Popular in Epidemics in History
Popular in History
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Helen Shymanski on Monday April 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HIST-H 333 at Indiana University taught by Maglen in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 82 views. For similar materials see Epidemics in History in History at Indiana University.
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Date Created: 04/06/15
Study Guide for HISTH 333 Getz Faye Marie History is like a novel should make sense 0 Why do we reason that all things must happen for the good 0 Example quotEven thouoh 55 million died Black Death Wiped out Eurooe had a Good Sidequot or quotWas It Reallv That Badquot 0 Orquotthe realization of the population reducing from 75 million to 20 million Interest in the Black Death seems perennial Romantic view of Black Death propagating Europe into the Renaissance is still present in epidemiology today Gothic Interpretation 0 Themes of teleology the explanation of phenomena by the purpose they serve rather than by postulated causes or the doctrine of design and purpose in the material world individual heroism abrupt change death and dialectic between opposing forces The annalistes nd in the plague continuity the ordinary gradual change and the collective experience of large groups of everyday people Black Death throws light on many of the unspoken assumptions of historical and scienti c writing Medieval Accounts of Plague o 4 Horsemen of the Apocalypse Pestilence War Famine Death 0 Some thought the Black Death was the quotday of the Lordquot return of Christ 0 Natural disturbances said by medieval people to have accompanied plague included a rise in miscarriages caused by women39s peculiar sensitivity to corrupt air frogs mad dogs badgers crop failures animal disease and insects Plague came from Asia Minor 0 1346 street ght between Tartar soldiers and Genoese merchants caused Genoese to retreat behind wall 0 Biochemical warfare effectively started when the Tartar s catapulted their dead over the wall in hopes of spreading the new disease Disease was both sudden and unexplainable Social norms were cast aside 0 Did not ful ll social roles of sibling spouse parent etc 0 Proper mourning and burial customs were not observed quotPeople cared no more for dead men than we care for dead goatsquot Between March and July more than 100000 died within the walls of Florence Paris philosophy 0 Terrestrial and celestial signs to determine why plague had attacked when it did o Celestial cause came from a conjunction of Saturn Jupiter and Mars under the moist sign of Aquarius 1345 following both solar and lunar echse Epidemics stressed the importance of astrology to medical practices it killed MASTER and SERVANT alike Henry Lamme 1411 o quotit is better to say that the epidemic comes from God than to repeat all the opinions one hearsquot 0 Similar to the Flood Old Testament the plague was caused by the wickedness of humanity Rise of Epidemiology Little meaning and impact was given before the 19th century Turning point was the cholera of the early 1830s 0 Rise of epidemiology of Germany Hecker o quotThe Black Death was a demonstration of the power and glory of Nature so overwhelming in its universality and its terror as to defeat the best efforts of mere science to de ne itquot Ideas about Black Death 0 The idea that the 14th century plague marked the beginning of a new age 0 Natural phenomenon beyond human comprehension o The best and worst of times 0 Disease39s decisive social impact F edeH 0 quotEvery age makes its own illness The Black Death is no more the cause of modernity than pregnancy is the cause of a new organismquot Objections to Gothic Epidemiology o Existentialism took over Camus Camus39s message was a humanistic one quotWhat we learn in a time of pestilence is that there are more things to admire in men than to despairquot quotecho epidemicsquot D plague keeps returning Historical demographers have questioned the sudden population drop thesis by demonstrating that the population of Western Europe was already in decHne o More attention to the economic prosperity drop and end of 13th century Question 0 Bubonic v Medieval or the Same o 6 months to an entire century is what history remembers o The evidence for panic terror and general demoralization is entirely lacking the evidence for a considerable degree of resiliencycarrying on was strong Social organization remained cohesive intact and function Rosenberg quotFraming Illnessquot Medicine consists of the disease the patient and the physician In a sense disease does not exist until we have agreed that it does by perceiving naming and responding to it Social construction of quotillnessquot Tautology a selfreinforcing pretense of signi cant truth universal truth Social history of medicine social construction of disease FOCUSES o Socialconstructionist view social history and experience of ordinary men and women 0 Public health policy and a linked concern with explanation of the demographic change associated with late 19th century 20th century 0 Rebirth of quotnew materialismquot o Reciprocal in uence of demography on a quantitatively oriented generation 0 Growing interest in the way disease de nitions and hypothetical etiologies can serve as tools of social control Reductionist tendency is tied to speci cally Framing Disease A bad prognosis gt nothing Emergence of pathological anatomy in the early 19th century hypothetical frameworks for disease were increasingly fashioned in terms of speci c lesions or characteristics functional changes that would produce lesions over time Perceptions of disease are contextspeci c but also contextdetermining Individuality of Disease Disease is irrevocably a social actor o Chronicacute disease present very different social realities Disease can be seen as a dependent variable in such a negotiated situation 0 Disease classi cations serve to rationalize mediate and legitimate relationships between individuals and institutions in a bureaucratic society Ontological o The philosophical study of the nature of being becoming existence or reality as well as the basic categories of being and their relations Notion that disease existed as discrete entities with a predictable and characteristic course outside of their manifestation in the body of any particular patient 0 Physiological View of disease as necessarily individual Illness as experienced by the patient and disease as understood by the world of medicine Framing Disease InClass 30 What is a Disease 0 Affects health of person in a negative way 0 Biologicalphysical event to body 0 Involuntary o 9 09 00 9 o 90 99 0 00 0 00 0 00 0 00 0 00 o 9 go 90 Question Does it need to be widespread o Transferable genes contagious Exceptions include cancer what about a broken legwhy injury not a disease 0 Increases exponentially in a negative direction 0 Allusiveambiguous de nition Disease v Illness v Sickness Metal Pipe Analogy 0 Cut or bend a pipe selfcontained injury 0 Rusting would be different disease De ning terms is always problematic for social scientists De nitions vary between academic professional and popular or quotlayquot accounts Biological explanations differ from social constructionist accounts All concepts of disease and illness are culturally and historically speci c Culturally variable 0 Western culture and obesity a sign of ill health socially undesirable o NonWestern cultures and obesity sign of af uence socially desirable New technology medical discoveries etc can change the structure and functioning of the body and brain control could replace the current orthodoxy and disease could come to be seen in a completely different light 0 Homosexuality PTSD mental illness HIV sickle cell plague cancer cervical cancer amp HPV De nitions of Health 0 Illness or feeling ill is arguably the subjective experience of disease or ill health 0 Sickness is a social state or social role HealthBentham o quota state of being which is free form discomfort or more positively produces comfort World Health Organization 0 quotHealth a state of complete physical mental and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or in rmityquot Need to be well healthy positive If you are quothealthyquot it is easier to recover well form an illness Safe 1995 Q I 00 0 00 Apathy stress but doctor says she is quothealthyquot Doctor does not consider stress as an aspect of health Social role impacted therefore sickness Lice and Chicken Pox 0 Same symptoms why are they different Connotations Brain Tumor and Bad Glass O 90 0 When they leave what is different 0 Reaction to quotnamingquot o Prognosis effect Diseases are connotated SOCIALLY o How do they change 0 Stigma if we can39t name it then it must be in her head and not exist 00 Social Constructionism o Emphasizes the ways in which social institutions and social norms attitudes values behaviors and beliefs are socially produced rather than naturally given 0 Strong social constructionist approaches question the natural or biological basis for almost all social phenomena 0 Sexuality and gender differences illness health and physical strength are all social statesbehaviorsmoralscodes are products of CULTURE not biology 0 We are quotsocializedquot into certain patterns of behavior Biological Reductionism o 9 O Biologism biological determinism and biological reductionism all attempt to explain social phenomena in terms of the material structurefunctioning of the human body includes disease 0 Social behavior is the result of hereditary or innate in uences nature and not learning or environment nurture Biologism is widely discredited in sociology and has many who oppose it in the History of Medicine Rosenberg argues that quotsocial construction is too quotarbitraryquot and does not allow for a biological component He prefers quotframingquot Rosenberg once articulated and accepted disease entities become quotactorsquot in a complex network of social negotiations 0 Schema of the disease Physicality doesn39t change but reaction does 0 Disease acts as an antagonist by having its own story to an extent Epidemics and Disease Loss of control environment lives etc War can create disease 0 Shell Shock consolidate an illness encourages the propagation Medical diagnosis saved people from the ring squad punishment Rarely cured some got better after doctors stopped treating the situation in hospitals 0 Vietnam witness to tragedy facing death Traumatic experience shootings 0 We put the blame on the wrong things Easier than admitting mental illness Places focus on the correct source trauma 00 A name can create a disease 0 RSI lessened once treatment stopped because the focus and hype change 0 Carpal tunnel syndrome keyboard use 0 Stop applying a label the more people hear it the more people think they have it Class II 30 Perceptions of disease are contextspeci c but also context determining Rosenberg o The way people respond to it determine the context of the disease LA Times 0 Created a culture in a speci c area and time o Determined perception Does a disease exist before it is named o What are determining factors in de ning disease 0 Perception naming clari cation response Schema sick role understanding information or attempting to grasp dif cultunfamiliar concepts pertaining to disease 0 Easier to comprehend when given facts names symptoms and expectations thereby creating a schema for disease Reaction or nonreaction 0 Monetary differences could change reactionsprognosisreaction o A rst glance at a tree then oak walnut etc Creates awareness 0 Speci cally allows for a detailed response LGBTQ 0 00 0 00 0 00 0 RECAP 0 Social constructionists illness health disease are all relative concepts Not universal but particular Social concepts learned and shared 0 Social constructionists are largely concerned with explaining and describing the differing experiences of illness by reference to culture 0 Biological perspectives often emphasize the natural state the biological certainty the innateness and the inevitability of things Doesn t matter when or where it happens it will be the same universal truth of cholera 30 Historical Question Who caresso what 0 Concepts often tell us more about the societies out of which they come than about the thing they are describing 00 Approaches to Disease and Epidemiology o Plague rate rodent disease that is endemic among species quotalways around colds Endemic will not spread and make everyone sick at the same tie epidemic 0 Spread by ees bacteria gets quotcloggedquot in ee regurgitates basalis to have room to reed on new prey o Virulence changes leading to harm 00 3 Types of Plague o Bubonic Pustules dark pussy bulges neck groin armpits Most common 0 Septicemic quotblood poisoningquot Die before bulges o Pneumonic Lungs mutation spread through air quotsick in the morning dead by dinnerquot all caused by Yersinia Pasteurella pestis Conceptualization of PreLab Plague 0 Symptoms only determination 0 Cause very different concepts before and after labs Causal hierarchy predisposition external factors antecedent factors immediate factors 0 Before germ theory 0 Disease isn t caused by one thing in a prelab environment 0 9 go 90 939 39U W I11 0 Causal hierarchy 0 Disease concepts are not xed 0 Identi ed through symptoms POST 0 Single causative event 0 Disease concepts xed and speci c 0 Identi ed through microscope Construction of a new way of thinking about a disease Characters 0 Shibasaburo Kitasato amp Alexander Yersin identifying basilis of O 00 o 9 go 09 plague Microscope is 2 decades old still ghting to legitimize science 30 Cause v Reaction 0 Presence of bugs is not cause of illness but a reaction concept 00 KitasatoYersin look at plague outbreak in Hong Kong Both use microbiology to understandresearch disease 00 Revealing or making the bacillus as the cause of plague 0 Didn39t go in objective but with a bias 00 Many people were not ready to accept the idea that a microbacteria caused plague which can only be seen through quotnew technologyquot Takes many doctors as well as lay people decades to accept cognitive change in understanding bacteriadisease 00 Retrospective Diagnosis o Is it legitimate or not 0 For this cause not a good historical approach 0 Also considered presentcentered thinking An assumption that the only correct way to think is the present way of thinking 0 Careful of Whig History Past is just a moment on the way to the presentdecisions were inevitable Contagious Wald Virus steals people39s identity Virus is an unwelcome immigrant References Red Nightmare Department of Defense Soviet Films Invasion of the Body Snatchers The nation39s job is to safeguard its citizens reclaim its own as it reestablishes the community Americanism v Humanitarianism Swine Flu Prescott Medical Department was the primary architect of the nation39s memory of the in uenza epidemic of 1918 o Deliberater crafted a national amnesia o Contrary to previous belief the greatest toll of 1918 pandemic was the impoverished inner city 0 Normally a sidebar in history 0 Don39t have sick leave leads to spreading of disease Class Ill 0 60 Black Death was coined in 19th century 0 Romanticization of Black Death Terms used would be pestilence or plague Attribution to city of Kaffa port city in modern Ukraine Entre pot meeting point for imports and exports 0 New York 0 Set up by Italians Genoese in Mongul territory 18000 homes in the inner and outer walls Relationship deteriorates in 1330s 0 City is held under siege 1347 o Tartar army catapult deadsick into the city as a last ditch effort Sailors escape but take disease with them to other port 0 De Mussi is just one story on how the plague entered Europe above story 9 o 0 go 90 99 o o o 99 00 90 0 00 0 00 0 00 0 00 0 00 The story places blame on Mongols quotoutsidersquot 1353 end of 1st Wave of plague o 12 to 13 of population of Western Europe has been killed There are not consistent records kept Also start of 100 Years War and various other causes of death Records could have been lost or altered How did Europeans view the way plague operated 0 Black pustules o Dying rapidly of different ways horrendous death 0 Some people get itsome don t not consistent 0 Did not differentiate types of plague Ideas for Causes 0 Punishment 0 Religious retribution 0 quotseedquot passed between people 0 Gasesvapors Measures taken against Plague by People 0 Isolation o Flee people of means 0 Look to natural world for relief 0 Become grave digger 247 job 0 Party quotscrew itquot Civic Measures 0 Expulsion o Quater sanitare o Quarantine 0 Burn re Jews were burned 0 Round up morally corrupt people Church papacy in Avignon 0 Evil people have created it o Tried to stop aglance whipping themselves goes against church ChurchClergy aren39t completely infallible o Takes away authority Boccaccio 0 New anxiety percolating in Middle Ages 0 Good death Soul is prepared last rite die among family 0 Black Death brings quotbad death No last rites no burial rites Purgatory question Cultural Expressions 0 Increase in portraits o Lasting memorylj desire for personal legacy If he died I would never see him again 0 Mortality creeps into insight wealthy Dance Macabre Dance of Death 0 1380 0 quotDeathquot dressed as a dancer playing chess rocking a cradle working in elds playing music rape circus Reminds you Death is everywhere Don39t forgetdon39t get complacent Continuous throughout European history Way of showing they are prepared for death Ready for death Worms frogs death 0000 0 Class IV 9 99 9 99 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 99 In uenza 1918 Boston stock market crashed Kentucky no public gatherings even funerals In uenza Spanish Flue Viruses were still unknown Followed railroad tracks 600000 lives no explanationno cause Killed more Americans than all the wars combined Patriotism was America s sweetheart Age of innocence Possibly caused by burning manure in Kansas Fort Riley and the yellow dust spread by a wind storm 45 soldiers died 0 lnvincibility concept as scientists made advances 0 Kansas sickness resurfaced in Europe Soldiers of all nations died 0 Preconception of u was violated Turned people blue black and killed them Didn t get over it in a few days Soldiers spread it from base to base around country and world In uenza epidemic was ignored War needed to speed up increase pack together In uenza causalneeded shut downs spread out etc 0 War events marchessendoffs caused the in uenza to spread quickly RUMORS o Germans had planted the germs 0 Sin Carriers didn39t have to be ill Transportation was growing causinghelping the spread Medical staff short because of war In uenza killed by killing lung with uid Caused by virus couldn39t see it under a microscope not by a bacteria Quackery rose per usual American characteristic quotWe have to do something even if it is wrongquot Priorities were set a new understanding of death etc expected death Crudeness towards patientsfamilies 0 To a 12 year old quotGet on a waiting list for a casket 0 To a baby s mother quotIt is not necessary to feed her anymorequot Film 00000000 O 0000 o o 9 go 99 90 O 00 2129 were most hit which is completely different Killing a large group of robuststrong Death carts roamed city like the plague picked up bodies off the front porch some lay in the gutters abandoned created mass graves 0 11000 people in Philly Destroyed intimacy Murdersuicide rate occurring because of fear and inevitability of death quotCivilization could disappear form the face of the earthquot 0 As soon as the dying stopped the forgetting began Not in the collective memory Why Spanish Flu 0 Nothing to do with origins 0 Spain was neutral in WWI 0 Reporting of story of u didn t have the controls of story of u didn39t have the controls on media because they were neutral and didn39t need to hide 0 There was informationdiscussion about it in Spain US Germany and England didn t want to strategically let enemies know who was sick 0 50100 million people world wide War who died from what destruction of records misattribution 0 19181919 only time that US population decreased 0 Fallout of Historical Memory War Coping mechanism Too quick Just u 00 WAR 0 Down play because the war is going on Push aside for patriotism Just another front in the way 0 Conspiracy with Germans not as much Just another battle in terrible terms Spitting education 00 FLU o Flue remains just not same strain 0 Viewed as weakness There are bigger things to be dealing with embarrassing to have been laid up in bed with the u What is heroic 0 Quick doesn39t come back again To the killer extent 30 Science Medicine 0 Have been able to help with infectious diseases decrease mortality rate 0 Capabilities use microscopes 0 quotscienti c medicine39s inability to conquer the in uenza epidemic may have spurred a national amnesiaquot 339 Victor Vaughn 0 quotI am not going into the history of in uenza epidemicit encircled the world visited the remotest corners taking toll of the most robust sparing neither soldier nor civilian and aunting its red ag in the face of sciencequot
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