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FSU / Psychology / PSY 2012 / What is implied by classical conditioning?

What is implied by classical conditioning?

What is implied by classical conditioning?

Description

School: Florida State University
Department: Psychology
Course: General Psychology
Professor: Hansen
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Psychology, memory, learning, Human, and development
Cost: 50
Name: PSY2012 Exam 3 Study Guide (Ch. 6,7,10)
Description: This study guide covers the main points from chapter 6, 7, and 10 that we have learned up until class this Monday that will be on the exam! Good luck!
Uploaded: 11/13/2016
7 Pages 414 Views 3 Unlocks
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Psychology Study Guide


What is classical conditioning?



Chapter 6: Learning

What is Classical Conditioning?

- a form of learning in which animals come to respond to a  previously neutral stimulus that had been paired with another  stimulus that elicits an automatic response

- conditioning pairs an unconditioned stimulus with a conditioned  stimulus; after conditioning, the conditioned stimulus alone  results in the conditioned response

- balloon pops you jump (unconditioned stimulus, unconditioned  response)

- warning bell before balloon pops we still jump

- Pavlov’s dogs experiment- dogs began to salivate at the sound of a bell; proving classical conditioning is automatic

Placebo Effect

-used as a control in medical studies to determine if a new medicine is  actually making patients get better


Placebo effect refers to what?



-Caffeine Study

-skin conductance levels, heart rate

-Galvanic Skin Response: participants skin conductance levels  were recorded, such as sweat coming from fingertips

-Results: both real caffeine and caffeine-associated drink resulted in higher arousal

Advertisements

-combine products with other stimuli that make us feel good so that we learn to pair product with feelings of happiness

-car example

-results: when shown a car and a woman dressed provocatively,  men rated the car as more appealing, better designed, faster, etc. Learned Phobias

-phobias are conditioned and fears are often illogical

-John Watson classically conditioned a little boy to have a phobia of  white rats


Phobias refers to what?



We also discuss several other topics like What are the functions of mitotic cell division?

- After seven pairings to the rat and UCS (loud sound), Albert displayed  a CR (crying) to the rat alone, demonstrating that the rat had become  a CS

-Classical conditioning can not only make people have fears, but also  help people get over them

Operant Conditioning

-Learning controlled by the consequences of the organism’s behavior -our actions lead to outcomes

-Shaping- conditioning a target by progressively reinforcing behaviors  that come closer and closer to the target

Types of Operant Conditioning:

Reinforcement

Punishment

Increasing behaviors

Decreasing behaviors

Positive reinforcement

-adding something you do want

Positive punishment

Adding something you don’t wamt

Negative Reinforcement

Taking away something you  don’t want

Negative Punishment

Taking away something you do  want

We also discuss several other topics like What problems were there with the original zener tests?

Different Reward Schedules

Fixed Interval  ex: work (getting paid every 2 weeks)

Random Interval ex: fishing (sometimes you catch something,  sometimes you don’t)

Fixed Ratio  ex: every 5 times a kid cleans their room, they go out for  ice cream

Random Ratio extra credit, slot machines  Shown to increase  behavior the most If you want to learn more check out What is the doppler effect?

If used correctly, operant conditioning can be very successful  in a variety of domains

Health trichotillomania (chronic hair pulling) can be helped by operant conditioning

Sports Improving athletic performance

Biological Constraints

-limit responses that can be taught

-ex: Thorndike tried to increase the probability of a cat yawning no  luck

Escape and Avoidance

-cutting class calling kids out for being late will make them care less  about arriving on time

Imitation

-individuals whose behavior is punished may observe and learn to  control others in a similar manner

-ex: child abuse by adults have their own history of having been  abused as children (negative modeling)

-get bullied, bully other kids

-want to be a better dancer, you watch someone else and learn Does watching violence cause violence? We also discuss several other topics like What is the artificial dichotomy?

-Bandura’s Classic Study

-children that viewed adult being aggressively toward Bobo doll acted  violently towards the Bobo doll when given a chance to play with it -Imitative aggression and non-imitative aggression (verbal and attacks  on environment)

-point children learned to imitate aggression in some ways Does Seeing Media Violence Cause Violence?

-majority of research says yes

Chapter 7: Memory

What is memory?

-multi-faced processes to obtain, retain, and retrieve information Types of Memory

1. Short-Term Memory

a. memory system that retains information for limited  durations Don't forget about the age old question of How do we study sleep?

b. related to what is called working memory which refers  to our ability to hold on to information we’re currently  thinking about, attending to, or processing actively

2. Long-Term Memory

a. relatively enduring (from minutes to years) retention of  information stored regarding our facts, experiences, and skills

b. bigger capacity than short-term

Some Facets:

-explicit memory- memories we recall intentionally and of which we  have conscious awareness; person consciously retrieves the  information from his/her own memory store

-implicit memory-performance on a task is altered by past experiences  and memories though the person is unaware of it

Types of Memories:

-semantic memory- our knowledge of facts about the world -episodic memory- recollection of events in our lives

-procedural memory If you want to learn more check out In economy, what is the market structures?

-flashbulb memories- emotional memories that seem so vivid that  people appear to recount them in remarkable, even photograph, detail Primacy and Recency Effect

-easier to remember the first and the last/most recent Direct Measure vs. Indirect Measure

Direct Measure- Recall

-Short essay test questions

Direct Measures- Cued Recall

-Fill in the blank

-intralist cues- given with the target during study; ex: word pair recall,  sentence completion

extralist cues- cues similar to target

Direct Measure- Recognition

-multiple choice and matching questions

-variations similar to recall

Indirect Measures

Priming repetition priming- previous exposure to a stimulus affects its  subsequent processing

Item Generation- study list contains word apple

-when direct memory test given, apple is not remembered -Later, subject asked to generate words for fruit, apple will appear on  the list

Indirect Measures Task Performance

-focus on both perceptual motor and cognitive skills

-bicycle riding, puzzle solving

-people with anterograde amnesia can still form procedural memories -famous case of Clive Wearing

Indirect Measure- Judgement

Mere Exposure Effect

-famous and non-famous names

-lists read weeks apart

-non-famous names that were on the earlier lists were perceived as  being more famous

Ways to Improve Memory

-chunking

-mnemonic devices

-acronyms

-method of Loci

-Peg Words

State Dependent Memory

-Recall best in the same room in which material was learned -Divers recall best info learnt in same setting

-Alcohol- best recall when drunk again

False Memories

-People can falsely report hearing a word if presented with semantically related words

-shows that false memories could be created for single words False memories either remembering events that NEVER happened or  remembering them quite differently from the way they happened Why do false memories occur?

-Source Errorswhen people confuse internally generated )imagined)  items with externally present items (believing something happened  when it was just a dream)

-Fuuzy-Trace Theory when people encode info, verbatim traces and  gist traces are created

-Reconstructive Theory  

The Mis-Information Effect

-the change in reporting that arises after receipt of misleading  information

Leading Questions question that suggests what answer is desired or  leads to the desired answer

Creation of False Childhood Memories

-wanted to know if college students would create false childhood  memories

Results: college students reported remembering events that never  happened

NO correlation between the certainty one has about a memory and the  memory’s accuracy

False Memories can even be made when they are IMPOSSIBLE -The DisneyLand Study

-impossible to remember meeting Bugs Bunny in Disney or  remember meeting Ariel before she was even a character at the park -This can be a huge problem

-leading questions  lawyers, hypnosis

-Eye Witness Testinomy

a. research suggests that identification of suspects is more accurate with sequential lineups in which witnesses  

view one person at a tie, rather than simultaneous  

lineups, in which witnesses make the selection from a  group of both suspects and decoys

b. problem is that when the real person isn’t in the lineup,  witnesses are more likely to mistakenly identify the  

person who most closely resembles the guilty  

perpetrator

c. person conducting the lineup should be blind to who the suspect is to avoid bias eyewitness

-Real Life example Ronald Cotton and Jennifer Thompson

Chapter 10- Human Development

Parental Development

Zygote- fertilized egg, which enters a 2-week period of rapid cell  division and develops into an embryo

Embryo- 2 weeks through 8

Fetus- weeks 9 until birth

Down’s Syndrome 3 copies of chromosome 21 instead of 2 -can cause mental retardation, abnormal facial features, and  behavioral problems

Phenylketonuria (PKU) missing an enzyme necessary to metabolize  phenylalanine, an amino acid

-can cause mental retardation

Hypoxia temporary lack of oxygen at birth

-linked to mental retardation, cerebral palsy, and schizophrenia Fetal Alcohol Syndromebrought about by maternal ingestion of alcohol during pregnancy

-can case abnormal facial features, smoother brain surface, and a lack  of connection between the two cerebral hemispheres

What are Teratogens?

External factors that affect prenatal development

Infants

-born with innate preference to look at faces instead of other objects -especially attractive faces

-babies have a tendency to stare at novel, interesting phenomena Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development

1. Sensorimotor stage

-using senses and moving around

-birth to approx. 2 years old

-object permanence

-stranger anxiety

-scale errors

2. Preoperational Stage

-ages 2 to 6 or 7

-capable of pretend play

-representing things with words and images

-fail to understand conservationdifferent cups, same amount of  water

-egocentric (only see the world through their own eyes) -centrationcan only focus on one aspect at a time

Early egocentrism doesn’t apply to everything (children as young as 18 months can understand that someone else feels differently  than they do)

3. Concrete Operational Stage

-ages 6 or 7 to 11

-understand conservation  introduction of mathematical  concepts in school

-children can now think logically about concrete events -unable to think abstractly

-concepts like love or freedom

4. Formal Operational Stage

-age 12 to adult

-logical reasoning in hypothetical if,then scenarios

-flaw in this finding because many 7 year olds can also do  this

Vygotsky

-Zone of proximal development

Adolescence

Adolescent egocentrism-characteristic of adolescent thinking that  leads young people to focus on themselves to the exclusion of others Adolescent Brain

-front area is last to develop

-this area contains reasoning, decision making, planning for  future skills

-teens show increased risk taking and decreased ability to see  consequences

Processing Info ad instructions:

Teens in their emotional center (midbrain)

Adults In their rationality center (front of brain)

Moral Development

Kohlberg’s Stages

1. Pre conventional Morality- before age 9

-focused on self interests

-punishments/rewards

2. Conventional Morality- by early adolescence

-caring for others

-upholding laws and social rules

3. Post conventional Morality- not all reach it

-people understand that unique situations change moral  arguments

-self defined ethical principles

ex: The Heinz Dilemma

Criticism of Kohlberg’s Stages

-based on thinking and justifications, not behaviors

-baised for white, individualistic, males

Erickson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development ∙ Trust vs. Mistrust (infancy)

∙ Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (toddlerhood)

∙ Initiative vs. Guilt (preschooler)

∙ Competence vs. Inferiority (elementary school)

∙ Identity vs. Role Confusion (teens-early 20s)

∙ Intimacy vs. Isolation (20s- early 50s)

∙ Generativity vs. Stagnation (40s-60s)

∙ Integrity vs. Despair (late 60s and older)

Middle to Late Adulthood

-Gradual decrease in abilities due to an increased rate of neuronal loss ex: senses, motor skills, reaction time (driving accidents) memory  (recall vs. recognition and crystalized vs. fluid intelligence), strength -general decline in health

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