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CU DENVER / Psychology / PSYC 1000 / What is the meaning of tolerance in substance use disorder?

What is the meaning of tolerance in substance use disorder?

What is the meaning of tolerance in substance use disorder?


School: University of Colorado Denver
Department: Psychology
Course: Introduction to Psychology
Professor: Alex northcutt
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Introduction to Psychology, conciousness, sleep, memory, and learning
Cost: 50
Name: PSYCH Exam 3 Study Guide 11/16/16
Description: This study guide covers what will be on our next midterm, Exam 3 from Chapters 5-7. I will update this study guide as the days get closer to the actual midterm, so look out for that! UPDATE: Added a few more definitions from Monday's lecture. And I accidentally called this study guide "Exam 2 Study Guide" which was wrong, it's exam 3. Sorry about that! Good luck tomorrow everyone!
Uploaded: 11/12/2016
5 Pages 167 Views 1 Unlocks

Davis­Jay Harris

What is the meaning of tolerance in substance use disorder?


PSYCH 1000

Introduction to Psychology I: PSYCH 1000 Sections 2, Exam 3 Study Guide

Highlight = Key Terms Highlight = Key Concepts

Chapter 5: Conscious and Sleep (Last part)

∙ Substance Use/Drugs of Abuse 

o Substance Use Disorder 

 Tolerance: when you need a higher amount of the drug to get the same 

effect, or when no matter the amount, the effect is not as strong.

 Withdrawal: symptoms that the individual experiences when they 

don’t take a certain drug. These are usually unpleasant.

 Dependence: changes that happen in the brain, and it relies on the drug

What is the meaning of withdrawal in substance use disorder?

to compensate for physical dependence.

 Addiction: when someone continues to use a drug even in the face of  negative outcomes in life, and will go at extreme lengths to get the 


o Cycle of Drug Abuse 

 Drug euphoria (positive reinforcement) ­> Neuroadaptations 

withdrawal and tolerance ­> Drug craving (negative reinforcement) ­>  Drug administration, drug­seeking behavior (failed impulse 

suppression) ­> Repeat to drug euphoria.

o Mesolimbic Dopamine Pathway: Drives person for survival needs to maintain  Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of hot jupiters in astronomy?

good behavior

o Classes of Drugs 

 Opioids/Opiates: narcotics meant to reduce pain. However, opioids are

What is the meaning of dependence in substance use disorder?


 Stimulants

∙ Nicotine: causes people to feel relaxed, yet focused at the same

time. It is an addictive drug, and people get psychologically 

addicted to it. It indirectly increases dopamine.

∙ Caffeine: the most widely used stimulant. It can make people 

irritable or anxious after they have too much of it, therefore it 

is bad for people with or developing anxiety disorders. It 

blocks the action of adenosine (which is what helps tell you 

that you are tired).

 Depressants 

∙ Alcohol: increases the strength of GABA signaling and activity

in the brain. It blocks glutamate, and effects the prefrontal 

cortex of the brain. Withdrawal symptoms after being addicted 

to alcohol can kill you because it can cause seizures. 

Intoxication increases faster than it decreases over time.

Chapter 6: Learning If you want to learn more check out How is symmetry important to animals?

∙ Habituation (or adaptation): with repeated exposure, an initial response grows weaker

over time.

∙ Classical Conditioning (know all the components and their characteristics!): when 

you start with an unconditioned stimulus, it leads to an unconditioned response. o Little Albert studies 

 (stimulus) generalization: when an unconditioned stimulus is like 

another, that brings the same unconditioned response.

 Extinction: when you show the conditioned stimulus over and over, 

but try to get the unconditioned response. If you want to learn more check out How does winning the lottery tend to effect people's happiness?

o Operant Conditioning: behavior that is controlled by consequences. You are 

either rewarded or punished for a certain response to a stimulus. If you want to learn more check out Why did charlotte perkins gilman wrote the yellow wallpaper?

 Schedules of Reinforcement:

∙ Secondary vs Primary Reinforcers 

o Token Economy: helping reward behavior by making 

an exchange system.

∙ Two Process Theory: an initial classical conditioning 

experience lays down the learning experience. Classical 

conditioning always happens first.

 Latent Learning: learning that happens when you are not aware of it. 

Unintentional/ coincidental learning.

∙ Context Dependent Learning: when the circumstances of where

you are, which people you are with, or whatever the case may 

be is influencing your learning.

∙ State Dependent Learning: when your learning depends on if 

you are the same physical, psychological, or emotional state as  Don't forget about the age old question of What is the part-whole fallacy / fallacy of composition

you were when you first learned something.

Chapter 7: Memory

∙ Memory: the process of maintaining information over time.

o Memory illusion: a false, but subjectively compelling memory that your brain 


o Flashbulb memory: an emotionally charged memory of your experience in an  important event. These kinds of memories can become less accurate over 

time. People would still believe it is true, when it probably is not.

o Three Systems of Memory 

 Sensory Memory: memory that involves the five senses (taste touch 

smell sound and sight) that comes in and we remember it. Don't forget about the age old question of Can individuals evolve over the course of their lifetimes?

∙ Duration: this kind of memory decays very quickly.

∙ Capacity: the brain is unlimited to store this kind of memory.

 Short Term memory: what you are thinking about right now, or what is

currently active in your brain.

∙ Duration: lasts about 20 seconds, then eventually decays.

∙ Capacity: has a limited capacity. Can only hold five to nine 

things at a time.

o Chunking: when you group small but meaningful units 

so that it fits in your short­tern memory.

 Long­Term Memory: information that stays in your brain for a long 


∙ Duration: can last from minutes to years.

∙ Capacity: possibly unlimited.

∙ Explicit: things that we subconsciously remember.

o Semantic: memories about facts.

o Episodic: memories that happens in our lifetime.

∙ Implicit: more about procedures/habits that you do without 

having to think about doing it.

 Encoding: taking in information into short­term memory, and working 

with it to see if it is put into long­term memory.

∙ Mnemonic: ways of classifying pieces of information to help  memorize things better (e.g. spelling/acronym; rhyme; music 


∙ Encoding Errors: when you either encode a certain memory  wrong, or it does not go in correctly into short or long­term 


o Injury/organic cause: injury to the brain, or an organic 

reason to not encode memory correctly.

∙ Storage 

o Long­Term Potentiation: results in either using less 

stimulation to get the same response, or using stronger 

stimulation to get a stronger response. 

o Synaptic Plasticity: the ability to change your synapses.

∙ Retrieval: recalling information you have stored.

o Recall vs. Recognition 

 Recall: when you remember the components of 

certain information

 Recognition: when you have all the information 

in front of you, but you must select the correct 


o Ebbhinghaus’ forgetting curve: forgetting a lot initially, but eventually our forgetting levels off if you don’t 

consistently remember something.

o Tip of the Tongue phenomenon: when you can’t 

remember the thing you are trying to recall, but you can

describe features of it because you know what it is.

o Interference: when you know you learned something,  but something is interfering with you recalling it.

 Proactive: when old information interferes with 

learning new information.

 Retroactive: when new information is 

interfering with recalling old information.

o Context dependent memory: when the circumstances of where you are, what people you are with, or whatever 

the case may be is influencing your learning. o State dependent memory: when your learning depends 

on if you are the same physical, psychological, or  emotional state as you were when you first learned  something.

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