Study Guide for the Final Quiz
Study Guide for the Final Quiz INS 201
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Date Created: 04/06/15
O The idea of brain drain as zerosum game is being challenged by the proponents of the idea that there is brain gain or brain gain as a winwin scenario In a place of this old zero sum game comes Brain Gain a winwin partnership and harmonious development for science that advances the sum total of human knowledge beyond national boundaries 0 This article discuses the effects of brain gain in O O 00 What kind of international scientific research policy should brazil adopt in order to ensure that Brain Gain that replaces the old pattern of Brain Drain Brazil rapid economic growth offers the financial fire power to send evergreater numbers of its students overseas to capture know how for cash strapped international universities hungry to receiver high paying foreigners Brazil hosts over 20 of global diversity and so is a natural magnet for life science researchers focused on the amazon and other natural habitats Brazil has emerging global primacy in the worlds of ultradeep water oil prospecting renewable energy biofuels and minerals After decades of struggle plane maker Embraer oil major Petrobras and miner Vale have been built by scientist who studied overseas 19601980 Data shows that more that 80 percent of Brazilian postgrads eventually return home The federal government in Brasilia has work on a national policy to export over 10000 science students to Europe and the United States for training by 2015 Science without border a program to give undergraduates and graduates the opportunity to study overseas The Sao Paulo research foundation is facilitating a new generation of international researchers seeking career opportunities in Brazil United States almost 48 percent of all PHDS in the US are foreigners India foreign scientist are virtually absent yet is has almost 40 percent of its own scientists working outside the country UK Germany and Switzerland get a disproportionately high return from their scientific research investments they have balanced two way traffic Brazil still has a low quota of foreign scientists working in country and also of Brazilian scientists working abroad The figure of 71 percent almost as low as Spain Foreigners working inside Brazil tend to come from nearby Argentina Colombia and Peru Despite the huge wealth brazil today is completely isolated from global labour markets Foreigners represent 03 of Brazils workforce Australia a similar size country foreigner account for about 20 percent workforce Brazilian scientists are not great travellers only around 83 percent are working overseas Germany US and Canada Studies show that up to 50 percent of all the most PHD physicists are working as guests in another country 0 There are over 41 million records across 18000 journals and covers regional as well as international literature BUT it doesn t contain many nonEnglish papers and so the data is skewed against scientific producer countries like brazil 0 MANY NONENGLISH SCIENTIFIC ARTICLES do not recorder by such databases 0 The US Western Europe and japan invent in research and receiver a substantial return in term of performance with large number f research papers 0 Brazil science investment is above Latin Americas average is still well behind both the EU average and the OECD average 0 Brazil face a huge shortfall in advanced science researchers are phd level despite the rapid increase 0 In terms of scientific output Brazil and Sao Paola especial is advancing rapidly 0 There is still a long way to do and for his reason here are many opportunities for international scientists seeking to expand their career 0 Crossborder mobility of highly skilled migrants as a sort of asset that can be examined as a comparative advantage 0 Brain Drain has bothered policy makers in poor countries but recent migration studies and classical economics suggest brain gain 0 A country that send its most skilled workers abroad has three key advantages I Remittances money sent home from abroad go up In 2010 workers remitted 325 billion from developed countries to developing countries Skilled workers often find better job opportunities abroad in richer countries I Emigres return with more marketable skills skilled migrants eventually return home with new skills new contacts and savings to invest after several years abroad I There is a higher incentive for education and skill development general level of education in a population often rises when workers see potential for immigration People have increased incentive to pick up skills which remains useful if the decided not to migrate after all 0 Brain gains parallels David Ricardo s law of comparative advantage because two countries with advantages in different areas are better off trading 0 Richer countries offer more quality of employment opportunities for skilled labor because according to studies skilled laborers remaining in developing countries often face underemployment 0 Some studies say that it would add 39 trillion to global growth over 25 years if labor would become mobile 0 A skilled immigrant moving from the developing to developed world could actually benefit from both nations I The destination country adds a skilled worker boosting output I The workers annual income rises I If the workers remits only 25 percent of his or her income then losing that worker abroad actually raised the individuals contribution to GDP 0 Migration does create winners and losers The emotional toll on families continually force to relocate can be high 0 Some skilled workers educated and trained at the expend of cashstrapped governments do no return much to their poorer homelands O The economist said the benefits of brain gain are increasingly thought of as outweighing he costs of brain drain 0 Letting educated people go where they want looks like the brainy option 0 Difference between the Convention and the Protocol The United Nations convention relating to the status of Refugees adopted in 1951 is the centerpiece of international refugee protection today It has been subject to only one amendment in the form of a 1967 protocol which removed the geographic and temporal limits of the 1961 convention The convention as a postsecond world war instrument was originally limited in scope to persons eeing events occurring before January 1951 and within Europe The 1967 Protocol removed these limitations and thus gave the convention universal coverage The 1951 convention consolidate has international instruments relating to refuges and provides the most comprensenhisve codification of the rights of refugees at the international level The 1951 convention endorse a single definition of the term refugee in Article 1 0 Definition of a Refugee The emphasis of this definition is on the protection of persons prom political or other form of persecution A refugee according to the convention is someone who is unable or unwilling to return to their country of origin owing to a wellfunded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race religion nationality membership of a particular social group or political opinion rtiele r EF IJHJITF IJEH HF THE TEFLH A Fer the purpeses sf the present Eeuueutieh the term quotrefugeequot shell apply ts eujlr perth whe Ell Hes heeueuhsieleretl e refugee under the rrehgemehts ef Is Ige ehtl 3t Jluhe 1913113 umler the Eunreeutimes sf 3 eteher 1933 shill re Fehruerjf 1933 the Prutueul t1qu September 1939 er the E stii utiuh ef the ll l t al Refugee rgeuisetium Deelsjehs ef huheligibility teheu h the htteruetiehel Refugee Iiil rgeea 1eetiuu during the perieel ef its eet39ielt39ices shell hut present the stetus sf refugee being eeeertletl tie petstuns when fulfil the eeuilitjehs hf pere lefthjs seetieh all his e result efeeehts li l ii t hefure tjehuer39g 1951 euctlstrwiug te well fuuhded feerhfheihg perseeutetl fer reesuris ef reee religiuu hetieuel it membership ufe pertieuler suejel gruup er pelitieel upihieu 1s eut siile the eeuhtrg emf his uetiehelity eml is uhehle er euijhg te sueh feer is unwilling ten euejl himself ufthe preteetjuu uf thet euuutrg er eihe hut herring e hetimtelitglui euel heihg uutslrde the eizen39ttrglui hfhls furmer hehltuel resjtlehee es e nu ult efsuehcefeeuts is urtehleer swing te sueh feer is uhiieilliug te returh ts 1t lluthe eese hf e pessuu whit hes mere theuhue uetleueljtf the term the lemme efhjs hetiuhelitg39 shell mesh eeeh sf the ennuutries efuihjeh he is e het ieuel ehtl e petssh shell uet he deemeel te he leehjrig the pretee tieh emf the euuhtry ef his uet39ihuelity if withuut as eeliil reeseu hesetl uuwell fuuudedfeer he hes test euejleel himselfuf the preteetiuuefeue uf the euuhtriiu ufwhieh he is e hetiuheL 0 Bene ts for refugees once the protection is granted I The Convention is both a status and rights based instrument and is underpinned by a number of fundamental principals 0 Nondiscrimination convention provision are to be applied Without discrimination as to race religion or country of origin or at to sex age disability sexuality 0 Nonpenalization the convention says that subject to specific exceptions refugees should not be penalized for their illegal entry or stay Prohibited penalties might include being charged with immigration or criminal offences relating to seeking of asylum 0 Nonrefoulement against the expulsion of refugees no one shall expel or return refouler a refugee against his or her will in any manner whatsoever to a territory where he or she fears threats to life or freedom I Convention lays down basic minimum standards for the treatment of refuges without prejudice to states granting more favorable treatment I Such rights include access to the courts to primary education to work and the provision for documentation including a refugee travel document in passport form I Most states issue this document which has become as widely accepted as the former Nansen passport an identity document I The convention does not apply to all person who might satisfy the definition of a refugee in Article 1 I The convention does not apply for those that have committed war crimes or crimes against humanity serious non political crime or are guilty of acts contrary to the purpose and principles of the United Nations I Does no apply to those who benefit from the protection or assistance of a united nations agency other that UNHCR I Like Palestine refuges I Nor does the convention apply to those refuges who have status equivalent to nationals in their country of asylum I In 2001 states parties issued a declaration reaffirming heir commitment o the 1951 convention and the 1967 protocol and they recognized the core principle of nonrefoulement I Today 147 states parties to one or both instruments 0 Refugee status or asylum may be granted to people who have been persecuted or fear they will be persecuted on account of race religion nationality and or membership in a particular social group or political opinion 0 Refugees I Refugee status is a form of protection that may be granted 0 people who meet the definition of refugee and who are of special humanitarian concern to the United States I Refugees are generally people outside of their country who are unable or unwilling to return home because they fear to serious harm I You may seek a referral for refugee status only from outside of the United States 0 Asylum I Asylum status is a form of protection available to people who 0 Meet the definition of refugee 0 Are already in the united states 0 Are seeking admission at a port of entry 0 You may apply for asylum in the United States regardless of you country of origin or your current immigration status 0 What is foreign policy distinction between foreign policy in a narrow sense and in a broader sense and the role and place of migration policy 0 O Broad definition of foreign policy plays a major role in stimulating immigration albeit a somewhat diffuses one Conventional definition focusing principally on security and possibly also foreign trade then the impact of US foreign policy appears more limited but also much more tangible with regard specific ows Foreign policy in the narrower sense takes place within the broader context provided by externally oriented American activities as a whole Meaning that the US immigration policy is itself a major immigrationgenerating factor US together with a few other positioning immigration policies providing substantial number of annual admission for permanent settlement The existence of these policies has contributed to the formation of a worldwide emigration culture That foster aspiration to relocate US foreign policy can affect immigration both directly and indirectly Directly by intervening in the determination of the level and composition of admission to the US Indirectly by altering condition in some foreign country do as to increase or decrease the movement of its nationals toward the US Might occur as unintended consequence of US action Americas wars have been a major source of immigration both directly as in the case of Vietnam and also indirectly 0 American imperialism philipines were they where us colony and were allowed to migrated to the US 0 The fact that some element of foreign policy contribute to immigration does not necessarily mean that it is a cause since the policy in question may itself haven been made to comply with domestic objectives 0 Immigration policy was governed largely by laissez faire 0 Foreign policy objectives in themselves rarely came into play in the shaping of immigration policy 0 The only cases identified as attempts are I First case 1907 when congress enact the antij apense bill but roseveelt agreed to secure instead a gentlemen agreement whereby japan restricted the emigration of its own nationals I Second case Mexico in 1920 Mexicans were seen as a mixed breed and the restrictionists succeeded in establishing a militarized border patrol in 1924 and subsequently renewed their efforts to subject immigration from Mexico to quota limitations I Shortly after peal harbor the US initiated an agreement with mexico for the joint management of a massive program of temporary workers I Although they have suggested that foreign policy consideration when central to this north American initiative there is no gain saying that it was desined primarily to solve worker shortages I WW1 law prohibiting the admission of 105 chinese per year as ordinary immigrants This was initiated by Roosevelt administration in 1943 although the measure had any effect on immigration it constituted a major breach in the draconian antiasian wall erected in 1924 I Ww2 US foreign policy decision makers deemed it necessary to resolve the problem of displaced persons in Germany by resettling some of them in the US the existing immigration system stood as a obstacle to the achievement of this objective and could not be reformed I Distinction between policy pertaining to ordinary immigrants and policy pertaining to groups defined as refuges I Led to development of distinctive policymaking processes 0 Humanitarian consideration and beyond the role of ideology and foreign policy in shaping refugee policy O Page 430 0 One example of ideological component appeared in the definition of a refugee that prevailed is when a refugee was defined by the US from 19521980 as a person eeing from a communistdominated country or are or from any country within the general area of the middle east 0 US law was change in 1980 o conform o the less ideological definition of international law it now defines refugee as any person who is outside any country of such person 39s nationality and who is unable or unwilling to return to and is unable or unwilling to avail himself or herself of the protection o that country because of persecution or a wellfounded fear of persecution on account matter 0 O O of race religion nationality membership in a particular social group or political opinion Most of the persons admitted as refugees or granted similar status since 1980 have come from communist countries such as Cuba and Vietnam Page 445446 The ideological interest of the US also motivate various perspectives on immigration and refugee policies These interest underlie the long conventional but now waning political view that outmigration from communist countries demonstrates the bankruptcy of the communist system US refusal to admit refuges and asylum seeks from Haiti and el Salvador as base upon ideological support for the anticommunist governments of those countries US HUMANITARIAN CONCERNS I National interest and one ideological issue President carter human rights policy poorly implemented it The notion that the US should offer succor to the persecuted and the oppressed goes back to the founding of the republic The quantity of humanitarian assistance that the united States can offer may in practical terms be maximized by such direct assistance This assistance con icts with those focused on strategic or security interests or those that still see international migration in ideological terms Still are the con ict that arise between the various threads of foreign policy and those of domestic policy and politics Orderly marketing arrangements import quotas etc betters trade with other developing countries Immigration and refugee policies raise con ict among important national interest International migration as tools of foreign policy links to sovereignty and related s International migration have been regulated by several highly codified foreign policy instruments Especially when regulating treatment of refugees These international agreements UNHCR seek to establish the criteria by which claims to refugee status should be decided and the obligations of nationstates in the treatment of refugees Most fundamental obligation in nonrefoulment person shall not be returned to their homeland unwillingly if they have a well founded fear of persecution This provision clearly restricts the otherwise well recognized right of a sovereign state to exclude or deport noncitizens it does not wish to admit Multilateral agreements have also regulated temporary worker migrations European convention treaties with france and African countries These agreements concern the criteria for recruitment protection for the employment social and family rights of the temporary workers economic agreements between the sending and receiving countries renewal of work permits among other legal guarantees INTERNATIONAL MIGRATIONS AS TOOLS OF FOREIGN POLICY Both sending and receiving countries have employed mass migration movements as tools of their foreign policies mass migration for unarmed conquest or assertion of sovereignty this policy involves governmental encouragement of civilian rather than military movement into claimed territories for the purposes of establishing effective control or sovereignty For example I In Morroco led a movement to take disputed territories I US nationals movement into the Mexican territory now comprising texas I Britain efforts to populate its colonies in north America and Australia through forced migration of convicts I Israel settlement policy in the west bank I Argentina with the falkand island Uses made of migrant groups for foreign policy There is a reason to believe that mass expulsion have been employed as tools to destabilize or embarrass foreignpolicy adversaries The official newspaper of the chines communist party the peoples daily said that Vietnam is exporting refugees for three reason to exort money from them to create social and economic problems in southeast asia ad to infiltrate agent into ASEAN nations Cuban governments actions in expelling criminals psychotic and seriously ill people during 1980 Mariel boatlift to south orida were guided in part by a desire to discomfit the United States East German government facilitating the illegal entry of turks Pakistanis and other into west berlin in the full knowledge that they intend to claim asylum the west Germany Outmigration may also encouraged for foreign policy goals of a more positive character From the perspective of receiving countries refugee admission policies haven guided in many important cases by the belief that refugee out ows serve to embarrass and discredit adversary nations Central to US policies toward migrants from CUBAVIETNAM AND THE SOVIET UNION US rejects Salvador refugees because US itself aid and support the government Refugees have also been used as tools of what might be termed as private foreign policies When nongovernmental groups opposed to particular foreign regimes see mass exodus from those countries as a weapon to dramatize the reason for their opposition 0 There are other reasons of concern about Haitian migrants including general humanitarian concern ethnic solidarity and perception of government s abuse of civil liberties 0 Cuba The Cold War Comes to maericas Backyard Following a brief military occupation in 1898 cubas political and economic deleopment was shaped more indirectly by US investors and ambassadors Its ecnomy based on sugar plantations Fidel Castro s july 26th movement successfully undermined the regime after the failure of a last minute effort by the US central intelligence Agency to change the course of events Castro implemented an agrarian reform socialist revolution in Americas own backyard Cuba constituted a major turning point with regard to the linkage between foreign policy and immigration in that for the first time the ongoing policy of encouraging defector required the immediate and massive provision of first asylum in the united states The case illustrates the prominence of foreign policy consideration in the making of refugee policy and the key role of refugee policy in the formation of refugee ows The Cubans were initially regarded as temporary exiles who would return when the castro regime fell or was overthrown an objective on whose behalf enlisted into the BAY OF pigs OPERATION AFTER ITS FAILUTE THE us envisage its permanent settlement After the Cuban missile crisis it reduced ights Castro declared that all who wished to leave Cuba were free to do so President Johnson said those who seek refuge here will find it 0 The Cuba Haiti Crisis of 1980 The freedom ight organized in 1965 were interrupted in 1973 over 10000 approved emigrants stranded in Cuba For the first time exiles were allowed to visit their homeland and castro authorized the departure of some political prisioners as well as persons of dula natonality In carters administration in april 1980 10000 cubans invaded the Peruvian embassy and asked for political asylum Castro then announce that everyone could leave and opened up the Mariel harbor to those wanting to fetch relatives He released 8000 common criminals as well as imprisioned homosexualsmental patients and terminally ill The oridad Cuban community then launched a massive boatlift Carter administration started giving massive asylum but questions remaine because hatians also came searching for asylum and in cuba a lot of prisioners and mentally il we coming entrant a newly created adhoc category that enabled beneficiaries to remain in the united states while their status was resolved but did not allowed to apply for permanent residence Although castro closed mariel at the end of septemper Bill Clinton began negotiations with cuba by negotiation the return f those criminal status US stopped issuing visas to Cubans until cuba took back the criminals In 1981 Washington announced that it would henceforth interdict boats across the orida straits and turn their passengers back to cuba as well as Haiti By mid 1994 the in ux of boat people recorded in orida has surpassed the total for all of 1993 Havan pledged to stop its cizens from eeing in echange for Washington agreement to accept at least 2000 new Cuban imigrants a year Haiti many Haiti people ed to united states were the entrance was unproblematic after US was accused of discrimination the carer administration graned Haitians the status of entrants the us coast gurda returned Haitians as undocumented aliens to their country of origin the country had their fitst election monitored by the united nation there was a coup aided by the CIA united staes Haitians were returned home first through gauntanamo bay and the to Haiti Massacres of aristide supporters including wome and children Washington atlast annound that Haitian intercepted at sea would no longer be automatically sent back but eould have an opportunity to establish their refugee status But the US at the end changed this policy On huly 31 the security council authorized US invansion and occupation of Haiti if sanctons failed to remove the military Central America 0 the central American counires remained largely plantation economy with an extremely unequal distribution of landed property 0 the violent upheavels had an additional and more direct displacement eggect Nicaragua Nicaragua had an maerican guard with aid from cuba Some 200000 nicaragians sought protection in Honduras and costa rica from the dictatorship 0 Large segmenet of the national guard remained in hounduras Their close ties with cuba and with support provided by el Salvador and Guatemala determined the Reagan administration to step up economic and diplomatic pressure and to go to war with the regime 0 El Salvador the smallest and most densely populated country of latin America ruled by an alliance of coffe growing oligarch and the army wit the catholic church and the united states 0 There was a communist rebellinopn sparked by a drop in coffe prices cost between 10000 and 20000 lives 0 Reagen administration tried to hel but it caused 500000 internal displaced and over 1 million emigres mainly to meXica and united states 0 Guatemala the biggest and most important country of cental America with the united fuit comanu as it largest landlord guatemana underwent a Mexicanstyle revolution in 1944 0 There was a civil war where the carer administration suspended military aid 1 million were in internally displaced and 200000 gone abroad 46000 recognized a refugees in mexico 0 Dominican republic 0 I The formulation of foreign policy is also affected by the presence of substantial number of regugrees and imigtants I domestic etnic pressures on foreign policy formulation loom large in he unted states I affecting foreign policies owars northern Ireland the turkisgreek con ict the middle east cuba meXico Haiti and Poland I immigration was the single most important determinant of American foreign policy I in Kuwait concern about the political militancy of Palestinian guest workers I Gulf states have decided both to restrict the growth of foreign worker population and to give preference to those from the nonaraba states of soth asia and even east asia I These latter groups are considered lesser threats in that they generally cannot establish connection with the indigenous population due to language barriers I Gulf states now have large growing indian Pakistani Filipino and Korean population I In wes Germany the recen violen ocn ic beween Croatian nationalists and supporters of Yugoslavian government I Also tukish groups opposed to turkiskh government and Germany have become one of he most impostant locals for the organization of violent Turkish political action I The existence of death penalty in turkey prevents such extradition under german law I Revolution of iranina exiles granted refugee in france provides another example 39 USCUBA relations have generated and have in turn been profoundy complicated by the movement to the united states of over a million implacable opponenet of fidel castro 0 Definition of refuge warrior Mcconachie 3637 0 O A particular concern is the presence of military groups refugee warriors within a refugee population The term refugee warriors emerged in the mid1980s to describe situations where military groups lived among a refugee population and used refugee camps as a base for continued insurgency activities Commonly cited examples of such situations include Afghan mujahedin in Pakistan Cambodian Khmer Rouge in Thailand Eritrean and Ethiopian opposition groups based in Sudan and rebels in Central America Defined as not merely a passive group of dependant refugees Highly conscious refuge communities with a political leadership structure and armed section engaged in warfare for a political objective Be it to recapture the homeland and change the regime or secure a separate state refugee warriors were not conceived as wholly negative phenomenon but as one which existed within a borader political context and as such that might have positive attributes in humanitarian organization there are seen ad spoilers 0 Beyond State Actors Refugee warriors nonstate actors and the paradoxes of the principles upon which protection is established 3338 0 O 0 Non state actor in bruma frequentlu deliver services and resources that the real state fails to provide including education health and village protection military and civilian actors combines elemnts of protection and patriomonialism something contradictory The key issue at stake is the protection of civilians and who is considered an appropate protection actoe before only staes could bu this has changed with the recognition of nonstate acor and even armed groups By refugee policy proecion continues 0 be seen as a ntional and supranational responsability 0 Armed groups has been particularly heightened in refugee policy since mid 1990 after the Rwandan genocide O Hutus militias rapidly tok control of the camps usig them as a base for arms importation and military operations 0 It was ahumanitarian disaster in multiple dimension aid agencies were forced to confron several very difficult questions 0 Paradoxes raised Had they been too slow to recognize that the camps had effectively been seized by militia groups the same interahamwe that had perpetrated the genocide Was aid leakage to these militia an inevitable price for saving civilian refugees Was it better to withdraw entirely or keep providing aid and hope that at least some of it reached the intended beneficiaries Fundamentally what did the humanitarian imperative demand in this situation These were phenomenally difficult ethical and moral choices which strike at the very heart of what humanitarian assistance is and should be and the events in Zaire have cast a long shadow over subsequent refugee policy prompting reevaluation of past refugee situations and of the role of humanitarian aid in con icts more generally Article 3 paragraph a of the Protocol to Prevent Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons defines Trafficking in Persons as the recruitment transportation transfer harbouring or receipt of persons by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion of abduction of fraud of deception of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person for the purpose of exploitation Exploitation shall include at a minimum the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation forced labour or services slavery or practices similar to slavery servitude or the removal of organs 0 Three constituent elements The Act What is done Recruitment transportation transfer harbouring or receipt of persons The Means How it is done Threat or use of force coercion abduction fraud deception abuse of power or vulnerability or giving payments or benefits to a person in control of the victim The Purpose Why it is done For the purpose of exploitation which includes exploiting the prostitution of others sexual exploitation forced labour slavery or similar practices and the removal of organs To ascertain whether a particular circumstance constitutes trafficking in persons consider the definition of trafficking in the Trafficking in Persons Protocol and the constituent elements of the offense as defined by relevant domestic legislation 0 Aspects of the process that are subject to criminalization 0 Article 5 therefore requires that the conduct set out in article 3 be criminalized in domestic legislation Domestic legislation does not need to follow the language of the Trafficking in Persons Protocol precisely but should be adapted in accordance with domestic legal systems to give effect to the concepts contained in the Protocol 0 In addition to the criminalization of trafficking the Trafficking in Persons Protocol requires criminalization also of Attempts to commit a trafficking offence Participation as an accomplice in such an offence Organizing or directing others to commit trafficking 0 National legislation should adopt the broad definition of trafficking prescribed in the Protocol The legislative definition should be dynamic and exible so as to empower the legislative framework to respond effectively to trafficking which Occurs both across borders and within a country not just cross border Is for a range of exploitative purposes not just sexual exploitation Victimizes children women and men Not just women or adults but also men and children Takes place with or without the involvement of organized crime groups 0 Main legalinstitutional instruments used the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime UNTOC and the Protocols to Prevent Suppress and Punish Traf cking in Persons 0 UNODC offers practical help to States not only helping to draft laws and create comprehensive national anti trafficking strategies but also assisting with resources to implement them States receive specialized assistance including the development of local capacity and expertise as well as practical tools to encourage cross border cooperation in investigations and prosecutions 0 The adoption in 2000 by the United Nations General Assembly of the Protocol to Prevent Suppress and Punish Tra icking In Persons Especially Women and Children marked a significant milestone in international efforts to stop the trade in people As the guardian of the Protocol UNODC addresses human trafficking issues through its Global Programme against Trafficking in Persons A vast majority of States have now signed and ratified the Protocol But translating it into reality remains problematic Very few criminals are convicted and most victims are probably never identified or assisted 0 UNODC39s strategic approach to combating trafficking in persons and the smuggling of migrants is founded in the full and effective implementation of the Protocols and can be best understood as having three interdependent and complementary components 1 research and awareness raising 2 promotion of the Protocols and capacity building and 3 the strengthening of partnerships and coordination With regards to research and awareness raising UNODC will publish the next Global Report on Trafficking in Persons in December 2012 and biennially thereafter UNODC also produces research and issue papers on trafficking in persons and migrant smuggling and engages in both broad and targeted awareness raising on these issues notably through the Blue Heart Campaign against Human Trafficking UNODC39s normative work on promoting the Protocols and capacity building engages with Member States and working level practitioners in providing legislative assistance strategic planning and policy development technical assistance for strengthened criminal justice responses and protection and support to victims of trafficking in persons and smuggled migrants 0 The issue of child traf cking in the United States Pay attention to 0 The scope and aspects of the phenomenon in the United Sates I Children going illegaly to the united states and seeking protection I After putting themselves in the care of a US costumos agent instead of being taken to a detention centre in texas fdor processing they were sent straight back to Mexican immigration control to be sent home 0 More than 68000 children have been caught crossing the United States border alone since October double last year s number President Obama has called the surge an urgent humanitarian situation and lawmakers have called for hearings on the crisis Since Jan 1 more than 43000 unaccompanied minors have been placed with sponsors usually parents or relatives They remain there while their cases are being processed The majority of the children are in states where immigrants have traditionally settled like Texas New York California and Florida A large number have also been sent to Maryland Virginia Georgia and Louisiana More than three quarters of the children minors are from mostly poor and violent towns in three countries El Salvador Guatemala and Honduras Children from Mexico once the largest group now make up less than a quarter of the total A small number come from 43 other countries The Department of Homeland Security has acknowledged that because so many minors caught in the past few years were reunited with their families here and not immediately deported many Central Americans were left with the perception that the United States was allowing children to stay Under an anti trafficking statute adopted with bipartisan support in 2008 minors from Central America cannot be deported immediately and must be given a court hearing before they are deported A United States policy allows Mexican minors caught crossing the border to be sent back quickly Mr Obama urged Congress on July 8 to authorize 37 billion in emergency funds to bolster border security hasten deportations and deal with the humanitarian crisis in Central America Congressional Republicans pushed back saying that the border crisis is a result of Mr Obama s policy problems and lax enforcement at the border Republican lawmakers are pushing to amend the 2008 law which currently makes it difficult to return the children quickly to their home countries All the talk is about the children in the US but they are relatively well of said Sister Lidia Mara Silva de Souza a nun from the Scalabrini order that has worked with deportees from the US for decades The ones who are the most vulnerable are the ones who are returned to the situations they are running from The vast majority of the child migrants come from Honduras El Salvador and Guatemala all struggling with levels of violence tantamount to an undeclared regional war Honduras has a murder rate of around 90 per 100000 inhabitants The rate in Mexico hovers around 20 In the US it is under five The US political row over child migrants caught fire in early June when leaked photographs showed children crushed together in a Texas holding facility while they awaited processing Soon after the government released figures showing that more than 52000 unaccompanied children had reached the southern border between October 2013 and midJune more than double the number for the entire previous fiscal year These children cannot be legally deported without first going through the courts because of 2008 legislation designed to prevent childtraffickingThat law was signed by George W Bush but Republicans blame the recent surge on the practice of placing minors with relatives in the US pending deportation hearings a process that usually takes more than a year But perversely the phenomenon has also been fed by tighter border controls unable to return home to visit children they left behind Central Americans already living illegally in the US pay smugglers around 5000 to bring their sons and daughters across the frontier The migrants include many teenagers travelling alone some looking for their parents some seeking work and others trying to escape the violence A good few are doing all three 0 How the United Nations Children s Fund UNICEF recommends addressing and the four main strategies launched by the organization I Trick or treat for UNICEF the original kids helping kid campaign raide money I Child Survival UNICEF had helped save more children lives than nay other humanitarian organization I Emergency relief he leader in responding to disasters affecting children I Water and sanitation unicef works in more than 100 countries to nensure acces to ones of lifes basic necesitires 0 Focus areas I Child survival and development I Basic ecuation and gender equality I HIVAIDS and children I Child protection I Policy advocacy and partnership 1 Contrasting approaches Situation in Ukraine Wallerstein s world system analysis interpretation Broad s approach Emphasis 1 Eastwest cleavage in 1 Expansion of Russian on Ukraine maritime boundaries w 2 Loss of privacy in Crimea s annexation communications 2 Strategic move to access Victoria Nuland underwater oil Secretary of European resourcesl undermine Affairs case Ukranian s 3 Neoconservatism independence 3 1982 Law of the Sea Treaty exclusive economic zone 200 nautical miles Prevailing Bush era 2003 new Europe 2012 Oil exploration of the time countries that favored Iraq s Black Sea potential Ukranian periods invasion namely UK amp East E zone better than Russian vs old Europe GermanyFrance vetoed UN resolution on Iraq Ukraine chooses Exxon over Russian company to extract the oil Conclusions Geopolitics prevails over ideological differences on behalf of longterm national interests US fears a FranceGermany Russian alliance European powers inclusive policy with Russia to counterbalance US which shifted from Atlanticcentrism to Pacificcentrism towards an alliance with China Tacit recognition of neighboring countries East E new maritime border to avoid open con ict Savings for the South Stream Pipeline shortcut now that it controls Ukrainian sea zone US trying to hamper Russia s advance in the Sea Condemnation of Russia s expropriation of Ukraine s assets 2 Formal and informal empires Imperialism quoteffective control from an outside powerquot Empire 34 single state that shapes the behavior of the others whether directly or indirectly partially or completely by means that can range from the outright use of force through intimidation dependency inducement and even inspiration Informal empirel lrelated to economic imperialism quotThe relationship in which a national or regional imperial elite intentionally or unintentionaly exercises a dominant in uence over the elite formation identity and conditions of exchange of the subjected elite in another nation or region With none of the formal structures of the empire lDominant in uence that permanently alters the substantial characteristics of a subjected nation I Mechanism of control I Role played by elites in the extension of imperial power 0 Massive investment in a foreign economy 0 Lots of settlers that run major businesses or produce a signi cant amount of labor 0 Military diplomatic or economic interventions Lord Palmerston British PM o Informal empire 18301865 0 GB considered quothead of the moral social and political civilizationquot in uence in Latin America China and Middle East 0 Supported armed intervention to open markets and create new alliances Favored the Italian uni cation movement Palmerston s diplomacy 0 British eet plays a key role in shaping political landscape 0 Establish alliances w strong independent healthy trading states 0 Never avoid a necessary war South Americal recognition of independence conditioned to open trade Middle Eastl demolition of Egyptian state owned monopolies opened trade Africal GB vs slave trade with military intervention while keeping its colonies Emergence of US as a major power limited British in uence by late 18805 Siam and Elites 18881932 Southeast Asian nominate independent kingdom that became part of Britain s informal empire by Bowring Treaty 1855 British merchant elites allowed British firms domination Buffer state to separate French Indochina and India Middle East and Elites 19461960 British no longer cooperation of elites which preferred other alliances US and had a rising nationalism oil discoveries Failure of imperial elitel GB unable to shape elites 3 Trade and other mechanisms of imperial expansion quotFree Trade Imperialism Gallagher and Robinson call attention to the essential aspects of British imperialism The role of political Social l Migration of citizens l Dissemination of English language Ideas and constitutional forms Expansion of society Economic aspects l Integrating regions into advanced trading economies l Went into regions of maximum opportunity l Creating economic dependency intense development for underdeveloped states pumping money into countries infrastructure railway constructions Free trade Mercantilism The main goal was to increase a nation39s wealth by imposing government regulation concerning all of the nation39s commercial interests It was believed that national strength could be maximized by limiting imports via tariffs and maximizing exports httpwwwinvestopediacomtermsmmercantilismasp Political Annexation of states Intervention of countries to keep interests in checkpg 3 South Africa Constitutional policy granting of responsible governments to colonies Strategic protection of state39s l Treaties of free trade and friend made or imposed on a weaker state Politics and economics go hand in hand politics aids the growth of commercial supremacy and strengthens political in uence Formal Grasp on countries through annexation intervention and mercantilism Informal Preferred imperial supremacy over direct control Free trade policies Infrastructure of other countries Economic dependence with political independence selfgoverning statescolonies favoring British l Expansion of British society What they mean by quotthe invisible agquot Commerce pushes government policy it made British use informal methods to get what they wanted following the invisible ag of informal empire Original sentence The dependence of commercial shove upon the political arm resulted in a general tendency for British trade to follow the invisible ag of informal empire 1 What is Brain Drain 0 Migration of the highly skilled from poor to rich countries Lowincome countries suffer from brain drain education health and engineering o In Sub Saharan Africa and Central America s countries more than half of university graduates migrate to OECD countries 0 Insufficient infrastructure discourages people from working in the eld they ve been trained Developing countries bene ts from highskilled migration if partnerships between countries encouraging brain circulation repatriation of skills and knowledge 2 Perspectives on the Factors Determining Brain Drain Brain Drain from African countries apparently in response to the demand from developed countries England 0 Demand additional 250000 nurses by 2008 45 from intsources Ghana 0 Nurses seeking veri cation of quali cations as indicator of intended emigration 3087 nurses left country 19982003 Main destinations 1 UK 2 USA UK s countries quotwork permitsquot 610 African countries PushPull factors Push factors within the country of origin motivating the professionals to leave Low remuneration Poor working conditions Politicalethnic problems Civil Strifelow security Lack of technology and equipmentl low job satisfaction Pull deliberateunintended actions that attract professionals originating from the recipient country s policies and actions Demand for professionals Economic changes Common language 6 gradients 1 Income differential in salaries and living conditions between sending and recipient countries 2 Job satisfaction good professional working environment skills utilization at professional and technical proficiency intl recognition 3 Organizational environmentcareer opportunity fair and accessible opportunities for advancement in careers and specialization 4 Governance efficiency differences in administrative bureaucracy 5 Protectionrisk increase risk of contracting HIVAIDS and lack of protective gear 6 Social Security and Bene ts retirement and pension bene ts In Ghana emigrants leave to save for retirement Feedback loop spiral phenomenon where the increasing demand of professionals workload and loss of teachers and development further fuels departure of even more professionals Coping strategies 0 lntl Recruitment and intercountry arrangements bring professionals from other countries 0 Extended retirement ages from 60 until 65 when retirement is mandatory BondingCompulsory Service Schemes haven t worked poor administrative efficiency 0 Skills Substitution and delegation alternative specialized centers not recognized by the stateOs health care system Incentives and motivation systems 0 Return management 0 Export management Factors leading to brain drain encourages the acceptance of brain drain Foreign professionals acquire specialized skills that are not available in their own country The expenditures in education don t revert in the investor country Pull Pursuit of higher education and economic improvement Role of government agencies encouraging migration of health professionals Ageing of baby boom generation require healthcare Demotivating working atmosphere Underinvestment in health care systems Lack of research fundingpoor intellectual stimulation Poor facilities Limited career structures Lack of good education for the children in home country Insufficient incentives to return Factors determining brain drain calls governments to stop the ow Primary determinants intl levelpull factors Political and economic imbalances in world system Asymmetric relations between central and periphery economies The center of the capitalist economy extracts surplus and resources from the periphery 1 Economic or income differential and security of remuneration 2 Differences between staff equipment and general facilities for research 3 Differences in prestige 4 Political instability and repression vs social peace and political freedom Emigration among developed countries is also a large part of the overall brain drain Secondary determinants home countrypush factors Size and rate of emigration is related to the internal conditions of the country Structural tension imbalance between the supply of professionals produced by the education system and the internal demand for their services Tertiary determinants Why professionals decide to leave 1 Differences in past training and professional achievements 2 Differences in current life situations 3 Differences in social networking in uences 3 Negative Effects of Brain Drain Reverse Brain Drain skilled workers returning to their home country US bene ts of the ideas developed by foreign born professionals within the country Number of foreign nationals demanding visas outweighs the supplies so they must go back home Signi cant contribution of these workers to us intellectual property more than half international patents especially Chinese and Indian High number of foreign employmentbased principals An Enduring Problem 0 Migration increasingly due to MNCS which recruit experts in one country and combine them with other production factors elsewhere to avoid undesired technology transfer to competing companies Criticism from Africa bc even those who stay loose theirjobs on behalf of foreign companies 0 Migration ows from South and Central America Caribbean to NAmerical loss of commercial middle class and university graduates Economic and Social Consequences Individual Levelexpected bene ts gt expected losses pro table alternative National level Reverse technology transfer high costs for investment in training in the origin countries that are not repaid by the industrial countries imports the results at no cost Eliminates income basic for domestic demand and taxation quotBrain over owquot oversupply of skills that are unemployed in the origin country Perpetuate the imbalance in the labor market Loss of growth potential Subsidisation of the Rich by the Poor Law of the market the better equipped improve their position while the least slip back Suggested policy migration tax never implemented Eliminating the Causes Reduce training subsidizes in Third World Countries Deregulate labor market Adjust salaries to productivity instead of status Increase regional sectoral mobility Liberal reform and adjustment to market forces Reintegration of quali ed citizens Only with industrial countries engagement and cooperation Impact on Security and Stability Training each military is a costly investment for poor countries Loss of present and future leaders in the army less quali ed soldiers The more training a service member has the more desirable to hire in other countries Scarcity of pilots many planes but no one to y them Loss of engineers and techniciansNo remodelation of military hardware obsolete and unrepaired equipment Loss of military medical personnel especially trained in preventing communicable diseases hivaids young soldiers high risk group Remitta nces positive aspects Provide money to poor people job creation alleviation of hunger Healthier better educated potential applicants for military services Increase tax revenue providing funding for defense Connection with outside world Expatriates still in uence their homeland yet By leaving Africa agitators for change put themselves out of reach of the repressive governments they are agitating against 4 Ways to cope with brain drain and alternative de nitions such as quotbrain gainquot Return policies Incentives for contracting Italian or foreign scholars engaged in overseas teaching Contracts required for teaching and research activities 6 motnhs3 years Introduction of taxes to subsidize scholar s salaries paid by the government Brain drain reversal program led to less than 1 of Italian researchers returning home Main push working at the leading edge of research access to enhanced equipment and infrastructure Con attract less active researchers who are motivated to return for family or personal reasons Master39s end Back Sardinia Strengthen higher education system and employment by boosting attendance in higher education courses nancial support to institutions and business to recruit young professionals Retention Policies Creation of centers for excellence establishment of Italian Institute of Technology greater power of attraction and better changes of producing externalities Geographic concentration favors the creation of informal networks that stimulate exchange between actors Network policies DAVINCI network online database made available by the Ministry and supplied with information posted voluntarily by registered users information exchange and dialogue between ltalian researchers living abroad Concrete proposals for action by government authorities and universities Main limitation of previous policies lack of support by programs developing the country s scienti c sector and fostering open universities that boost local development Proposal promote brain circulation and boosting appeal of Italy as a magnet for talent Converting Brain Drain into Wisdom Gain 0 Remittances from expatriates constitute a signi cant proportion of foreign revenue for many developing countries eg Bangladesh 2nCI largest source of foreign revenue 0 Formalizing remittances could be invested nationally in the economic and social development of developing home country Expatriates can contribute to their countries by developing collaborative training programs research projects and teaching their fellow citizens Essential social and synergistic nature of knowledge sharing through use of information technologies researchers give free lectures to global audience using IT Drain or Gain 0 Britain Canada and Australia have immigration rules that privilege college graduates Underscoring of the positive effects of remittances in some places up to 220 of GDP 0 On average expatriates transfer enough money to cover the amount spent on their education in the origin country several times over eg Ghana 0 Better going abroad that being unemployed at the home country 0 Emigration from professionals give the poor countries incentives to invest in education prospect of acquiring a job in developed countries induce people to study Migrants return home with skills that could not be acquired in their origin country
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