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JMU - ART 101 - SMAD 101 Test 3 - Study Guide

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JMU - ART 101 - SMAD 101 Test 3 - Study Guide

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background image EXAM 3!!!   Vertically integrated- companies are started  Electronic- 
1. Experiments- determined technology as they progressed 
2. Government-protect intellectual property
3. corporations- buy up patens of experiments 
History of Recordings: (My Video notes)  Record sounds and play them back- Thomas Edison (Phonograph)  Market phonograph well  Bonjo recording popular  Can only make 10 copies so it want 100 then do it 10 times  1 st  form of music that many people bought was Rag Time/Sheet Music  Sheet Music  Ross fertilization  Caruso- he was a big music star but was from theater  Minorities began to record their music too  Riese record- black people (Blues & Gospels)  Hill Billy Records- Country  Colorful music- jazz age 1917  Freddie Armstrong not take opportunities cause didnt want people to take his 
Rock & roll- for everyone but usually still segregated but 15 and 55 year olds 
liked same music. Eventually young people made their own music
Hardware-disk  Software- content on that disk  Cover of Rock & roll were by white people that sped up the music. R & R- 
originally by black people. 
Beatles were influential (Write own music)  Barry Gory-  His house were where people recorded  History of recording: (Class)  1877- Edisons Phonograph (tinfoil, many had a little one)  1886- Chichester Bells Graphophone (wax not tinfoil) Wax melts so you can 
lose recording 
1887- Emile Berliners Gramophone (Disk made flat) Wind it up, put song on, 1
song per side
1906- Victrola (beginning music was great but by the end it got slower)  1927- Columbia Phonography (William Paley… not wax but shellac)  Formats: 78 -> 331/3 -> 45 rpms (2 to 10-15 songs) software  Tinfoil, wax, shellac, vinyl (hardware)  Music Defines the Generations:  1920s- Jazz originated in New Orleans 
background image 1930s- Crooners and early pop music… Microphone was made (Sing low = 
1940s- Big Band Era (Saxophones, trumpets) Swing originated during this 
1950s: Blue Suede Shoes and Bobby-Sax: DJS and R’ n R’ shows (sex in car)  Dominance of 45 rmps  Bobby-sox is bring 45s and dance at parties  All generations like something but younger  People found music they liked Blues, Rock and roll, pop  Major artist- Chick Berry, Elvis, Buddy Haley, Little Richard  1960s: Turn on, Tune in, Drop out  Mono to stereo, LP (11 track)  Studio experiments  British Invasion (Beatles), Motown (Barry Botton), Woodstock, Height 
Major artist: Beatles, Rolling Stones, Supremes, Beach Boys  1970s: Have a nice decade  Music is a big industry  8 tracks and cassettes  Pop, Punk, Hard Rock, Disco  Major Artists- Led Zepplin, Bee Bees, Eagles, Sex Pistols, Commodores, 
Heetwood Mac
1980s:  MTV & Music videos (cable TV)  Compact Discs  New Wave, Heavy Metal, Rap  Major Artists- Madonna, Guns n’ Roses, Prince, Run DMC, U2  1990s/2010’s:  Digital audio (pirating)  Proliferation of musical choices  Hip hop, industrial, rave, country, pop, grunge  Major artist- Nirvana, Nsync, Puff Daddy, Celine Dion  Music Business:  RIAA (Recording Industry Association America) Protects recording industry like
when people take music 
Consolidation of labels (Sony, Universal, Warner Bros.)- U.S don’t own any of 
Sales of records- gold (500,000 copies), platinum (1 million songs), diamond 
(10 million records) 
Industry positions  Talent (Perform, Sing)  A & R (Airport and restaurants so like talent scouts) 
background image Operations Marketing and promotions  Distribution (Record stores)  Issues:  Lyrics and censorship- PMRC (Parents Music Resource Center) listen to music 
before its released 
Access to consumer  Image VS. Music (Imagine themselves)  Copyrights and Pirating  CLASS NOTES Historical Figures:  Key Individuals-  Nikola Tesla-  Solo Inventor Wireless transmitters invented Intelligent man  Use alternative current  Held earliest patens on the radio  Guglielmo Marconi-  Harnessing power  Took info to Great Britain who destroyed his device because they 
thought he was a terrorist 
Gave ability to send wirelessly form ship to ship  American Marconi in U.S…. “S” was hear across Atlantic Ocean  Lee De Forist-  Triode which amplifies a signal like turn up volume He sold the Paten (idea) to AT&T Reginald Fessenden-  Made alternative current basically power source better than 
Diode detects radio waves  On Christmas Eve (1907) he sent a signal and read passage form
the bible and played an instrument 
Reminders:  No one company can own a radio  Edwin Armstrong- FM contributed this 
background image David Sarnoff- was a delivery man for Marconi and then a member of 
RCA. He saw success. 
Video notes:  Moving message- radio develops with dots and dashes (Morse Code)  Telegraphy- transcontinental railroad  Marconi- wireless radio device A VISION OF RADIO-  Lee De Forest  Radio sets $75  Radio broadcast- people began building transmitter on their own  Frank Comrade- worlds 1 st  commercial station  THE POWER OF RADIO-  People weren’t isolated anymore  Listen to daily news and weather  Newspapers realized threat of radio  Radio talk about war (WW2)  A COMMERCIAL RADIO-  Direct ads was saying products/brand-names in their songs or 
mention brands on the radio 
By 1930 radio was making a lot of money  Music on radio- most popular  Orsen wells, invasion on the radio (fake)  After TV the radio stars disappeared  1 st  PATEN ON RADIO- Tesla  Marconi & Tesla went to court and court decided Tesla was father 
of radio 
Early radio:  From point-to-point to point-to-multipoint (individuals broadcast music 
to others) 
Titanic (Rich people died)  1912 Radio Act- Congress mandated outgoing radio on ships (Radio 
operators on Secretary of Commerce made and controlled radio 
RCA!!!!: G.E (An Alternator), Westinghouse (Detect radio waves), AT&T  CLASS NOTES Early Radio Stations:  KDKA, Pittsburg, 1920 
background image Westinghouse engineers (Play from outside his house)  WEAF, New York, 1922  1 st  commericial flagship station for AT&T network (Created Toll  Broadcasting)  WJZ, New York, 1925  RCA network, competes with AT&T point to point to point to 
{RCA came about after WW1 (G.E, AT&T, Westinghouse)}  {End of depression- insurance company and radio industry were 2 big 
Radio Networks:  Networks established for greater advertising reach  Used telephone lines  Affiliates (Pay a fee to be associated with them) and O.O (Owned) 1926 RCA buys WEAF network form AT&T  RCA created a new network (NBC)  Red network (WEAF)  Blue Network (WJZ)  Paley   Purple network  Columbia creates CBS 1927  Radio Regulation:  Early radio was chaotic  Regulated by city & state  Licensing issues (ASCAP) American Society of Composures, 
Authors and publishers 
Spectrum scarcity  1927 Radio Act-  Established FRC Federal Radio Commissions- People go all over 
but meet up to discuss rules then go and apply to the radio 
stations they are assigned to 
1934 Communications Act Established the FCC which is 5 commissioners but 3 are a part of 
a political party 
1943 Sells blue network to ABC (ABC got very popular)  BMI (Broadcast Music Incorporated) licensing for radio stations now  NBC Keep red and sold the blue 

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School: James Madison University
Department: Art
Course: Smad 101: Intro to Media Arts
Professor: George Roger Soenksen
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: SMAD, 101, and Studyguide
Name: SMAD 101 Test 3
Description: Test 3 study guide!
Uploaded: 11/13/2016
28 Pages 75 Views 60 Unlocks
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