Introduction to Psychology I: PSYCH 1000 Sections 2, Exam 3 Study Guide
Highlight = Key Terms Highlight = Key Concepts
Chapter 5: Conscious and Sleep (Last part)
∙ Substance Use/Drugs of Abuse
o Substance Use Disorder
Tolerance: when you need a higher amount of the drug to get the same
effect, or when no matter the amount, the effect is not as strong.
Withdrawal: symptoms that the individual experiences when they
don’t take a certain drug. These are usually unpleasant.
Dependence: changes that happen in the brain, and it relies on the drug
to compensate for physical dependence.
Addiction: when someone continues to use a drug even in the face of negative outcomes in life, and will go at extreme lengths to get the
o Cycle of Drug Abuse
Drug euphoria (positive reinforcement) > Neuroadaptations
withdrawal and tolerance > Drug craving (negative reinforcement) > Drug administration, drugseeking behavior (failed impulse
suppression) > Repeat to drug euphoria.
o Mesolimbic Dopamine Pathway: Drives person for survival needs to maintain Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of hot jupiters in astronomy?
o Classes of Drugs
Opioids/Opiates: narcotics meant to reduce pain. However, opioids are
∙ Nicotine: causes people to feel relaxed, yet focused at the same
time. It is an addictive drug, and people get psychologically
addicted to it. It indirectly increases dopamine.
∙ Caffeine: the most widely used stimulant. It can make people
irritable or anxious after they have too much of it, therefore it
is bad for people with or developing anxiety disorders. It
blocks the action of adenosine (which is what helps tell you
that you are tired).
∙ Alcohol: increases the strength of GABA signaling and activity
in the brain. It blocks glutamate, and effects the prefrontal
cortex of the brain. Withdrawal symptoms after being addicted
to alcohol can kill you because it can cause seizures.
Intoxication increases faster than it decreases over time.
Chapter 6: Learning If you want to learn more check out How is symmetry important to animals?
∙ Habituation (or adaptation): with repeated exposure, an initial response grows weaker
∙ Classical Conditioning (know all the components and their characteristics!): when
you start with an unconditioned stimulus, it leads to an unconditioned response. o Little Albert studies
(stimulus) generalization: when an unconditioned stimulus is like
another, that brings the same unconditioned response.
Extinction: when you show the conditioned stimulus over and over,
but try to get the unconditioned response. If you want to learn more check out How does winning the lottery tend to effect people's happiness?
o Operant Conditioning: behavior that is controlled by consequences. You are
either rewarded or punished for a certain response to a stimulus. If you want to learn more check out Why did charlotte perkins gilman wrote the yellow wallpaper?
Schedules of Reinforcement:
∙ Secondary vs Primary Reinforcers
o Token Economy: helping reward behavior by making
an exchange system.
∙ Two Process Theory: an initial classical conditioning
experience lays down the learning experience. Classical
conditioning always happens first.
Latent Learning: learning that happens when you are not aware of it.
Unintentional/ coincidental learning.
∙ Context Dependent Learning: when the circumstances of where
you are, which people you are with, or whatever the case may
be is influencing your learning.
∙ State Dependent Learning: when your learning depends on if
you are the same physical, psychological, or emotional state as Don't forget about the age old question of What is the part-whole fallacy / fallacy of composition
you were when you first learned something.
Chapter 7: Memory
∙ Memory: the process of maintaining information over time.
o Memory illusion: a false, but subjectively compelling memory that your brain
o Flashbulb memory: an emotionally charged memory of your experience in an important event. These kinds of memories can become less accurate over
time. People would still believe it is true, when it probably is not.
o Three Systems of Memory
Sensory Memory: memory that involves the five senses (taste touch
smell sound and sight) that comes in and we remember it. Don't forget about the age old question of Can individuals evolve over the course of their lifetimes?
∙ Duration: this kind of memory decays very quickly.
∙ Capacity: the brain is unlimited to store this kind of memory.
Short Term memory: what you are thinking about right now, or what is
currently active in your brain.
∙ Duration: lasts about 20 seconds, then eventually decays.
∙ Capacity: has a limited capacity. Can only hold five to nine
things at a time.
o Chunking: when you group small but meaningful units
so that it fits in your shorttern memory.
LongTerm Memory: information that stays in your brain for a long
∙ Duration: can last from minutes to years.
∙ Capacity: possibly unlimited.
∙ Explicit: things that we subconsciously remember.
o Semantic: memories about facts.
o Episodic: memories that happens in our lifetime.
∙ Implicit: more about procedures/habits that you do without
having to think about doing it.
Encoding: taking in information into shortterm memory, and working
with it to see if it is put into longterm memory.
∙ Mnemonic: ways of classifying pieces of information to help memorize things better (e.g. spelling/acronym; rhyme; music
∙ Encoding Errors: when you either encode a certain memory wrong, or it does not go in correctly into short or longterm
o Injury/organic cause: injury to the brain, or an organic
reason to not encode memory correctly.
o LongTerm Potentiation: results in either using less
stimulation to get the same response, or using stronger
stimulation to get a stronger response.
o Synaptic Plasticity: the ability to change your synapses.
∙ Retrieval: recalling information you have stored.
o Recall vs. Recognition
Recall: when you remember the components of
Recognition: when you have all the information
in front of you, but you must select the correct
o Ebbhinghaus’ forgetting curve: forgetting a lot initially, but eventually our forgetting levels off if you don’t
consistently remember something.
o Tip of the Tongue phenomenon: when you can’t
remember the thing you are trying to recall, but you can
describe features of it because you know what it is.
o Interference: when you know you learned something, but something is interfering with you recalling it.
Proactive: when old information interferes with
learning new information.
Retroactive: when new information is
interfering with recalling old information.
o Context dependent memory: when the circumstances of where you are, what people you are with, or whatever
the case may be is influencing your learning. o State dependent memory: when your learning depends
on if you are the same physical, psychological, or emotional state as you were when you first learned something.