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JWCC / Psychology / PSY 202 / erikson labeled the stages of his theory based upon

erikson labeled the stages of his theory based upon

erikson labeled the stages of his theory based upon

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School: John Wood Community College
Department: Psychology
Course: Child Psychology
Professor: Beth reinhardt
Term: Fall 2016
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: PSY 202: Child Psychology- Exam 1 Flash Cards
Description: Outline version of my flashcards based on the material that will be on the Exam.
Uploaded: 11/13/2016
6 Pages 690 Views 0 Unlocks
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In this experiment, what is the experimental group?




What else should Olivia do to ensure that the time out is effective in reducing her daughter's unwanted behavior?




" What happens to Cynthia's scheme of "fruit?



Child Psychology- Exam 1 Flash Cards *Also available on Quizlet.com with password (JWCC2016) @ https://quizlet.com/167688828/child psychology-flash-cards/ 1. When it comes to learning new things, children will: a. first attempt to assimilate. 2. AccoDon't forget about the age old question of Why is the human vision considered unreliable?
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rding to Piaget, a. cognitive developments are based upon children's interactions with the environment. 4. The nature/nurture debate considers a. the relationship(s) between genetics, environment, and human development. 5. Which of the following researchers was an ethologist? a. Lorenz 6. Which word is not associated with Piaget's cognitive developmental theory? a. Scaffolding 7. Which stage in Erikson's theory involves the development of independence? a. Autonomy vs. shame and doubt 8. Piaget believed that a. cognitive developments are stage-based and universal. 9. Cynthia's mother gives her an apple each day and tells her that apples are "fruit." However,  one day, Cynthia's mother gives her an orange. She tells Cynthia this is also "fruit." What  happens to Cynthia's scheme of "fruit?" a. She accommodates the information so that her scheme now includes apples and  oranges. 10. According to Freud, the psychic structure called ego a. provides rational ways of coping with frustration. 11. Jeremy is 16 years old. He's in the process of figuring out not only his future career goals but  also his political viewpoints and his perspectives on religion. According to Erikson, which is  true about Jeremy? a. He is in the identity vs. role diffusion stage. 12. Erikson labeled the stages of his theory based upon a. life crises. 13. When her daughter misbehaves, Olivia has her daughter sit quietly by herself for a few  minutes without being allowed to play with other children or toys. What else should Olivia do  to ensure that the time out is effective in reducing her daughter's unwanted behavior? a. She should warn her daughter that a time out would occur if misbehavior continues 14. Dr. Turner forms the hypothesis that ingesting caffeine prior to an exam will improve exam  performance. She gives half of her participants coffee and the other water. She then gives  the participants an exam. In this experiment, what is the experimental group? a. The group that has coffee 15. What aspect(s) of Freud's theory has/have endured over time? a. All of these: i. His suggestion that behavior is determined and not arbitrary ii. The idea that childhood experiences can have far-reaching effects iii. The idea that our cognitive processes can be distorted to defend us against  feelings of anxiety or guilt16. Suppose you wished to conduct a cross-sequential study on children's gender roles across a  period of six years. Which method would you use? a. Obtain a sample of 3-year-olds and of 6-year-olds and assess them for three years 17. Schemes serve a. as action patterns that serve to guide behavior. 18. Applying learning theory when trying to help children overcome behavioral disorders or to  cope with adjustment problems is often referred to as a. behavior modification. 19. Is it possible for skills a child has learned to remain "latent" or unused? a. Yes, they may only use it when it is needed. 20. Anna is an eight-year-old girl. Her sexual impulses are suppressed, and she spends her time  focused on her schoolwork and developing relationships with same-sex friends. Which of  Freud's psychosexual stages is Anna in? a. Latency 21. Dr. Yates forms the hypothesis that students who sleep more prior to taking an exam will  score higher on the exam than students who sleep less. Half of the students sleep eight to  nine hours the night before the exam. The other half sleep only four to five hours the night  before the test. She then gives the participants an exam. In this experiment, what is the  dependent variable? a. The performance on the exam 22. Which of the following terms or phrases is not associated with ethological theory? a. RAM 23. Dr. Flynn studies children's thought processes. She asks research questions regarding the  size of a child's short-term memory and how many programs the child can run  simultaneously. Dr. Flynn's research is representative of which type of theoretical  orientation? a. Information processing 24. Dr. Martinez wants to know which exhibits children prefer at the new Children's Museum. To  find out, she unobtrusively observes them to see which exhibits they choose to visit most and  at which ones they spend the most time. Which type of research method does this  represent? a. Naturalistic observation 25. From his work at the Binet Institute in Paris, Piaget concluded that a. children's incorrect answers followed consistent cognitive processes. 26. The information-processing perspective was influenced by which of the following inventions? a. Computer 27. A girl who does not develop breasts or menstruate a. All of these i. may have Turner's syndrome. ii. likely produces low levels of estrogen. iii. may have only one X sex chromosome. 28. Conception has occurred when a. the chromosomes combine to form 23 new pairs with a unique set of genetic  instructions. 29. Ultrasound can be used to detect a. position of the fetus. 30. Of twin pregnancies, how many of these are dizygotic twins? a. Two-thirds 31. Genetic counseling occurs _________, whereas prenatal testing happens______________.a. before a woman is pregnant; while a woman is pregnant 32. What factor determines the sex of a child? a. The sex chromosome received from the father 33. Males with XYY sex chromosomal structure a. are often mildly delayed, such as in language development. 34. During menstruation, a. the unfertilized egg is discharged. 35. Compared to girls with XY sex chromosomes, girls with Turner's syndrome a. have a single X sex chromosome. 36. Huntington's disease is characterized by which of the following symptoms? a. All of the above i. Uncontrollable muscle movements ii. Personality change iii. Loss of intellectual functioning 37. The following can cause infertility in women: a. All of these i. endometriosis. ii. irregular ovulation. iii. obstruction of the reproductive tract. 38. Children with PKU cannot metabolize an amino acid called phenylalanine. As a result, the  substance builds up in their bodies and a. impairs central nervous system functioning. 39. Jenny is a high school freshman. She has always enjoyed playing musical instruments. As a  result, she decides to join the marching band at her school as well as take a class in music  theory. Which of the following genetic-environment correlations does this best represent? a. Active 40. Of the 23 pairs of chromosomes, 22 pairs look alike and possess genetic information  concerning the same traits. These are a. Autosomes 41. Some traits, such as blood type, are transmitted by a single pair of genes. Other traits are  determined by combinations of pairs of genes. These traits are called a. Polygenic 42. Which of the following is TRUE regarding amniocentesis and CVS? a. Some practitioners are better at carrying out these procedures than others 43. Sperm and ova are produced through meiosis, otherwise known as a. reduction division. 44. Scientists took genetic material from one sheep to clone Dolly, making her genetically  identical to the other sheep from which she was cloned. Cloning utilizes the process of a. Mitosis 45. Chromosomes contain thousands of segments called a. Genes 46. Jill does not produce ova of her own. An ovum is harvested from another woman, is fertilized  in vitro, and placed into Jill's uterus where it becomes implanted and develops prenatally.  Which fertility method does this best represent? a. Donor IVF 47. The textbook suggests that XYY males are over-represented in prison populations. This  suggests a. they may be less intelligent than "normal." 48. The following can cause infertility problems in men: a. sexually transmitted infections (STIs). 49. What is the incidence, or rate of occurrence, of Klinefelter's syndrome? a. 1 in 500-900 men50. Each member of a pair of genes is referred to as a/n a. Allele 51. Which of the following describes the process by which sperm is injected into the uterus at the  time of ovulation? a. Artificial insemination 52. Which of the following eventually becomes the embryo? a. The blastocyst 53. Which of the following is TRUE about teratogens? a. All of these are accurate about teratogens i. We cannot predict with certainty what their effects will be ii. The effects of teratogens may depend upon when after conception they are  encountered iii. Exposure to teratogens is more likely to affect the embryo than the fetus 54. Prenatal exposure to lead a. is associated with lower intelligence scores in childhood. 55. Why might maternal smoking lead to child cognitive and behavioral problems? a. Due to carbon monoxide and reduced fetal oxygen 56. What is the relationship between a woman's BMI and her recommended weight gain during  pregnancy? a. The heavier the mother, the less weight she should gain during pregnancy 57. Prenatal exposure to cocaine can result in a. Prenatal exposure could result in all of these i. Stillbirth ii. childhood difficulties with concentration. iii. birth defects. 58. If a fetus's upper arms develop before the lower forearms, this is called cephalocaudal  development and is characterized by a. development from the head down. 59. Aside from eating a well-balanced diet, many pregnant women take folic acid supplements to  reduce their chances of giving birth to children with a. neural tube defects. 60. Why is Rh incompatibility usually not a problem during a first pregnancy? a. Because the mother's body has not yet formed Rh antibodies 61. In the DeCasper and Fifer study (1980), infants showed a preference for the reading of a. The Cat in the Hat. 62. Denise took the antibiotic Tetracycline during her pregnancy. As a result, her fetus may have a. yellowed teeth and bone abnormalities. 63. All of the following occur by the end of the second trimester EXCEPT for a. fetal activity level decreases. 64. Prema has read many books about pregnancy. Each gives a different estimate for how many  pregnancies end in miscarriage. Given what you know from your text, which estimate is  MOST accurate? a. One-third 65. A pregnant woman is diagnosed as having syphilis. Which of the following is TRUE  regarding her fetus? a. An infected, untreated woman has about a 40% chance of having a child who is  stillborn or who dies shortly after birth 66. If a father is Rh-positive, a. the fetus may develop the illness, but only if the mother is Rh-negative. 67. According to the textbook, the acronym STI refers to a. sexually transmitted infection. 68. Although the _________ associated with fetal alcohol syndrome diminish(es) as a child  moves into adolescence, the __________ persist(s).a. facial deformities; academic and behavioral problems 69. Why might prenatal exposure to marijuana predispose offspring to dependency on opiates? a. It may make their brains more sensitive to the reinforcing aspects of opiates 70. In research studies, mothers are not randomly assigned to use drugs such as cocaine. This  methodological problem is called a. selection factor. 71. Current recommendations to help prevent the transmission of HIV from mother to child  include bottle feeding, C-section, and a. HAART 72. DeCasper and colleagues (1984, 1986, 1991) found that newborns preferred the voices of  their own mothers to that of their fathers or unfamiliar women. Their explanation was that a. this might be a basis for attachment to the mother. 73. It is the job of the amniotic sac to a. help the developing fetus maintain a stable temperature. 74. Caroline likes to drink coffee and is concerned about the effects the caffeine may have on  her developing fetus. Her doctor has reviewed the most recent literature and advises  Caroline a. that the research is inconsistent, so it's best to avoid caffeine intake. 75. It is suspected that the flu (influenza) may lead to such problems as __________in the  developing fetus. a. autism and schizophrenia 76. Before the end of the first month of embryonic development, the neural tube is producing  about 400 million neurons per a. Day 77. The words anoxia and hypoxia a. are different, with anoxia meaning no oxygen and hypoxia means under oxygen. 78. How early can an infant learn to swim voluntarily? a. At 6 to 12 months of age 79. Which of the following appears to be TRUE about the use of the Lamaze method? a. It is associated with the reporting of less pain during the delivery process 80. The Lamaze method involves a. the use of breathing and relaxation techniques during contractions. 81. Contractions strong enough to expel the baby are caused by a. the release of oxytocin from the mother's pituitary gland. 82. If the birthing process has gone through "transition," what do we know? a. All of these are accurate i. The fetus is moving into the birth canal ii. The woman is now entering the second stage of the birth process iii. The cervix is effaced and dilated to 10 centimeters 83. What does the Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS) measure? a. Reflexes and other behavior patterns 84. James notices that his 2-week-old daughter can look at an object with one eye, while the  other eye seems to be looking off to the side. What is it called when both eyes can focus on  an object and is James' daughter's behavior normal? a. Convergence; normal in neonates 85. Cesarean-section was named after a. Julius Caesar, who was thought to have been delivered this way. 86. If we positively reinforce an infant for engaging in a behavior, what kind of learning approach  are we utilizing? a. Operant conditioning 87. The second stage of childbirth a. ends with the birth of the fetus. 88. Which of the following terms means "without oxygen?"a. Anoxia 89. Infant sleep patterns a. are very inconsistent and change dramatically as the child ages. 90. Do neonates have the peripheral vision of older children? a. No they do not; infants prefer to look through the centers of their eyes 91. According to the American Psychiatric Association (2000), postpartum mood episodes are  accompanied by psychotic features in approximately a. 1 in 500 women. 92. Which of the following is TRUE about the use of anesthesia during delivery in the United  States? a. Some anesthesia is used in most U.S. deliveries 93. Hypnobirthing "puts the mother in charge" and encourages her to a. focus on relaxing scenes and decrease muscle tension. 94. When Amina is in the first stage of childbirth, her Obstetrician straps an electronic sensing  device around her abdomen. What is this device for? a. Measuring strength and duration of the mother's contractions as well a fetal heart  rate 95. Abby was given an injection into her spinal canal, which temporarily numbed her body below  the waist. What type of anesthesia was Abby given? a. Local anesthesia 96. Home births are becoming more common. Reasons to choose a home birth include making it  a warm family experience, de-medicalizing the experience, and a. reducing maternity care costs. 97. In his Child Development class, Alex learns that childbirth happens in ______stages. a. Three 98. Reasons to perform a C-section include small maternal pelvis, maternal weakness or fatigue,  fetal distress, and a. a baby who is too large. 99. Klaus and Kennell (1978) called the hours after the birth of a child a a. maternal-sensitive period. 100. Once the child is born, various procedures are performed on the infant, including foot  printing, putting antibiotic ointment in the eyes to prevent infection, and giving the baby an  injection of Vitamin K to a. help the blood clot properly if the newborn bleeds. 101. The likelihood of maternal and infant mortality in any given country is associated with a. how well the country empowers women, seen in such areas as education and  political involvement.

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