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Western Washington University - ASTR 103 - Astronomy 103 Study Guide

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Western Washington University - ASTR 103 - Astronomy 103 Study Guide

School: Western Washington University
Department: Astronomy
Course: Intro to Astronomy
Professor: Mike Kraft
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Math, astronomy, planets, Science, and space
Name: Astronomy 103 Study Guide Exam 3
Description: This study guide includes Week 7 and 8 notes with added highlights and emphasis on points of the exam. Good Luck! Don't forget to check your group activities as well for studying! UPDATE: Just added Week 9 notes from this week to the study guide. Info on high mass stars and the HR Diagram
Uploaded: 11/14/2016
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background image Astronomy 103 Week 7  10/31/16  HW due Friday    Hot Jupiters  •  Gas giants very close to star  •  Well inside the frost line  •  Broke our old models of Solar System formation  Planets must be able to migrate, changing their orbits from where they form. 
Planets move around early in a solar system’s life. 
  Heavy  cratering  on  the  Moon  and  other  bodies  happened  after  accretion  and  after their crust cooled.  
Late Heavy Bombardment 
What drove LHB?  •  Neptune migrated toward the Kuiper Belt causing large influx of comets 
from outer solar system 
•  Migration of Jupiter caused orbital changes in asteroid belt  Video clip from Crust of the Moon from the How the Universe Works  •  The far side of the moon’s crust is 30 miles thicker than the near side    11/1/16  The Sun 
Why study it? 
•  It’s there  •  It makes up most of the mass of the Solar System  •  It provides the energy to support life on Earth  •  It is made of matter that behaves in ways unlike what we find on Earth  •  It is a window into understanding other stars    What is different about the Sun compared to other Solar System objects?  •  Generates energy  •  SIZE  Fundamental Questions 
What is the Sun’s temperature? Calculate from black body curves 
Max wavelength*temperature = 2892 micron K  Temperature= 2892 micron K/max wavelength 
Sun T= 5573 K vs. Jupiter T= 130 K 
 
background image What is the Sun made of? Using spectroscopy  Mostly  Hydrogen  and  helium  plus  many  small  amounts  of  other 
elements. 
Jupiter also made of mostly hydrogen and helium.  They formed from the same source materials 
 
Explanation  of  their  difference  in  size  and  temperature:  The  Sun  is  so  hot  because it is so large.  Where is the highest density? The Sun’s inner core  •  Bigger size means more matter  •  More matter means stronger gravitational pull  •  More gravity means higher density and pressure   
Inside the Sun 
•  Huge pressure (7200 billion atmospheres)  •  Pressure causes immense density (150,000kg/m^3)  •  Temperature is hot from heat of formation  Leading to Thermonuclear fusion!    Nuclear Fusion  •  Atomic nuclei combine to form new, heavier elements  •  Atomic  nuclei  usually  do  not  contact  each  other  because  of  large 
electrostatic repulsive force. 
•  But under huge pressure inside the Sun’s core…  •  Strong nuclear force causes them to fuse together.    11/2/16    The proton-proton chain  -Positron 
-Neutrino 
-Gamma rays    
Gamma  Rays:  electromagnetic  radiation.  Type  of  light.  High  energy,  short 
wavelengths.   4 Hydrogen atoms= 6.693 x10^-27 kg  1 Helium atom= 6.645x10^-27 kg 
There’s a 0/048x10^-27 kg left over (0.7% difference) 
Extra mass is converted into energy. E=MC^2 Einstein’s law of special relativity 
background image   Energy from making a single atom. 
E=(0.048x10^-27kg)*(3.0x10^8m/s)^2 
E=4.1x10^-12 kg m^2/s^2=4.1x10^-12 joules  1 gram of H=6x10 Joules 
 
CNO chain  -Other set of nuclear fusion reactions  -Important in other stars 
 
Sun’s interior structure  •  Energy produced in the core  •  Other zones defined by how energy escapes the Sun to space  -Radiation zones (energy is radiated) 
-Convective zone (energy transfer by convection) 
  Solar Wind  •  Ionized gases: mostly H and He that are stripped of their electrons  •  Ejected from parts of the Sun’s corona  •  Travels  throughout  the  solar  system,  moving  away  from  the  Sun  up  to  200Km/second  •  Maybe protect us from the solar radiation, interacting   
Earth’s magnetic field 
•  Deflects charged particles from the Sun  •  Protects surface from Solar Wind  •  Liquid core produces a magnetic field    11/4/16  Activity #2 with new group assignments   
Astro 103 Week 8 
11/7/16  No class this Friday 
Next Friday is Exam 
Tomorrow is Activity 17   
Measuring Stars 
Hotter= Blue 

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School: Western Washington University
Department: Astronomy
Course: Intro to Astronomy
Professor: Mike Kraft
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Math, astronomy, planets, Science, and space
Name: Astronomy 103 Study Guide Exam 3
Description: This study guide includes Week 7 and 8 notes with added highlights and emphasis on points of the exam. Good Luck! Don't forget to check your group activities as well for studying! UPDATE: Just added Week 9 notes from this week to the study guide. Info on high mass stars and the HR Diagram
Uploaded: 11/14/2016
9 Pages 72 Views 57 Unlocks
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  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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