Study Guide for first exam
Study Guide for first exam INS 201
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This 25 page Study Guide was uploaded by Juliana Carvajal on Monday April 6, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to INS 201 at University of Miami taught by Margarita Rodriguez in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 120 views. For similar materials see Global Perspectives in International Studies at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 04/06/15
Study Guide INS 102 Juliana Carvaj al 1 What is globalization as a deep restructuring in the spatial temporal and relational aspects of social life a A historical epoch globalization is a discrete period of time with specific characteristics where certain attributes applied and some theories applied it is not a theory itself i Time is the crucial de nitive element of this approach b Con uence of economic phenomena globalization might be characterized nctionally by an intrinsically related series of economic phenomena i In its narrowest formulation term refers to the worldwide spread of sales production facilities and manufacturing processes all of which reconstitute the international division of labor ii Globalization thus characterizes and intensification and linkage of a number of old processes rather than the development of a new one economic integration iii Intensification of the process of international interdependence iv Di erence process driven and economically defined c Hegemony of American values a homogenization of values around the principles of capitalism and democracy albeit a strictly American version of both built on Protestant values that purportedly epitomize the Enlightenment i Globalization represents the universalizing of American values if not AngloSaxon ones predicated on a normative indeed moral foundation ii Emphasis placed on the triumph of American values iii Focuses on approaches employed in the political science literature particularly in the realm of comparative politics d Technol02ical and social revolution View depicts a striking revolution among technoindustrial elites driven mainly by technological advances that ultimately renders the globe a single market i We are witnessing a shift from industrial capitalism to a postindustrial conception of economic relations e I approach is historical 2 quot is economic the third sociological 4th is technological 2 Globalism vs globalization a Globalism is the proposition that world should be rooted in global principles 3 Global Perspective a Formally analysis that includes the entire world planetary scale b Substantively Understanding that there are worldsystemic forces which are articulated or connected with local regional events and processes and even micro units such as the enterprise and the household Study Guide INS 102 Juliana Carvaj al C Examples i Worldsystem analvsis establishes that there is a worldeconomy with dash not just a world economy no dash ii Worldeconomy highlights assumption about dominant mode of production ie capitalism iii World economy general economy 4 Transnational Perspectives a Emphasizes nonstate actors b Doesn t exclude the state it presupposes it can t think of nonstate actors without first acknowledging that states exist 5 Statecentric Perspective international relations relations between states doesn t account for non state actors 6 Transnational relations and transnationalism a Transnational relations regular transactions across national boundaries when at least one actor is a nonstate actor b Transnationalism international relations conducted by government have been supplemented by relations among private individuals 7 Conceptualizations on development a National Development the ability of a county or countries to improve the social welfare of the people e g by providing social amenities like quality education potable water transportation infrastructure medical care etc i Economic aspect sustained and sustainable economic growth ii Social aspect widespread access to healthcare and education for most of the country iii Social justice aspect reduce inequality secure the endurance of democratic institutions in combination with respect for human rights iv Sociological aspects sociocultural integration granting of citizenship rights respect for human rights b Human Develooment defined as the process of enlarging people 39s freedoms and opportunities and improving their wellbeing has 2 sides i Formation of human capabilities knowledge skills better health ii The use people make of their enhanced capabilities as they participate in productive cultural social and political a airs c Global Develooment refers to the development of greater quality of life for humans 8 What is a global city a a global city is a significant production point of specialized financial and producer services that make the globalized economy run b A city that is heavily interconnected to other cities in the world has a global projection c General characteristics Study Guide INS 102 Juliana Carvaj a1 i Home to major stock exchanges and indexes ii In uential in international political a airs iii Home to worldrenowned cultural institutions iv Service a major media hub v Large mass transit networks vi Home to a large international airport vii Having a prominent skyline 9 4 basic ways analysts look at global city Renn 2012 reading a C Advanced producer services production node For cities with large concentrations of these those cities can generate significantly above average economic output and incomes per worker Economic giants Namely this is a fairly simple but important view of that simply measures how big cities are on some metrics like GDP International Gateway Measures of the importance of a city in the international ows of people and goods Examples would be the airport and cargo gateway figures Political and Cultural Hub An important distinction should perhaps be made here between hubs that may be large but of primarily national or regional importance and those of truly international significance For example there are many media hubs around the world but few of them are home to outlets like the BBC that drive the global conversation 10 Global commodity chain a b a network of labor and production processes whose end result is a finished commodity sets of organizational networks clustered around commodity or product linking households enterprises and states to one another within the world economy The primary focus of global commodity chain GCC analysis is the international trading system and the increasing economic integration of international production and marketing chains 11 Millennium Development Goals project commissioned by the UN to deal w poverty a b Declaration adopted in September 2000 by many world leaders 8 Goals i Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger ii Achieve universal primary education iii Promote gender equality and empower women iV Reduce child mortality Study Guide INS 102 Juliana Carvaj al V Improve maternal health vi Combat HIVAIDS malaria and other diseases vii Ensure environmental sustainability viii Develop a global partnership for development 12 Millennium Development Challenge Corporation a M C C is an innovative and independent US foreign aid agency that is helping lead the fight against global poverty 9 Created by US Congress in January 2004 III Power Sovereignty the International System Sovereignty PeaceTreaty of Westphalia in 1648 is beginning of sovereignty The ideaspractices of sovereignty began much before 1648 however Treaty of Westphalia is when it really began to be recognized Was used to bring an end to religious order in politics Movement towards a secular ruled world Core de nition supreme authority within a territory A holder of sovereignty derives authority from some mutually acknowledged source of legitimacy natural law a divine mandate hereditary law a constitution even international law These rules may need to be broken sometimes in order to preserve sovereignty Internal sovereignty relationship between sovereign power and the subjects within that power External sovereignty relationship between a sovereign power and other states International law freedom from outside in uence recognition from other states The modern polity is the state and the authority within it is sovereignty Law is the source of sovereignty Sovereignty is a matter of supreme authority There is no greater power above a sovereign state Territoriality is key to sovereignty It is when members of a community are within a speci c location and are de ned in that locann Sovereignty is the supreme authority within a territory The character of the one holding supremacy in a state is very important in sovereignty Absolute Sovereignty having full authority within a territory NonAbsolute Sovereignty having authority within speci c aspects of a territory Study Guide INS 102 Juliana Carvaj al The modern world is more nonabsolute sovereignty rather than absolute The authority needs to be limited in some aspects so that sovereignty isn t used in cruel ways Raimo Vayrynen Argument on Sovereignty States and sovereignty is not disappearing However they are gaining new tasks when it comes to sovereignty States and sovereignty are being transformed There are two key dimensions on sovereignty that depend on each other 1 Constitutional independence of one state from another 2 Internal organization of power within a state The state and society in a sovereign state shape each other With the rise of nonstate actors sovereignty needs to be rede ned and transformed to suite the nonstate actors as well since sovereignty deals with the issue of a state only Because of this Sovereignty is malleable and can be changed Also there needs to be an addition of invisible political and cultural borders with respect to territoriality Sovereignty has provided weak states with legitimacy and external support from other states With globalization some aspects of sovereignty are being threatened 1 The capacity of states to act has been hindered 2 Internal sovereignty is less strong than it was before globalization 3 Sovereignty needs wealth to exercise power International Economy Mutual interdependence of national economies Globalized Economy Economies are pulled into the global system through international processes and transactions Raimo says that the state and sovereignty are not being replaced by globalization however they are being changed There will also be an increase in quotsoft lawquot Raimo also says that the decrease in transaction costs in trade are causing an increase in globalization and an increase in the change in sovereignty and states Raimo also says that distance between states is not disappearing because of globalization The sovereign states hold the global system and markets together Sovereignty and global market systems are crucial for both to survive in the modern world Study Guide INS 102 Juliana Carvaj a1 States are now relying on support from social forces nonstate actors and general public in practicing the states power Social Movements and organizations are big factors and players in the sovereignty and global markets Golobal MarketsTransnational coalitions and their players are now able to affect sovereignty and the state heavily This is why states require their support Power Power as Authority Legitimate use of power Individuals accept and act on the orders given by the power Power as Coercion Illegitimate use of power by using threats and violence to get individuals to act Legitimacy the recognition by individuals and other states that the power being used is good and fair and following the rules Three types of Legitimate PowerRule 1 Charismatic Authority Leaders personality maintains order 2 Traditional Authority How political order can be maintained by constant reference to customs and traditions 3 Rational Legal Authority Bureaucracy How a political order is regarded as legal in the eyes of the population Based on Natural Laws When people interact expectations of behavior are formed and then these behaviors are expected each time there is interaction This creates a normative order This forms a set of legal rules Weber says that modern government is government by bureaucracy State Sovereignty power legitimacy under conditions of globalization Many of the problems faced today cannot be dealt on the national level Transnational interaction is key to solving these problems Globalization affects the national decisionmaking process in 3 ways 1 Transfer of decisions to the international level 2 Due to an increase in the demand for participation some decisions are moved to the local levels of government 3 This means that globalization is a multilevel system with different levels of government solving different issues The state is still the key actor and holds sovereignty despite many accusations that states are obsolete Increase in interaction of states can strengthen them making them more powerful Study Guide INS 102 Juliana Carvaj a1 Globalization makes states more necessary so that they can govern the international system States are crucial in enforcing laws and taking on responsibilities in creating a better international system Globalization may require that the State improve its capacity to deal with greater openness but it does not seem to undermine its size nor its fundamental role within the national and international landscape The state is the link between different partners and activities in the international world Governments that have a open policy market are quotriding the wave of globalizationquot Statesgovernments need to accept change to keep up with globalization Democratic states are necessary to protect the individuals and vulnerable segments of society A big issue is combating poverty Strong democratic states have the following characteristics Strong institutions of governance and rule of law Credible and independent judicial institutions Effective legal frameworks for economic activity An open economic environment Price stability and nancial responsibility Equitable tax system Developed labour nancial and capital markets Adequate enforcement capacities Public and private sectors in business 0 Access to information and promotion of technological development States need to be efficient and socially proactive me mmBWNH Westphalian System Legitimacy is key for a westphalian system There are 2 key elements 1 Character of belief Do people in the state agree the claims of rulers 2 Legitimacy requires values Legitimacy involves a value centered belief as to who is entitled to rule It is based on actual belief and agreement with the ruler instead of being based on fear and coercion Democratic states rarely go to war with each other because the legitimacy between them is strong Human rights are a big aspect and becoming more important slowly taking over the position of state sovereignty Study Guide INS 102 Juliana Carvaj a1 Soft Power Soft power is more important than hard power in modern international politics It is used in order to stop wars Soft power is the ability to get others to want the outcomes you want To be attractive to other statesactors Hard power is using fear and coercion to get what you want Soft power allows for change of behavior without the use of military power Soft power is not as costly as hard power Actors using soft power will not go to war because its to costly Soft power is attributed with liberal actorsstates Institutions allow for soft power to be used and give legitimacy to those acting out with soft power making them more attractive to other states US uses soft power so that other states don t feel threatened by its supremacy Hegemonic Stability Hegemonic state is one that is large compared to others and able to in uence and control the international system bene ting itself and others Hegemonic stability is caused when a provision of a public good by a hegemonic actor is greater than the entire cost providing it The dominant actor will lead to a stable regime bene ting itself and allowing other states especially smaller ones to bene t even more Dominant actor bene ts all states Hegemonic power will use its superiority to structure the trading system to its own advantage Imperialism through trade A way to coerce small states to adopt the hegemonic ideas Benevolent model of hegemonic stability is absolute power Coercive model of hegemonic stability is relative power Challenges to sovereignty Puerto Rico PR Historical overview March 1950 island representative in Congress asked the House of Representatives for authorization to redact the Constitution June 1951 approved in referendum by the Puerto Ricans Constitution is redacted and rati ed by constitutional assembly Study Guide INS 102 Juliana Carvaj a1 March 1952 Puerto Ricans voted in favor of the Constitution and President Truman approved it July 1952 Establishment of the Commonwealth Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Ric0 Luis Munoz Marl39n rst governor elected by PuertoRicans Current political trends Political parties in PR divided according to their vision of the country 0 Popular Democratic Party PDD Founded by Munoz Marl39n now in power Commonwealth aligned with democrats in the US 0 New Progressive Party PNP Statehood Recently most Republican pro le PuertoRican Independence Party PIP Liberation of PR Minority Plebiscites 1 1967PDD Estado Libre Asociado Commonwealth 2 1993PNP Same 3 1998PNP none of the above Why The options were de ned as follows a quotLimited governmentquot Commonwealth b Sovereign state associated with US no longer born US citizens US renounce to all powers in PR new de nition of PR in the international stage c PR union as a state dndependence e None of the above Added bc Estado Libre Asociado ELA was not properly represented 4 2012j 2 questions 1 Do you agree that PR should continue to have its present from of status No 2 Regardlesss of your selection in the rst question please mark which of the following nonterritorial options do you prefer Again no option for ELA Pierluisi supports Statehood won the elections one more plebiscite Statehood Yes or No PostCold War cases Failed and fragile states threat to intl community 0 Internal con ict civil war revolution Humanitarian emergency 0 Competition over resources Fractured leadership We need a holistic view and interdisciplinary study of the state to identify its aws Study Guide INS 102 Juliana Carvaj a1 Fragile State Index FS political risk assessment and early warning of con ict to policymakers highlighting relevant info about social economic and political pressures Social indicators 1 Demographic pressures natural disasters diseases environment food scarcity 2 Refugees and IDPs displacement refugees camps 3 Group grievancel violence and fear discrimination ethnic violence 4 Human ight and Brain Drain migration per capita human capital Economic indicators 1 Uneven economic Developmentl disparities GINI coefficient access to improved services 2 Poverty and economic decline economic de cit government debt unemployment GDP per capita in ation Political and military indicators 1 State legitimacyl corruption and lack of representativeness political participation electoral process drug trade 2 Public servicesl provision of health education and sanitation services criminality literacy roads infrastructure quality healthcare 3 Human Rights and the Rule of Law press freedom religious persecution human trafficking 4 Security apparatusl monopoly of the legitimate use of force military coups rebel activity bombings political prisoners 5 Factionalized elitesl local and national leaders deadlock for political gain power struggles awed electors 6 External interventionl intl intervention peace keepers UN missions sanctions Examples of failed states 1 Somalia 2 Congo 3 Sudan 4 South Sudan Main critics to FSl Practical Division of the states in weak and strong Prioritize fail state as a threat Study Guide INS 102 Juliana Carvaj al Theoretical Poorly tabulated and con ates key concepts of state within a state Sovereignty and globalization Ancient concept of sovereignty as monopoly of power is now being eroded in favor of regional and global governance states ceding sovereignty to lGOs and allowing representatives of MNC s and NGO s in regional and global deliberations Globalization challenges states ability to control what crosses borders in either direction Eliminating sovereignty may be needed when a state fails to ful ll its citizens their basic needs Rede nition of sovereignty However constraint on violence between states must be preserved The end of the welfare state Shift from the pure concept of sovereignty to human sovereigntyl it s the state s duty to guarantee its citizens welfare through the implementation of public policies Economic globalization has constrained the welfare state by limiting states capacity to regulate its policies In order to compete within the intl system states will cut labor costs reduce price of goods and services and reduce taxation undermining the welfare state IV Trade and Globalization since the constitution of the Bretton Woods System What is the Bretton Woods System and when it was established 0 After the end of WWII the US dollar was powerful in international trade and Europe needed a new global financial order 0 The Bretton Woods system was created in 1944 and it created an international basis for exchanging one currency for another 0 It also led and created the creation of the International Monetary Fund IMF and the International Bank for reconstruction and development known as the World Bank 0 The system was designed to monitor exchange rates and lend reserve currencies to nations with trade deficits 0 Also to provide underdeveloped nations with the needed capital 0 Each of the 44 nations who joined the discussions had to contribute a membership fee Study Guide INS 102 Juliana Carvaj al 0 The amount of each contribution designated a country s economic ability and dictated the number of votes 0 The members agreed to fix their exchange rates by tying their currencies to the US dollar 0 In that time the US dollar was linked to gold 0 Great depression came and here was devaluation de ation and depression 1930 0 The Bretton Woods System collapsed in 1971 President Richard Nixon closed the link between dollar and gold 0 The importance of the Bretton Woods System How Bretton Woods reshaped the world 0 The delegates during negotiations focus on two things how to establish a stable system of exchange rates and how to pay for rebuilding the war damaged economies of Europe 0 They established tow international organizations to deal with this the IMF and the World Bank 0 Fixed exchange rates I The international Monetary Fund was set up to enforce a set of fixed exchange rates that were linked to the dollar 0 Countries in balance of payments difficulties could receive shortterm help from the IMF to avoid devaluation I It could also sanction changes in exchange rates when necessary I The World Bank was set up to make longterm loans and to facilitate investment of capital fro productive purposes including the recovery of economies destroyed by war 0 Postwar prosperity I A third organization the International Trade Organization designed to encourage free trade was still born when the Us refused to ratify although tariff reductions were pursued through the GATT treatv later I The Bretton woods system gave the US currency which was linked to gold the dominant position in the world economy I US had a lot of power in trade to devaluate currency and took major decisions in the institutions 0 Marshall Plan I The US helped the European recovery by contribuiting additional funds through the Marshall Plan I World Trade among developed countries grew rapidly in the 1950 1960 0 Breakdown of Bretton Woods Study Guide INS 102 Juliana Carvaj al I 1970s the US currency was under pressure from the Vietnam War and growing trade deficit I 1971 Nixon went off the gold standard and devaluated the dollar Ithis led to an abandonment of a fixed exchange rate to a floating exchange rate IAgreements of forging a new system failed by the IMF still retained its role The Breakdown of the Bretton Woods has tow consequences I Europena countries begin to consider coperaion among each other with led to the creation of the EURO 1999 I Creation of the G7 coordinate currency adjustment 0 Financial globalization 0 Bretton woods encouraged deregulation in currency markets and rules about banking and investment 0 This led to increased ows of private money to rich and poor countries I The resource of the IMF proved inadequate to compensate I Since them many Asian countries including china have accumulated large currency reserves to insulate themselves from further crises 0 New Global Rules 0 Renewed call fro a new global frameeork of financial regulation 0 Countries are more prone to be preopore for a financial crisi 0 Any new agreement whould have to recognize the power of the rising economies such as china and indea and reshape the institutions created in 1944 The Strengths and Weaknesses of Bretton Woods 0 Strengths The creation of institutions such as the IMF and World Bank the cooperation and multilateral agreements that increased the economic interdependence among nations Also the recognition of less favored nations it also GLOBALIZED THE COUNTRIES I Weaknesses The fact that the currencies were pegged to the dollar and the dollar depended on gold This caused tha the United States had to much power and when depression came everyone was in crisis The US eliminated the link between gold and dollar and every country saw that the IMF didn t work because payments in the longterm were not going to be made 0 Historical Aspects and the controversial use of the designation Study Guide INS 102 Juliana Carvaj al 0 Antiglobalization is a disputed term referring to the international social movement network that gained widespread media attention after protest against the World Trade Organization WTO in Seattle In 1999 Activists and scholars debate whether it constitutes a single social movement or represent a collection of allied groups 0 The global movement is broadly critical of the policies of economic neoliberalism or corporate globalization that has guided international trade 0 Various groups and activist gathered and charged that the policies of corporate globalization have exacerbated global poverty and increased inequality 0 The movement has held protest outside meeting of institutions such as the WTO IMF World Bank etc 0 They have an annual gathering the World Social Forum serves as a site for activist networking and transnational multinational corporations 0 They seek to increase popular control of political and economic life in the face of increasingly powerful corporations unaccountable global financial institutions and US hegemony Focus on democracy 0 Terminology the term antiglobalization movement they have been critics by the media than used for selfidentification Many activists reject the label because in implies they are isolated They use the internation to united activists across border 0 In some cases they have even created NO BORDERS campaign prominent in Europe with No one is illegal 0 They advocate the elimination of boundaries 0 Countering the spread of multinational corporations they aspire inted to Globalize hope and Globalize resistence or globalize liberation 0 Against capitalism 0 Movement participants argue that these policies have created sweatshopworking conditions in the developing world threatened unionized jobs and environmental protections in the global North benefited the wealthy at the expense of the poor and endangered indigenous cultures 0 Movement Origins The 1999 quotBattle of Seattlequot while not the first appearance of the global movement dramatically altered the debate about trade and development taking place within international institutions It served as a prototype for many future protests and also marked the moment when quotantiglobalizationquot as a term gained widespread usage 0 OO Study Guide INS 102 Juliana Carvaj al 0 In Seattle an estimated 75000 activists organized an unusually colorful and confrontational demonstration against the meetings of the WTO 0 Groups like Art and Revolution created giant puppets to carry in the demonstrations activists inspired by British Reclaim the Streets actions held parties in intersections blocked by protesters and musicians formed activist marching bands 0 labor movement led a mass march on the organization39s Ministerial meetings student anarchist and militant environmentalist quotaffinity groupsquot formed a nonviolent human blockade around the convention center preventing trade ministers from holding the opening session of the meetings Police responded to the blockades with tear gas and rubber bullets 0 quotBlack Blocquot of anarchists vandalized downtown storefronts of major banks and corporations like Nike 0 Authorities temporarily enacted martial law and over 600 protesters were arrested for acts of civil disobedience during the week of action 0 The Seattle round of trade negotiations deadlocked when developing nations bolstered by grassroots resistance rejected US and European demands 0 The week delivered a lasting setback to the WTO and represented a turning point for neoliberal advocates who adopted a defensive posture in subsequent negotiations and in their public justifications of the quotfree tradequot agenda 0 National and International Protests 0 Continued protests outside of international financial institutions serve as only the most highly publicized manifestations of a much broader body of action taking place at the local and national levels 0 Strikes by unions in South Korea fights against water privatization in Bolivia and South Africa 0 The mass mobilization of civil society in Argentina following the country39s 2001 economic collapse 0 The struggle against development of hydroelectric dams in rural India Indonesian protests in the wake of the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis actions of the landless farmers movement MST in Brazil African efforts to secure access to lowcost generic AIDS drugs 0 Demonstrations in Central America against the adoption of trade agreements with the United States 0 Resistance to the WTO has united labor unionists who argue that the organization is depressing wages and lowering protections for workers farmers in the global South 0 World Social Forum and AntiWar Activism The world economic forum is an annual convention of in uential politicians O O Study Guide INS 102 Juliana Carvaj al and business elites held in a swiss resort has attracted protest from globazation activists 0 The World Social Forum provides space for local and national social movements to network strategize for future action and be a unified international movement 0 The forum after sept 11 were preoccupied by Bush war on terror and demonstrate their discontent with US invention in IRAQ O Jubilee coalition has vigorously campaigned for debt relief for poor countries 0 Protests and cultural events in July 2005 pressured G8 leaders the G8 agreed to an accord canceling debts owed by 18 of the world39s poorest countries to the IMF the World Bank and the African Development Bank 0 Ideological and Stategic Debates The globalization movement as a whole claims no formal leaders 0 Prominent figures include Canadian journalist Naomi Klein Indian ecofeminist Vandana Shiva US intellectual Noam Chomskyetc 0 A lack of official spokespeople agreedupon manifestos or overarching organizational structures means that many ideological and strategic issues within the movement remain unresolved 0 Globalization movement organizations represent groups based in civil society rather than traditional communist socialist or social democratic parties 0 The globalization movement will remain historically noteworthy for its contribution to revitalizing the international left in the post Cold War era 0 After September 11 0 Once the anti globalization movement nearly shut down a city Not anymore 0 After the battle in seattle they were 45000 in all and they atleast called the attention of important organizations 0 When the World Bank and IMF hold their annual meeting in DC this October their proceeding hardly interest the press no protests 0 A berkely non profic held a small protest in a park near the meeting 30 or more activist calling upon stopping dirty energy The anti globalization movement is thing of the past WHY Nadine Bloch thinks 911 was the turning point 0 Many NGOS and nonprofits were really worried about seeming unAmerican After the attacks the apetite for protest disaperar 0 Even a decade after the attacks it has failed to recapitrue attention of masses globalization movement 0 Some argue that the reason protest have cooled is that the wolrd bank and other globalizing institutions have changed their policies 0 OO O Study Guide INS 102 Juliana Carvaj al 0 World bank has placed accountability programs and ecourage approaches to alleviate poverty 0 Rick the author of an important book says that the banks permissive attitude towards environmental destruction has continued 0 Also the decline of the global and domestic economy are reasons for the decline of antiglobalization activism O In this decade the world bank is no longer as financially in uential as it once was 0 The Bank and IMF are simply less financially relevant 0 The only biggest protest in the United States was the occupation of wall street 0 Occuppy Wall Street and the Recession O Occupy wall street is a people powered movement that began on September 17 2011 in liberty square manhattans Fianacial district and has spred to over 100 cities in the United States 0 They are fighting against the corrosive power of major banks and multinational corporations over the democratic process and the role of Wall street in creating an economic collapse that has cause great recession 0 The movement is inspired by populr uprisings in Egypt and Tunisia and aims to fight back against the richest people that are wrtining the rules of an unfair global economy 0 s the oldest and most trusted online resource for the Occupy Movement We were founded on July 14th 2011 when Justine Tunney organized a scrappy group of anarchists to take the initiative in organizing a call to action published by Micah White in Adbusters magazine 0 What is the GATT How long it lasted and how it worked 0 In 1944 the trade system came under the GATT O GATT helped establish a strong and prosperous multilateral trading system that became more and more liberal though rounds of trade negotiations O In 1980 the system needed to be changed and this led to the URUGUAY ROUND and ultimalty to the WTO From 1948 to 1994 the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade Drovided rules for much of world trade and presided 0 The original intention was to create a third institution to handle trade side of international economic cooperation 0 They had rounds on negorations to create an international trade organization Study Guide INS 102 O Juliana Carvaj al One of the provision of the GATT SAYS THAT THEY SHOULD trade mun d5 Thar 19 19 1951 1956 1E 1E 1 1954 1 19 19 1956 1994 Placemarma EulrjEEE Genera nneey Thruway Genera Emmra EHMEm Rmmnd Genera Kennedy Remnd Emmra Thkyu Rmmnd Emmra Uruguay Rmmnd O ACCEPT SOME OF THE TRADE RULES AND PROVISIONALLY 0 The GATT basic legal Emuum principles remained much cumemad Tmm E as they were 1n 1948 They TL 13 were addition in the from of Tami 33 a section on development TimE 35 added in the 1960 and 1mm 35 plirulateral agreement in 1970 Tami am 51 0 Effots to reduce tarrifs W V continued and was achieved clumping measures through a ser1es of Twins mn m1 multilateral negotiation mm measures known as trade rounds gimmmquot O In the early years the grEfmnemEE Tmma 1E GATT trade rounds WW concentrated on further Hummus1 NE 39 reduc1ng tar1ffs f gm 0 Kennedy Round in the mid g g sixties brought about a et l mentg GATT AntiDumping E k i ammmm Agreement and a sectlon on development O The Tokyo Round dur1ng the seventies was the first major attempt to tackle trade barriers that do not take the form of tariffs and to improve the system T The Uruguay Round of 198694 was the last and most extensive of all It led to the WTO and a new set of agreements Provisions of GATTWTO O O Texts on the interpretation of the following GATT articles Article 11 Schedule of concession agreement to record in nationa schedules other duties or charges Understanding on the interpretation of Article XVll Agreement increasing surveillance of their activities through stronger notification Article X11 and XVll balance of payments provisions Contracting parties imposing restriction for balance of payments purposes shoud do son in the least trade disruptive manner and should favour price based measures Article XXIV Customs unions and free trade aeras Reinforcing the criteria and procedures for the review of new or enlarged customs Study Guide INS 102 Juliana Carvaj al uninos or free trade aeras and for the evaluation of their effect on third parties 0 Article XXV Waivers Agreement of new procedures for the granting og waivers to specify termination dates 0 Article XXVII Modification of GATT shedules Agreement on new procedures fror the netiation of compensation when tariff binding are midified or withdrawn 0 Article XXXV non application of the general agreement Agreement to allow a contract party or a nrely acceding county to invoke the GATT non application privions O A LOT OF NEW AGREEMENTS WERE MADE LIKE ANTIDUMPING TEXTILES AND ADHERED TO THE GATT THIS ARE ONLY THE MOST CRUCIAL 0 What is the WTO When did it start and why 0 History In 1947 the worlds major trading countries signed the general agreement on tariffs and trade GATT that laid the ground rules for the multilateral trading system Efforts to establish an international organization failed in 1948 Members conducted a series of multilateral negotiation know as rounds to lower trade barriers between them They were several rounds as mentioned before but in the Uruguay round Members agreed to lower tariffs address nontariff barriers and extend trade rules into several new areas including trade in services and intellectual property On January 1 1995 the WTO officially replaced the GATT and the informal forum it provided for more than four decades Today the WTO is a vital international institution It has 153 members and collectively they represent 95 percent of world trade The World Trade Organization The World Trade Organization WTO is the only global international organization dealing with the rules of trade between nations At its heart are the WTO agreements negotiated and signed by the bulk of the world s trading nations and ratified in their parliaments The goal is to help producers of goods and services exporters and importers conduct their business Who we are is an organization for trade opening It is a forum for governments to negotiate trade agreements It is a place for them to settle trade disputes It operates a system of trade rules Essentially the WTO is a place where member governments try to sort out the trade problems they face with each other What we do its member governments run The WTO All major decisions are made by the membership as a whole either by ministers who usually meet at least once every two years or by their ambassadors or delegates who meet regularly in Geneva Study Guide INS 102 Juliana Carvaj al I Trade negotiations I Implementation and monitoring I Dispute settlement I Building trade capacity I outreach 0 What we stand for The WTO agreements are lengthy and complex because they are legal texts covering a Wide range of activities But a number of simple fundamental principles run throughout all of these documents These principles are the foundation of the multilateral trading system I Non discrimination I More open I Predictable and transparent I More competitive I More bene cial for less developd countries I Protect the environment 0 In Favor of the WTO 0 10 benefits of the world trading organization I 1 The system helps promote peace Disputes are handled constructively Rules make life easier for all Freer trade cuts the costs of living It provides more choice of products and qualities Trade raises incomes Trade stimulates economic growth I 8 The basic principles make life more efficient I 9 governmens are shielded from lobbying I 10the system encourages good government httpWWWWtoorgenglishthewto eWhatis e10ben e10b03 ehtm for more info on each one I IONUIPUJN 0 Against the WTO 0 12 reasons to oppose to the WTO 1 The WTO in fundamentally undemocratic 2 The WTO Will not makes us safer the domination of international trade by rich countries for the benefit of their individual interest fuels anger and makes us less safe 3 The WTO tramples labor and human rights lower wages not taken into accout and don t take into accout non comercia values 4 The WTO would privatize essential services selling public asset schools radios etc 5 The WTO is destroying the environment Study Guide INS 102 Juliana Carvaj al 6 The WTO is killing people 7 The WTO is increasing inequality 8 The WTO is increasing hunger 9 The WTO hurts poor small countries in favor of rich powerful antions 10 The WTO undermines local level decisionmaking and national sovereignty 11 There are alternaives to the WTO 12 The tide is turning against free trade and the WTO massive protests 0 NAFTA origins history praise and negative aspects 0 0 000000 On January 1 1994 the North American Free Trade Agreement between the United States Canada and Mexico NAFTA entered into force All remaining duties and quantitative restrictions were eliminated as scheduled on January 1 2008 NAFTA created the world39s largest free trade area which now links 450 million people producing 17 trillion worth of goods and services Exports Canada and mexico were the top purchasers of US exports Imports second and hird largest suppliers of goods to the US Trade Balances tade surpluses Investment FDI in NAFTA countries HISTORY The concept behind NAFTA Promoting economic growth by easing the movement of goods and services between the US Mexico and Canada had existed for years before it was born President Ronald Reagan spoke of a North American agreement in his campaign in 1979 and the CanadaUS Free Trade Agreement had existed since 1989 NAFTA which was launched January 1 1994 and finally saw the last of its policies implemented on January 1 2008 stipulates the removal of most tariffs and restrictions on trade between the three nations and codifies a wide range of agreements on agricultural textile and auto trade as well as telecommunications intellectual property mobility of workers and environmental policies Mexico would undoubtedly want to discuss the US39s new restrictive migration policies and high corn subsidies for US farmers which hurt Mexican farmers Canada may want to pursue new energy trade policies Mexico39s current conservative government has opposed reopening the terms of NAFTA Twenty years later NAFTA remains a soruce of tension Consumer advocacy say nafta has had NEGATIVE effecs in Mexico and the US The resulting outsourcing and lower wages have hurt the US domestic economy and that mexicos rural industries have destabilized Drug problems and since nafta displaced Mexican agricultural workers into other sector it forced the to immigrate illegally to the US Nafta and globalization have winners and loosers Study Guide INS 102 O Juliana Carvaj al FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT 0 Some argument in favor and against free trade agreements 0 Free trade agreements Free trade agreements are numerous around the world They are designed to enhance freer trade of goods and often services in the belief that it will be beneficial for all parties involved and lead to further economic development and growth based on neoliberal economic ideoloav Unity is strength in Latin America regional integration not protectionism is the right response to fear of deindustrialization Brazil the B in the BRICS The governments of Brazil and argentina are resorting to protection The argentine government no longer grants automatic import license to Brazilian fimrs making a mockery of MERCOSUR South americans are right to worry about deindustrialization The main looser fro higher trade barriers will be cosumers who have to pay higher prices for cars or other products Times to resurrect the FTAA Brazil should be a leading a new pust to tear down barrier within latin America as a whole Latin American counties export much less to their neighbors tha do their counterpart in other contienes In favor of the USColombia FTA he USColombia freetrade agreement FTA follows a series of similar agreements negotiated by the Bush administration and approved by Congress with five Central American countries the Dominican Republic Chile and Peru The free trade agreement with Colombia was designed to both strengthen civil society in Colombia and also to open economic opportunities for US producers to sell to the country s 44 million upwardly mobile American friendly consumers LIKE Similar agreements the United States has already negotiated in the region the agreement would knock down barriers to US exports More than 80 percent of US exports of consumer and industrial products to Colombia would become duty free on enactment and remaining tariffs would be phased out over the next 10 years Approving a free trade agreement with Colombia is about supporting a market democracy in a region where liberal values are under attack It is about being a reliable partner in turbulent times It is also about building longlasting institutions for economic prosperity and democracy for millions of Colombians Arguments against EU and USFTA Measuring the impact on the south the result of the diversion of trade ows which will occur as the level of trade between the EU and the US increases at the expense of trade relations with other countries Countries for whom say the US represents a main trading partner will be forced to enter into competition with the EU when the TTIP comes into force or Study Guide INS 102 Juliana Carvaj al the other way around Additionally countries that benefit from low tariffs due to the General System of Preferences GSP will face further negative consequences 0 Propping up old powers actual reason why the EU and the USA are negotiating this agreement is to bolster their diminishing economic position in world politics by setting global standards They aim to develop a new trade regime which will force its regulations and standards on other countries 0 Sidelinning bricks negotiating partners or probable future members of the Transpacific Partnership TPP which the US is currently negotiating A common TPPTTIP trade zone would leave out the BRICS countries Brazil Russia India China and South Africa a move which the US and EU would no doubt hope would spark their desire to join 0 The death of the multilateral trading system Such a situation would contradict the ideals the EU and the US envisaged when the multilateral trading system was created in the aftermath of the Second World War One of the goals of such common trade regulations was to establish peace through less discriminating and more integrated trade relations on a global level Issues against CAFTA Central Americans The issues that most concern Central Americans vary from country to country 0 In Costa Rica for example there has been considerable opposition to provisions in DRCAFTA that would serve to privatize the country39s inexpensive and well functioning telecommunications system 0 In El Salvador much of the protest has focused on the link between efforts to privatize publichealth care and provisions in DRCAFTA that would expedite the sector39s privatization and make it permanent OO 0 Some issues have resonated throughout the region 0 Central Americans look with alarm at the experience of Mexican farmers under NAFTA realizing that their own agricultural sectors which are the source of up to half of local employment could be devastated by imports of lowcost farm goods from the United States 0 Many civilsociety groups in every country in the region are also strongly opposed to provisions in DRCAFTA on investment services and government procurement among others that would make it extremely difficult if not virtually impossible for local governments to respond to democratic initiatives to design and implement sustainable and equitable national development programs 0 Guatemala devastating impacts on agriculture and soverignity 0 El Salvador health care labor rights and democracy 0 Honduras 0 Nicaragua agriculture and water 0 Costa rica undermining democracy and the enviormen Study Guide INS 102 Juliana Carvaj al 0 General Argument against FTA Free Trade Agreements Between Rich And Poor Encouraging Unequal Trade 0 There is criticism that some of these free trade agreements are between partners of unequal levels of development which then gives advantage to the more developed partners as their businesses are then freer to expand and grow at the expense of more edgling nations and their industries 0 Challenges of FTAS in Asia raise FTA preference use a lack of information on FTA Tackling complications Liberlising agricultural trade reduce restrictions to services trade increasing the WTO PLUS elements of FTA o httpwwweastasiaforumorg20130610addressingpolicv challengesofasianftas 0 Opossing a USColombia FTA Colombia remains the most dangerous country to be a trade uninonist The Colombia government is falling firhter behind in addressing impunity Passing the FTA could halt the meafer progress achieved to date The Colombian government has criminalized the defense of human righs The assault on union in unions in Colombia has reduced unionization significantly httpwwwusleaporgfilesFreeTrade Colombia Dec10pdf I If If I If Study Guide INS 102 Juliana Carvaj a1
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