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ampillary

ampillary

Description

School: Ohio State University
Department: Animal Sciences
Course: Introductory Animal Sciences
Professor: Pasha peffer
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: IntroductiontoAnimalSciences, Animal Science, animals, and reproduction
Cost: 50
Name: intro to animal science study guide repro
Description: this study guide goes into detail from the book and has questions to consider along with key points from her reproduction lecture. lactation and breeds are not covered in this study guide.
Uploaded: 11/13/2016
8 Pages 300 Views 0 Unlocks
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Basic history of reproduction: -Aristotle had two theories:  Preformation- the embryo was preformed and grew or enlarged during  development Epigenesis- man arose from the successive differentiation of formless being Preformation would not be accepted until the beginning of the 20th century  1562- Fallopius discovered the oviducts (fallopian tubes in humans) 1573- the corpus luteum was discovered by Coiter 1672- the ovarian follicle was discovered by De Graadf 1677- sperm was discovered by Hamm and Leeuwenhoek 1825- the discovery that sperm fertilizes the oocytes  1900- life originated from single cells by Driesh 1907- beginning of the study of artificial insemination (AI)  1933- first book on AI published 1959- fist successful AI occurred in rabbits  Female reproduction: -ovaries are the primary reproductive organ in the female. -female gametes are oocytes and are made in the ovaries  - the ovaries also make the female sex hormones such as progesterone and  estrogen  -the oviducts are a pair of convoluted tubes adjacent to the ovaries and extended to the uterus and are the site of fertilization as well as early cell divisions of the  embryo. -the oviducts also help with the transport of sperm and the ova which move in  opposite direction towards each other. -the oviduct has muscular tissue with contractile properties divided into three  sections: -Infundibulum: adjacent to the ovaries; a lace-like structure envelopes the  ovaries and is responsible for capturing the release oocyte and  directing its transport  -in the sow, cow and ewe the infundibulum is separate from the ovary,  but in the rat, mouse and hamster it forms a bursa that surrounds the ovary.- in a mare, the infundibulum is attached to the ovary -Ampulla: middle section, highly invaginated, which increase surface area and are covered with cilia to help move the oocyte down the ampulla -ampillary-isthmic junction is where the ampulla and isthmic join and is the  site of fertilization  -this site can delay the transport of the oocytes for several hours to  increase the chances of it becoming fertilized  -once fertilized, the zygote will then undergo mitotic division while  traveling for 3-6 days through the oviducts to the uterus  -Isthmus: final section of the oviduct. -is similar to the ampillary, but has decreased surface area and the  cilia beat to transport oocytes and embryos to the utero-tubal junction,  where the isthmus connects to the uterus. Uterus: has two uterine horns and/or a uterine body, which is made of three major  layers: 1. outer covering 2. myometrium- an intermediate smooth muscle layer responsible for uterine contractions 3. endometrium- mucosal lining of the uterus, site of embryo implantation or attachment  Cervix: thick walled, protective cartilaginous, elongated barrier between the uterus  and vagina.  -Is a smooth muscle sphincter that is almost always tightly closed except  during times of estrous and parturition -cows, and ewes have transvers, interlocking ridges usually called annular  rings -pigs deposit their semen in the cervix and the end of their ejaculate  administer a plug. -main functions are to serve as a passage way for sperm, while filtering out  the weaker sperm and as a barrier to prevent bacteria from reaching the uterus  and a passage way for the fetus during parturition. -the cervix produces mucous which has anti-bacterial properties, and  also forms a mucous plug during pregnancy  Vagina: a tubular shaped organ of copulation, although it is very thin walled, very  elastic and the site of semen deposition for cattle, sheep, and horses. Vulva: female external genitalia, often times swells during estrous.Female reproduction in avian -only the left ovary is functional, while fertilization occurs inside, growth and  development occurs outside. -lack a corpus luteum, the yolk is what is ovulated (it’s the ovum).  -the ovum is captured by the infundibulum (where fertilization occurs) and then  enders the oviduct. - sperm can be viable for up to a week in the infundibulum, but the yolk only spends half an hour there, and fertilization occurs in half that time. -oviduct is divided into different sections the first is the magnum, where it stays for  a few hours where the thick albumin forms  -isthmus is after the magnum and two thin shell membranes form here -uterus is after the isthmus (the egg is out of the oviduct) and is also called the shell gland, the egg can spend up to 20 hours here getting a hard outer shell and the rest of the albumin is added. -notice there is no cervix present in the avian system - in the vagina, the cuticle is added then goes out the cloaca -about 30 minutes after an egg is laid another one is ovulated - Male reproduction: Testes: make the male gametes (spermatozoa) and male reproductive hormones  such as androgens. -continuously make gametes throughout the animals life once puberty  occurs. - most are located outside the body, typically oval shaped, and include lobes  separated by connective tissue  -suspended within the scrotum by the spermatic cord. Seminiferous tubules: small convolutes tubules that are in the lobes stated above  and represent 90% of the mass of the testes  -have germ cells like leydig cells and nurse cells -leydig cells make testosterone and other androgens when stimulated  by luteinizing hormone-nurse cells (sertoli cells) surround and nourish developing sperm and  mediating the effects of follicle stimulating hormone and  testosterone on the germ cells  -also the site of spermatogenesis Scrotum: tow-lobed sac that conforms to the shape and size of the testes and is  divided into two compartments by the scrotal septum *the spermatic cord and the scrotum both physically support the testes and help  regulate the temperature by controlling how close the testes are to the body* Wolffian Ducts Epididymis: long, convoluted tube that functions to store, concentrate and transport sperm. -conditions include a low ph and high co2 concentration Transportation of sperm is affected by 3 factors: 1. pressure from the production of more sperm 2. external pressure created by normal movement  3. negative pressure caused by ejaculation - as the sperm passes through the epididymis it also gains mobility and  fertility, this is called maturation and takes about 10-15 days - from the epididymis the sperm goes to the vasa differentia, which transport  the sperm to the urethra by smooth muscle contractions. Accessory sex glands make the majority of the ejaculate and supply buffers,  nutrients, and inorganic ions to make sure the sperm is able to move and fertilize. -ampullae are enlargements of the vas deferens located just before the  urethra and add fluid but are not present in all species including pigs -vesicular glands are lobular and are located near the bladder. Also contribute to fluid volume, which contain fructose and sorbitol (sorbitol is only produced  here) to supply energy. -prostate gland is located in different places depending on the species. It  supplies inorganic ions  -cowper’s glad or bulbourethral glands produce different substances  depending on the species, in bulls it makes a substance that allows the bull to  flush out the female, in pigs it make a gel like pug to keep the semen in, and  prevent others from fertilizing her. Penis: organ of copulation and depositing semen in the vagina or cervix, can be  vascular or fibroelatic  -vascular: horses and humans have, penis enlarges via blood vessels filling  with blood creating an erection -fibroelatic: bulls, rams, and boars have, tissue is always firm when, the  sigmoid flexure straitens during an erection to lengthen the penis.  Male reproduction in avian: - simpler than mammalian males; consisting basically of two internal testes,  with an epididymis and vas deferens that lead to a rudimentary penis. - Rosters lack accessory sex glands, so the seaman volume is reduced - Turkeys must be artificially inseminated  Sterility: If only one testis descends, the animal is called an unilateral cryptorchid and  could be fertile. If neither testis descend, the animal is most likely sterile and called bilateral  cryptorchid This had a genetic link, so animals with this issues aren’t often mated, even  though the issue can be easily fixed through surgery  Reproduction The most common factor influencing puberty are age and weight. Nutrition can influence weigh The presence of the opposite gender can influence puberty  In females puberty is noted by the first sigh of estrous and ovulation, which  depends on the production of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing  hormone (LH). Look at figures 6.8, 6.9, and 6.10 for the estrous cycle and the hormone production  that goes along with it. Gestation: Beguins at firtilazation, ad resuts in a ztgote, then turns into a morula, which  develops into a blastocyst.  The blastocyst becomes an embryo as it enters the uterus and continues to  develop into a fetus or the placenta. In farm animals, the placenta does not allow the direct exchange of blood, so  no immunity is gained, thus the baby must drink colostrum right after birth  In a diffuse placenta, sites of exchange are all over the placenta, this is in  pigs and horses In a cotyledonary placenta, exchange takes place over select structures  called placentomes this is in cows and pigs  In a zonary placenta there is a band attachment and dogs have thisIn a discoidal pacent there is a disk shaped area for attachment and is  present in primates. In zonary and discoidal, immunity is passed through the blood stream. Prolactin is responsible for nesting behavior right before an animal gives  birth, and also stimulates milk synthesis. Questions to consider: Label the anatomy of the female and male reproductive tracts. What processes  occur with each associated structure? How does the anatomy of the avian tract differ from that of placental mammals?  What processes occur throughout the avian tract to result in the production of a  fertilized egg in the absence of gestation. Discuss the uterine physiology and the species differences in maternal-fetal  attachment? Using the cows estrous cycle as a model, discuss the follicular and luteal phases,  the hormones present, and the processes that occur? What is the relationship of estrogen and progesterone with the hypothalamus and  pituitary? What is the relationship of FSH and LH on follicular development and corpus luteum  production? How can we stop follicular atresia to increase ovulated follicles? How can you synchronize estrus? What role does the embryo play in the follicular/luteal phases of the estrus cycle? Lactation: Compare and contrast lactation of the monotreme, marsupial, and placental  animals.Consider mammary gland structure, what are differences between cattle and pigs? Trace the flow of milk from the site of synthesis to secretion from the mammary  gland. Focus on the processes that occur within the alveoli. What nutrients are  transferred directly from the blood and what nutrients are synthesized within the  secretory cells of the alveoli? What supports the increased weight of the mammary during lactation? Understand the cycles of lactation: 1) Mammogenesis and the relationship with  reproductive hormones 2) Lactogenesis and the relationship with hormones  (oxytocin, prolactin, epinephrine) a. What role does prolactin play in embryonic  diapause? 3) Galactopoesis 4) Involution a. What is the importance of the mammary returning to a nonlactating state Key points from in class: Purpose of Reproduction


What processes occur with each associated structure?



Don't forget about the age old question of What is the percentage of race horses that are affected by tendon diseases?
If you want to learn more check out List the 3 Planes of dynamic motion in synovial joints
If you want to learn more check out air apparent asu

 Perpetuation of the species Reproduction is  nature’s 2 nd strongest impulse

Provision of food S

urplus of animals for food &

initiation of lactation

Genetic Improvement Only when offspring are

  produced can impact of genetic improvement be realized

Success relies on coordination betweenendocrine system and reproductive anatomy Most economically important trait

Determines number of saleable and maintained animalsand their products (milk, eggs).


How does the anatomy of the avian tract differ from that of placental mammals?



Female = default pathway  Spermatocytes to spermatids Developing sperm cells,

progressing through meiosis (phases I & II)

Interstitial cells or Leydig cells 

Testosterone producing cells Sertoli or nurse cells Maintain testosterone enriched environment

We also discuss several other topics like gray commissure function

  Estrus Period of time when female is sexually receptive

to male. Due to increased concentrations of estrogenand signals approaching ovulation (commonly referred to as heat)

Estrous cycle Period of time from one estrus to the


What is the relationship of estrogen and progesterone with the hypothalamus and pituitary?



next

Menstrual cycle Period from one menses to the next

We also discuss several other topics like What is the formula used for Chain Rule with Product Rule?

  Hormonal regulation of the estrous cycle Follicular phase

Follicular development& increased estrogen

Luteal phase

Formation of corpusluteum andprogesterone

Seasonal Reproduction

Short day breeders

Increased melatoninstimulates ovarian function

Long day breeders

Decreased melatoninstimulates ovarian function

Inverse relationshipbetween melatonin

and length of light

Melatonin maystimulate or inhibitpituitary hormonerelease

Monotremes

Marsupials

Lay eggs after partial embryonic development Give birth to premature young and practice embryonic

diapause

We also discuss several other topics like How to find the interval convergence and the radius series

  Artificial insemination

Advantages of artificial insemination

maximize genetic improvement with greater access tosuperior genetics; control over individual matings; reducedmating costs; control of reproductive diseases

Disadvantages of artificial insemination

determining estrus of the female

  Artificial insemination: A historical perspective

Artificial insemination

Advantages of artificial insemination

maximize genetic improvement with greater access tosuperior genetics; control over individual matings; reducedmating costs; control of reproductive diseases

Disadvantages of artificial insemination

determining estrus of the female

Species use of artificial insemination

Dairy cattle

70% of all cows

Beef cattle

20% of all cows

Pigs 90%, related to the size of the operation with greater adoption in larger herds

Horses

Depended on breed registration requirements

Sheep

Limited due to procedure

 

Turkeys

Broilers

requirements Extensive Not widely adopted except in research and pedigree

lines

Llamas & Alpacas Not widely used to techniques in semen collection and preservation and conception rates Semen may be used fresh

or frozen and depends on the qualities of the semen.

   

Estrous synchronization controlling estrous cycle so

females express estrus around same time

Reasons to use:

1. with AI - decrease expense of time & labor for detectionof estrus

2. for success of embryo transfer

Methods:

1. hormonal – induce ovulation to restart estrous cycle; orsurpress ovulation 2. natural – weaning (sows & beef cattle)

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