an idea and usually  (always according the Anselm) reality is much  better than the idea. 3) Anselm’s claim that things may exist in the  mind or in reality or both. - This argument is simple… - Basically o Something can exist in your mind as an idea o Something can truly exist in the real world –  something tangible  o Something can exist in BOTH  4) Proofs vs. inductive arguments. - Proof o If the premises were true, it would guarantee  the conclusion (in NO way could it be false - Inductive o Doesn’t show an absolute truth – if something IS  true, there is good reason  5) Moral vs. natural evil. - Moral evils: evils created by humans o Murder, adultery, etc.  - Natural evils: evils NOT created by humans o Tsunamis, tornadoes, etc. 6) What is inference to the best explanation? - You look at many different hypothesis and choose the  hypothesis that makes the most sense – the one that  gives you the best possible answer for the situation7) What is an evolutionary adaptation? - Any adaption that helps an organism to survive and  reproduce  - WOO HOO! An actual science question… 8) What is fine-tuning? - Unlike most arguments from design, it does not face  competition from evolutionary theories  - Basic version of the argument: o The natural constants are finely tuned for life;  had they been different, life would have been  impossible; the best explanation of this tuning is  that God exists and tuned them. Thus, very likely God exists o The constants of nature are in a very narrow  range o Evolution can support God’s existence…  - 9)Elements of decision theory: actions, states,  outcomes, utilities. - Actions: these are the options available to you  - States: ways the world might be which have a bearing  on the outcomes of your actions - Outcomes: results from performing actions in various  states - Utility: the value you assign to outcomes  10) What is expected utility? What is the  expected utility theory of rationality? - To find the expected utility of an act we weigh the  outcomes in the various states by the probability of the states - According to this theory, it is rational to do the act that has the highest expected utility of all the available  options 11) What is dominance? What is strict  dominance? - Here is a matrix

Lasagna Fish White Wine 5 25 Red Wine 20 15


6) What is inference to the best explanation?



If you want to learn more check out what coding scheme is used by most microcomputers

- What are the stakes? o Neither is dominant…  - What if the matrix changes?

Lasagna Fish White Wine 25 25 Red Wine 20 15

- This is STRICK dominance - if Red wine and fish were 25… it would be WEAK  dominance  12)What is Clifford’s Principle? - “it is wrong everywhere and always to believe anything  upon insufficient evidence”  o believing on the basis of faith is wrong because it  doesn’t give evidence  THE ARGUMENT: - 1. For every belief, however seemingly trivial, there  might very well be an important effect on someone  o Basically: he’s saying you never truly know  about an action until it happens - 2. If a belief might have an important effect on  someone, then it is wrong to hold the belief except  on sufficient evidence  - 3. Therefore: a belief is wrong unless held upon  sufficient evidence Examples to know and to understand (Know what the point of the examples is in each case) 1.The perfect island example. - Don’t we have an idea of the greatest conceivable island? - If it only exists in the mind, wouldn’t there be a greater  conceivable island which did exist in reality? - So the greatest conceivable island exists in reality! (this  is FALSE)  2.Paley’s watch example: finding the watch vs. a  stone (this example is lengthy) - When we come to inspect the watch, we perceive – what  we could not discover in the stone – that its several parts  are framed and put together for a purpose. E.g. that they  are so formed and adjusted as to produce motion, and  that motion so regulated as to point out the hour of the  day o A watch has designs; therefore, we would assume  that someone designed the watch o Extension: what if the watch could reproduce?  o What if we had never seen a watch made? - Objection to Paley o We had to find something. Whatever we found would have some internal structure, which could serve  some purpose. So, there’s nothing that needs to be  explained in the case of the watch.  o What’s this mean: our foot would always be in front  of SOMETHING. Everything has a structure and  everything serves a purpose…  o Does this objection succeed against Paley?  A watch only has one purpose. A rock could  have many, so where does this leave us?  We already know that a watch is manmade.  Paley should have chosen an unidentifiable  object that could serve a purpose and was  manmade that showed all the signs of design  3.Rowe’s example of the fawn trapped by the  fallen tree. - This example is that a fawn suffers an awful death from a  fallen tree – it introduces us to the topic of Natural Evil  (discussed in part one) and free will - God gives us the ability to have free will – to make our  own choices 4.The Cain and Abel story in Stump. - Follows the discussion of free will - Cain kills Abel over jealousy that the Lord favors Abel  - Stump says Abel was not in harm’s way, but rather Cain  was because his union with God was severed. After his  act and God’s punishment, Cain finds a “humbling  recognition of himself as evil” and desires to be in a  better “state” o As in – union with God  5.The alphabet tile example. - If the tiles spelled out something significant, we would  find an explanation for it - If the tiles spelled out nonsense, we would ignore it o We think of this in terms of reason as to why we  have life 6.The ship owner example from Clifford. - A man owns a ship that many have said is unfit for sea  voyage. The ship owner ignores the other people’s  concern and let’s several people take the ship out to sea.  As claimed – the ship was unfit and the people on board  died. Clifford says the deaths are the ship owner’s fault  because he did not have sufficient evidence to believe that his ship was sound. He DID, however, have reason to  believe it was unworthy of sea voyage. Arguments to know and  understand Enjoy the Christmas Theme  (as break is soon approaching!!) The ontological argument - 1. We have an idea of God as the greatest conceivable  being - 2. So, God exists at least as an idea in the mind (1) - 3. If a being exists only in the mind and not also in  reality, then there is a greater conceivable being that  exists in both the mind and reality - 4. But there is no greater conceivable being than God - 5. So, God exists in reality and not only in the mind  (2,3,4) Just understand the functions of the argument –  don’t memorize it  1.The cosmological argument. (Again, no  memorization necessary but understand its  workings). - “causes” o some things are caused o things in the natural world can’t cause  themselves o the chain of causation cannot continue infinitely,  it must come to an end o God must be the creator of cause  2.Paley’s design argument - Aquinas’s fifth way o Basic Argument: many things in nature are very  well-suited to certain useful purposes; the best  explanation of their being adapted is that they were designed by God for those purposes; thus,  (very likely) God exists  3.The argument from evil.  - Basically: There is unnecessary evil. This existence  makes the existence of God incompatible. So, God  doesn’t exist.  4.The fine-tuning argument. Know the basic form given on my slides. - Basic version of the argument: o The natural constants are finely tuned for life;  had they been different, life would have been  impossible; the best explanation of this tuning is  that God exists and tuned them. Thus, very likely God exists  The constants of nature are in a very narrow  range  Evolution can support God’s existence…  5.Know how the fine-tuning argument improves  on Paley’s design argument. - Paley’s design argument could be faulted by evolution.  The fine-tuning one is nearly supported by evolution  (therefore not falsifying it)  6. Know Stump’s reply to the problem of evil. (There are  several parts: the greatest good is union with God,  greatest evil separation from god; we are fallen, and  the only way to get us to the greatest good is to enable us to will God to fix our wills; this requires our  recognition that we need help and our desire for God  to help us; evil is necessary in order to help us achieve this recognition and desire.) - Stump’s big argument is that of Free Will. In this, she  says God gives us the ability to choose. Since Adam  (the first man created by God) ate from the tree of  knowledge, humans have fallen from the grace of God – as in, we are imperfect. We tend to lean to our “dark” side rather than the side of the Lord.  - She also speaks about the REASONS for so called  “unnecessary evil” (Stump says, on the contrary, these  evils ARE necessary and that they aren’t really evils) o Acting on evil whims makes us reflect on the  “transience of temporal goods and turn us to  other worldly goods”  7.Why might the multiverse hypothesis spoil the  fine-tuning argument?  - What is it: our universe is just one among an infinite  number where all possible natural laws could/can  exist…but we exist only on earth  - What does it due to the fine tuning argument: o The laws of nature work perfectly to sustain life  here. What’s the explanation of this factor – that  God exists and created the conditions for life.  The multiverse hypothesis comes in because  maybe our universe allowing life is like the  example of the woman winning the lottery –  SOMEONE had to win the lottery…   It would only make sense that SOME  universe would support life (some universe  had to win the lottery) So, supporting life  isn’t that significant (what?) – BASICALLY –  it doesn’t need explaining  If you believe this hypothesis, there is reason to doubt the fine tuning argument 8.In the lecture on Pascal there are 2 wager  arguments. The first is a dominance argument,  the second is an expected utility argument.  Have a sense of how it goes, and under what  conditions it succeeds. - Dominance and Utility correlate. Basically, you can  make a chart as follows

“X” “Y”


7) What is an evolutionary adaptation?



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1 3 8 2 5 10

- In this table, you insert X and Y as the values you’re  testing.  - Next, on the right, you insert variable 1 and 2.  - Here, we are determining X and Y’s expected utility  (which has a better outcome) - The numbers 3, 8, 5, and 10 are the outcomes of each  “reaction” so to say (I couldn’t think of a better term) - Let’s say the it is a 1-10 scale and 1 is the “better” end  of an outcome - We see that X paired with 1 gives us the BEST utility  out of any other combination (X and 2, Y and 1, Y and  2) - Therefore, X paired with 1 expresses dominance 9.What is Clifford’s response to the claim that we shouldn’t criticize beliefs but only actions? - Clifford’s argument is actually directly contrary to this. - He says NOT ONLY should we criticize people for their actions, but we should also criticize them for their  beliefs Things to know how to do 1.Calculate expected utility given decision  matrices and probabilities of the states. - Bringing back the last utility chart…

“X” “Y” 1 3 8 2 5 10


8) What is fine-tuning?



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- how to solve: o Expected Utility of 1= 3 (times the chances of  this happening ~ ¼) + 8 (times the chances of  an outcome can happen ~ ¼) o Expected Utiltiy of 2 = 5 (times the chances of this happening ~ ¼) + 10 (times the chances of  an outcome can happen ~ ¼)  This helps you find the utility with the  best outcome 2.Complete gaps in arguments to make them  valid. - This isn’t something I can outline for you, but this is  sort of cumulative from Day 1 of this class and you  should be able to handle it. Hope this Study Guide helps and good luck!  ~ Gabbie
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