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MSU / ISS / ISS 220 / What is the epipaleolithic?

What is the epipaleolithic?

What is the epipaleolithic?

Description

School: Michigan State University
Department: ISS
Course: Time, Space and Change in Human Society (D)
Professor: G. wrobel
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: MSU, ISS, 220, time, space, change, In, Human, Society, Anthropology, Archaeology, humanevolution, primates, and HomoErectus
Cost: 50
Name: ISS EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE
Description: EVERYTHING discussed in class relevant to this upcoming exam across 4 lectures. Written in outline/bullet point format
Uploaded: 11/12/2016
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ISS 220 EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE 


What is the epipaleolithic?



Lecture 10

Initial Hominin Dispersal/Homo erectus 

∙ Evidence shows that hominins were restricted to the continent of Africa for at least 5  years, and the first hominin species started migrating to other parts of the world around  2 million years ago

∙ Homo erectus was a species of Africa believed to have arisen 2 million years ago in East  Africa

∙ H. erectus was the first species of hominin that migrated to other regions of the world;  they were more efficient bipeds and thus were more terrestrial; they used more  complex stone tools and had more complex brains than previous hominin species

∙ H. erectus had sexual dimorphism, observable by variance in height and weight  according to sex


Megafauna is a large animals in excess of how many pounds?



∙ They had a more sloping and primitive cranial shape with a sagittal keel ∙ Fossil evidence suggests the H. erectus made rapid migrations to parts of Europe and  Asia

∙ Example: The Nariokotome Skeleton is the most complete skeleton of H. erectus excavated in Africa, dating to about 1.6 million years ago

∙ Very narrow pelvis in H. erectus enhanced bipedalism and suggests long-distance travel ∙ Evidence for larger brains in infants can be seen by larger birth canals in female  skeletons such as the female pelvis found in Gona, Ethiopia

Variation in H. erectus 


Humans most likely evolved in?



∙ There is high observed variation of H. erectus species in Africa compared to those in Asia  or other parts of the world ???? H. erectus is sometimes intended to refer only to Asian  specimens, whereas Homo ergaster is intended to refer to African specimens If you want to learn more check out How do geologists use fossils for dating?

∙ Example: A group of H. erectus was found in Dmanisi, Georgia that had a strange  mixture of primitive and derived traits, suggesting a possible earlier exit from Africa ∙ Example: the first skullcap was found at archaeological sites in eastern Java, Indonesia,  with fossils dating between 1.6 million and 1 million years ago

∙ Example: in China, 40 adult skeletons were excavated during the 1920s ∙ Example: first hominins in Europe date to about 1.2 million years ago ???? they may have  evolved from the hominins in DmanisiWe also discuss several other topics like How do psychologists differentiate normal from abnormal personalities?
Don't forget about the age old question of Brain capillaries are lined with epithelial cells that?
If you want to learn more check out How did globalization catalyze advances in scientific knowledge?

Technology of H. erectus 

∙ There is evidence that H. erectus was the first species to create fires that may have been  used for cooking foods and warding off night time predators ???? hardened/reddened  clays, along with blackened mammal bones and burned deposits have all been found  dating back to the time period of H. erectus

∙ H. erectus hunted both large and small game ???? many pieces of evidence are found at  kill sites where many animals were killed in a single location

∙ Acheulian stone tool culture: more sophisticated tools first used by H. erectus; some  stone tools were even carried for long distances (suggesting foresight); Asian H. erectus did not rely on as sophisticated tools as H. erectus in Africa did at this time

∙ Acheulian tools require greater skill to manufacture, they have straighter and sharper  sides than Oldowan tools and were more multifunctional Don't forget about the age old question of What is predatory pricing?

∙ Soft Hammer Percussion: use of softer materials like bone or wood to absorb more  shock of the blow We also discuss several other topics like What is the effect of precipitating clouds?

∙ Use of stone tools generally suggests greater brain capacity for other complex functions  such as speech

Lecture 11

The Pleistocene 

∙ Advances and retreats of massive glaciations (continental ice sheets over much of the  northern continents) caused colder temperatures in northern regions and more arid  conditions in southern regions

∙ Interglacials: climatic intervals during which continental ice sheets retreat and become  reduced in size ???? all of these fluctuations affect migration patterns for hominins ∙ During the Pleistocene, hominins mostly remained in previously occupied areas, but a  large increase of hominin populations throughout Europe was also observed

Homo heidelbergensis 

∙ H. heidelbergensis was a transitional species that evolved from H. erectus, and  eventually differentiated into Homo sapiens and Neanderthals

∙ It had primitive traits such as low forehead and a large cranial vault, along with more  derived traits such as increased brain size and a vertical nose

∙ Example: The Bodo cranium is the earliest evidence of H. heidelbergensis in Africa,  dating to around 600,000 years ago

∙ Example: Sima de los Huesos in Spain is the largest archaeological site for hominins  from the Middle Pleistocene era

Culture of the Middle Pleistocene 

∙ Acheulian stone tool culture did not change much until the Late Pleistocene ∙ Levallois Technique: a technique that provides much more control over the size and  shape of the final flake that could be used as scrapers, knives, or projectile points  (Levallois points)

∙ Significant evidence shows that H. heidelbergensis may have occupied caves and built  temporary structures for shelter

∙ Exploitation of food sources depending on the season, and exploitation of marine life for  the first time in the evolution of hominins

∙ Cooperative hunting methods were practiced

Homo florensiensis 

∙ H. florensiensis were found in Flores, Indonesia – dating back only about 100,000 to  50,000 years ago -???? they were around 3 feet tall with many primitive features, but they  used stone tools

∙ Evolutionary Dwarfism is a hypothesis that may explain the phenomenon of how short  the H. florensiensis are, which usually occurs on islands with few resources ∙ This species is an example of the distinct lineages of variation in hominins during the  Pleistocene

Neanderthals 

∙ Neanderthals are one of the most similar hominin species to modern day humans, and  went extinct by around 35,000 to 30,000 years ago

∙ They have a larger brain size than humans, but lower intelligence; they were also robust  and strong

∙ Neaderthals showed technological advances in their stone tools

∙ Chatelperronian: Upper Paleolithic tool industry found in France and Spain -???? suggests  some cultural hybridization

∙ Example: Shanidar Cave burial site containing an extremely old male individual – so old  that performing daily activities would be impossible - this is evidence of compassion ∙ Mousterian Culture: characterized by a larger proportion of flake tools ∙ Example: Denisova Cave – a finger bone and tooth bone were found of a species that  had significant genetic distance from both Neanderthals and humans

∙ It is therefore called Denisovian: it may have been a result of an earlier split in human  evolution

∙ Neanderthals relied heavily on the hunting of large game (evidence of close proximity  spears, and trauma patterns similar to the skeletons of rodeo performers) ∙ Based on a similar vocal anatomy, Neanderthals were capable of articulate speech

∙ FOXP2 gene: a gene found in Neanderthals that suggests the genetic capacity of speech  acquisition

∙ Neanderthals, compared to humans, were somewhat lacking in art and technology ∙ Differences between Neanderthals and humans: Tools used by Neanderthals were less  specialized than those of Upper Paleolithic modern humans – suggests less complex  brains; they had no long-distance hunting weapons, while humans had larger and more  organized hunting parties; stone tools were only transported short distances, unlike  humans; art was much less common than in humans – art is an important piece of  evidence that shows modern humans have much more complex brains; burials in  humans are more complex than Neanderthals, although Neanderthals have much more  complex burial than more primitive species

∙ Modern humans possess around 1-4% of Neanderthal DNA, suggesting interbreeding of  premodern and modern populations

Lecture 12

The Rise of Anatomically Modern Humans (AMH) 

∙ Humans most likely evolved in Africa

∙ AMH appeared roughly 200,000 years ago; all fossils were of AMH by 33,000 years ago ∙ Multiregionalism Model: hypothesis that humans left Africa as H. erectus, but evolved  independently into humans in different regions of the world

∙ Replacement Model/Out-of-Africa Model: Homo sapiens left Africa between 200,000  and 100,000 years ago and replaced all other hominin populations in the world by  33,000 years ago ???? evidence from mtDNA (only inherited from female parent) shows  that the depth of the human tree is around 200,000 years – with its beginning roots in  Africa

∙ Mitochondrial Eve: The single common ancestor from around 200,000 years ago as  determined by the mitochondrial DNA evidence

∙ Assimilation Model: 200,000 years is thought to be as not enough time for speciation – this model suggests some degree of interbreeding between AMH and Neanderthals  (evidence present in mtDNA)

∙ The oldest human remains are from Omo, Ethiopia dating to 195,000 years ago ∙ Modern humans have lived in an overlap with archaic humans; a potential overlap of  100,000 years may have occurred

∙ Modern humans lack occipital bun, the back of their skull is more rounded, the forehead  rises more vertically above the eye orbits, they have smaller brow ridges, and a stronger  chin

Cultural Behavior 

∙ There was a much larger degree of variation in stone tool technologies for AMH, and  tools were used much more precisely

∙ AMH often lived in caves and rock shelters

∙ Cave art exists from as long as 30,000 years ago – most figures were anatomically  correct and well-drawn

Genetic Evidence 

∙ The amount of genetic diversity corresponds to the age of the last common ancestor of  a population

∙ This can be determined using mtDNA (from mothers), Y-chromosome DNA (from  fathers), or small sequences of junk DNA

∙ Genetic evidence techniques all point to a relatively recent common ancestor from  Africa

∙ Example: National Geographic genographic project

Lecture 13

Background of the Holocene: the Holocene is the epoch in which we now live, that began  around 11,000 to 10,000 years ago; Young Dryas: climate became colder and drier but not  enough so for glacial conditions to exist -???? during this time, humans may have been taken  advantage of animals that were drawn to shrinking water holes

2 Competing Hypotheses for the Entry of Humans into the New World 

∙ By land: Humans may have crossed the Bering land bridge that once connected Siberia  and Alaska ???? the earliest archaeological evidence suggests that humans may have been  able to walk to the new world around 25,000 to 11,000 years ago

∙ When they may have arrived, ice sheets were blocking their entry into the rest of the  continent, but occasionally the two ice sheets that meet in the west would open up to  form an ice-free corridor

∙ By sea: pockets of land may have existed along the coasts of North and South America  that migrants could have traveled to around 17,000 to 15,000 years ago ???? there is also  evidence that they were well adapted to surviving in coastal regions and could depend  on marine sources of food

∙ The models of genetic diversity in Native American groups suggests that humans  migrated there somewhat rapidly, suggesting that they could have sailed to the coast ∙ Megafauna: large animals in excess of 100 pounds ???? sites have been found where  Paleo-Indian hunters killed Megafauna in herds with manufactured weaponry

∙ Clovis: A North American archaeological complex dating to around 13,500 to 13,000  years ago often associated with big game hunters ???? may have driven many animal  species into extinction

The Earliest Americans 

∙ Example: Kennewick Man – skeleton found in North America that sparked controversy  because it showed some Caucasoid traits

∙ Coprolites: preserved fecal materials that can be studied to understand diet and health ∙ Example: Meadocrowft Rockshelter in Pennsylvania contained microblades instead of  Clovis, suggesting possible earlier migrations

∙ Example: Mote Verde, Chile – pre-Clovis 18,500 years suggests that the first migrations  may have preceded big game hunters

∙ Global warming conditions resumed after the Young Dryas period

Hunting and Gathering Lifeways 

∙ Foragers: passive reliance on the environment with very little reliance on domestication  of plants or animals (included mostly small populations with seasonal settlement  patterns)

∙ Collectors (Horticulture): mix of domesticated and wild plants or animals, larger social  groups, occasionally a surplus

∙ Farming was the ultimate strategy of collectors, and it eventually became prevalent in  humans

Epipaleolithic 

∙ Carrying Capacity: the maximum populations of a specific organism that can be  maintained at a steady state

∙ Possible pieces of evidence for population growth: shortened birth intervals, increases  in fertility, less seasonal food stress

∙ Lactational Amenorhea: weaning foods ???? led to the shorter duration of breast feeding

Mesolithic 

∙ Example: permanent Mesolithic settlements on the coast of England, also some  evidence of domesticated dogs

∙ Example: Franchthi Cave in Greece

ISS 220 EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE 

Lecture 10

Initial Hominin Dispersal/Homo erectus 

∙ Evidence shows that hominins were restricted to the continent of Africa for at least 5  years, and the first hominin species started migrating to other parts of the world around  2 million years ago

∙ Homo erectus was a species of Africa believed to have arisen 2 million years ago in East  Africa

∙ H. erectus was the first species of hominin that migrated to other regions of the world;  they were more efficient bipeds and thus were more terrestrial; they used more  complex stone tools and had more complex brains than previous hominin species

∙ H. erectus had sexual dimorphism, observable by variance in height and weight  according to sex

∙ They had a more sloping and primitive cranial shape with a sagittal keel ∙ Fossil evidence suggests the H. erectus made rapid migrations to parts of Europe and  Asia

∙ Example: The Nariokotome Skeleton is the most complete skeleton of H. erectus excavated in Africa, dating to about 1.6 million years ago

∙ Very narrow pelvis in H. erectus enhanced bipedalism and suggests long-distance travel ∙ Evidence for larger brains in infants can be seen by larger birth canals in female  skeletons such as the female pelvis found in Gona, Ethiopia

Variation in H. erectus 

∙ There is high observed variation of H. erectus species in Africa compared to those in Asia  or other parts of the world ???? H. erectus is sometimes intended to refer only to Asian  specimens, whereas Homo ergaster is intended to refer to African specimens

∙ Example: A group of H. erectus was found in Dmanisi, Georgia that had a strange  mixture of primitive and derived traits, suggesting a possible earlier exit from Africa ∙ Example: the first skullcap was found at archaeological sites in eastern Java, Indonesia,  with fossils dating between 1.6 million and 1 million years ago

∙ Example: in China, 40 adult skeletons were excavated during the 1920s ∙ Example: first hominins in Europe date to about 1.2 million years ago ???? they may have  evolved from the hominins in Dmanisi

Technology of H. erectus 

∙ There is evidence that H. erectus was the first species to create fires that may have been  used for cooking foods and warding off night time predators ???? hardened/reddened  clays, along with blackened mammal bones and burned deposits have all been found  dating back to the time period of H. erectus

∙ H. erectus hunted both large and small game ???? many pieces of evidence are found at  kill sites where many animals were killed in a single location

∙ Acheulian stone tool culture: more sophisticated tools first used by H. erectus; some  stone tools were even carried for long distances (suggesting foresight); Asian H. erectus did not rely on as sophisticated tools as H. erectus in Africa did at this time

∙ Acheulian tools require greater skill to manufacture, they have straighter and sharper  sides than Oldowan tools and were more multifunctional

∙ Soft Hammer Percussion: use of softer materials like bone or wood to absorb more  shock of the blow

∙ Use of stone tools generally suggests greater brain capacity for other complex functions  such as speech

Lecture 11

The Pleistocene 

∙ Advances and retreats of massive glaciations (continental ice sheets over much of the  northern continents) caused colder temperatures in northern regions and more arid  conditions in southern regions

∙ Interglacials: climatic intervals during which continental ice sheets retreat and become  reduced in size ???? all of these fluctuations affect migration patterns for hominins ∙ During the Pleistocene, hominins mostly remained in previously occupied areas, but a  large increase of hominin populations throughout Europe was also observed

Homo heidelbergensis 

∙ H. heidelbergensis was a transitional species that evolved from H. erectus, and  eventually differentiated into Homo sapiens and Neanderthals

∙ It had primitive traits such as low forehead and a large cranial vault, along with more  derived traits such as increased brain size and a vertical nose

∙ Example: The Bodo cranium is the earliest evidence of H. heidelbergensis in Africa,  dating to around 600,000 years ago

∙ Example: Sima de los Huesos in Spain is the largest archaeological site for hominins  from the Middle Pleistocene era

Culture of the Middle Pleistocene 

∙ Acheulian stone tool culture did not change much until the Late Pleistocene ∙ Levallois Technique: a technique that provides much more control over the size and  shape of the final flake that could be used as scrapers, knives, or projectile points  (Levallois points)

∙ Significant evidence shows that H. heidelbergensis may have occupied caves and built  temporary structures for shelter

∙ Exploitation of food sources depending on the season, and exploitation of marine life for  the first time in the evolution of hominins

∙ Cooperative hunting methods were practiced

Homo florensiensis 

∙ H. florensiensis were found in Flores, Indonesia – dating back only about 100,000 to  50,000 years ago -???? they were around 3 feet tall with many primitive features, but they  used stone tools

∙ Evolutionary Dwarfism is a hypothesis that may explain the phenomenon of how short  the H. florensiensis are, which usually occurs on islands with few resources ∙ This species is an example of the distinct lineages of variation in hominins during the  Pleistocene

Neanderthals 

∙ Neanderthals are one of the most similar hominin species to modern day humans, and  went extinct by around 35,000 to 30,000 years ago

∙ They have a larger brain size than humans, but lower intelligence; they were also robust  and strong

∙ Neaderthals showed technological advances in their stone tools

∙ Chatelperronian: Upper Paleolithic tool industry found in France and Spain -???? suggests  some cultural hybridization

∙ Example: Shanidar Cave burial site containing an extremely old male individual – so old  that performing daily activities would be impossible - this is evidence of compassion ∙ Mousterian Culture: characterized by a larger proportion of flake tools ∙ Example: Denisova Cave – a finger bone and tooth bone were found of a species that  had significant genetic distance from both Neanderthals and humans

∙ It is therefore called Denisovian: it may have been a result of an earlier split in human  evolution

∙ Neanderthals relied heavily on the hunting of large game (evidence of close proximity  spears, and trauma patterns similar to the skeletons of rodeo performers) ∙ Based on a similar vocal anatomy, Neanderthals were capable of articulate speech

∙ FOXP2 gene: a gene found in Neanderthals that suggests the genetic capacity of speech  acquisition

∙ Neanderthals, compared to humans, were somewhat lacking in art and technology ∙ Differences between Neanderthals and humans: Tools used by Neanderthals were less  specialized than those of Upper Paleolithic modern humans – suggests less complex  brains; they had no long-distance hunting weapons, while humans had larger and more  organized hunting parties; stone tools were only transported short distances, unlike  humans; art was much less common than in humans – art is an important piece of  evidence that shows modern humans have much more complex brains; burials in  humans are more complex than Neanderthals, although Neanderthals have much more  complex burial than more primitive species

∙ Modern humans possess around 1-4% of Neanderthal DNA, suggesting interbreeding of  premodern and modern populations

Lecture 12

The Rise of Anatomically Modern Humans (AMH) 

∙ Humans most likely evolved in Africa

∙ AMH appeared roughly 200,000 years ago; all fossils were of AMH by 33,000 years ago ∙ Multiregionalism Model: hypothesis that humans left Africa as H. erectus, but evolved  independently into humans in different regions of the world

∙ Replacement Model/Out-of-Africa Model: Homo sapiens left Africa between 200,000  and 100,000 years ago and replaced all other hominin populations in the world by  33,000 years ago ???? evidence from mtDNA (only inherited from female parent) shows  that the depth of the human tree is around 200,000 years – with its beginning roots in  Africa

∙ Mitochondrial Eve: The single common ancestor from around 200,000 years ago as  determined by the mitochondrial DNA evidence

∙ Assimilation Model: 200,000 years is thought to be as not enough time for speciation – this model suggests some degree of interbreeding between AMH and Neanderthals  (evidence present in mtDNA)

∙ The oldest human remains are from Omo, Ethiopia dating to 195,000 years ago ∙ Modern humans have lived in an overlap with archaic humans; a potential overlap of  100,000 years may have occurred

∙ Modern humans lack occipital bun, the back of their skull is more rounded, the forehead  rises more vertically above the eye orbits, they have smaller brow ridges, and a stronger  chin

Cultural Behavior 

∙ There was a much larger degree of variation in stone tool technologies for AMH, and  tools were used much more precisely

∙ AMH often lived in caves and rock shelters

∙ Cave art exists from as long as 30,000 years ago – most figures were anatomically  correct and well-drawn

Genetic Evidence 

∙ The amount of genetic diversity corresponds to the age of the last common ancestor of  a population

∙ This can be determined using mtDNA (from mothers), Y-chromosome DNA (from  fathers), or small sequences of junk DNA

∙ Genetic evidence techniques all point to a relatively recent common ancestor from  Africa

∙ Example: National Geographic genographic project

Lecture 13

Background of the Holocene: the Holocene is the epoch in which we now live, that began  around 11,000 to 10,000 years ago; Young Dryas: climate became colder and drier but not  enough so for glacial conditions to exist -???? during this time, humans may have been taken  advantage of animals that were drawn to shrinking water holes

2 Competing Hypotheses for the Entry of Humans into the New World 

∙ By land: Humans may have crossed the Bering land bridge that once connected Siberia  and Alaska ???? the earliest archaeological evidence suggests that humans may have been  able to walk to the new world around 25,000 to 11,000 years ago

∙ When they may have arrived, ice sheets were blocking their entry into the rest of the  continent, but occasionally the two ice sheets that meet in the west would open up to  form an ice-free corridor

∙ By sea: pockets of land may have existed along the coasts of North and South America  that migrants could have traveled to around 17,000 to 15,000 years ago ???? there is also  evidence that they were well adapted to surviving in coastal regions and could depend  on marine sources of food

∙ The models of genetic diversity in Native American groups suggests that humans  migrated there somewhat rapidly, suggesting that they could have sailed to the coast ∙ Megafauna: large animals in excess of 100 pounds ???? sites have been found where  Paleo-Indian hunters killed Megafauna in herds with manufactured weaponry

∙ Clovis: A North American archaeological complex dating to around 13,500 to 13,000  years ago often associated with big game hunters ???? may have driven many animal  species into extinction

The Earliest Americans 

∙ Example: Kennewick Man – skeleton found in North America that sparked controversy  because it showed some Caucasoid traits

∙ Coprolites: preserved fecal materials that can be studied to understand diet and health ∙ Example: Meadocrowft Rockshelter in Pennsylvania contained microblades instead of  Clovis, suggesting possible earlier migrations

∙ Example: Mote Verde, Chile – pre-Clovis 18,500 years suggests that the first migrations  may have preceded big game hunters

∙ Global warming conditions resumed after the Young Dryas period

Hunting and Gathering Lifeways 

∙ Foragers: passive reliance on the environment with very little reliance on domestication  of plants or animals (included mostly small populations with seasonal settlement  patterns)

∙ Collectors (Horticulture): mix of domesticated and wild plants or animals, larger social  groups, occasionally a surplus

∙ Farming was the ultimate strategy of collectors, and it eventually became prevalent in  humans

Epipaleolithic 

∙ Carrying Capacity: the maximum populations of a specific organism that can be  maintained at a steady state

∙ Possible pieces of evidence for population growth: shortened birth intervals, increases  in fertility, less seasonal food stress

∙ Lactational Amenorhea: weaning foods ???? led to the shorter duration of breast feeding

Mesolithic 

∙ Example: permanent Mesolithic settlements on the coast of England, also some  evidence of domesticated dogs

∙ Example: Franchthi Cave in Greece

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