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UVM / BioCore / BCOR 12 / What is the meaning of kinetochore microtubules?

What is the meaning of kinetochore microtubules?

What is the meaning of kinetochore microtubules?


School: University of Vermont
Department: BioCore
Course: Exploring Biology
Professor: Donald stratton
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Biology, Bio, BCOR, UVM, Vermont, stratton, exam, midterm, and Midterm Study Guide
Cost: 50
Description: What is highlighted should be known for the exam.
Uploaded: 11/14/2016
25 Pages 131 Views 2 Unlocks

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INTRODUCTION TO PLANT FORM AND FUNCTIONDon't forget about the age old question of What does it mean to interpret a graph?

Don't forget about the age old question of Did caravaggio invent chiaroscuro?

        Connections between cells: collagen fiber, integrin, fibronectin, proteoglycan complex, microfilaments.

        Communication between cells: animals have gap junctions, pants have plasmodesmataIf you want to learn more check out What is the metal extrusion process?

Bulk transport: blood vessels, arteries, veins, vascular tissues in bundles (plants)

We also discuss several other topics like How do you know if a series is alternating?

Specialization of different cell types: animal cells can migrate during development


  • Plant cells can’t move because of the cell wall
  • All cells of the plant body originate in a meristem

  • Plant shoots are made from repeating modules: Stem, Leaf, Bud
  • Indeterminate Growth- size and shape of the organism is unknown at birth
  • Individuals of the same species -> grown in the open U.S. growth in crowded conditions

  • The environment is more deterministic

  • Plant growth happens from the top.

  • Kinetochore Microtubules- attach to kinetochores on chromosomes sister chromatids attach from opposite sides of a cell so they’ll move to opposite poles.

  • Daughter Chromosomes- sister chromatids after separation. Chromatids share a centromere, chromosomes have their own centromere.

If you want to learn more check out What should we do about climate change?

Don't forget about the age old question of Who is boyd brady?

  • Prometaphase- nuclear envelope breaks down and compacted chromosomes (2 chromatids each), attach to kinetochore microtubules.

  • Metaphase- chromosomes line up at the midline of the sell

  • Anaphase- chromatids separate and daughter chromosomes move away from each other to opposite poles

  • Kinetochores contain molecules of motor proteins such as kinesin and dynein.

  • Telophase- last phase of mitosis. Nucleus envelope forms around each set of new chromosomes, nucleoli appear and chromosomes become less compact. Spindle also disappears.

  • Cytokinesis- cell separation; cell membrane or wall formation.
  • Prokaryotic cells constantly divide whenever environmental conditions are adequate, eukaryotic cells do not.

  • Growth factors- substances in mammals that stimulate cells.
  • Apoptosis- type of cell death that is a result of a genetically programmed series of events

  • 2 reasons for initiating apoptosis: the cell is no longer needed by the organism; or the longer cells live, the more prone they are to genetic damage that could lead to cancer
  • How apoptosis works: a cell becomes detached from neighbors, hydrolyzes its DNA into small fragments. Surrounding cells usually ingest remains.

  • Caspases- class of enzymes that hydrolyze target proteins in a cascade of events (cause cell death)


  • Coenocytic Organization- nucleus divides multiple times but nuclei aren’t partitioned into individual cells
  • Interior cells don’t have direct access to nutrients

  • Active transport as well as diffusion

  • Bulk Transport- means by which molecules move through organisms at rates beyond those possible by diffusion across a gradient.

  • 3 general requirements for complex multicellular life: 

  • Cells must stick together, must communicate with one another, must participate in a network of genetic interactions that regulates cell division and differentiation.

  • Need adhesion for complex multicellularity

  • Plasmodesmata- allow signaling molecules to pass between cells in a targeted fashion in plants.

  • Meristems- populations of actively dividing cells at the tips of stems and roots.
  • Growth plays a role in plants similar to that played by behavior in animals
  • Animal cells can move, plant cells cannot

  • Phytomers- compose shooters. Consist of a node with one or more leaves, an internode, and one or more axillary buds.
  • Bud- underdeveloped shoot that can produce another leaf, a phytomer, or a flower.
  • Monocots- generally narrow-leaved plants such as grasses, lilies, orchids, and pollens.
  • Eudicots- generally broad-leaved plants such as soybeans, roses, sunflowers, and maples.

  • Category                 Monocots                        Eudicots

Embryos                one cotyledon                        two cotyledons

Stems                        vascular tissue scattered        vascular tissue in circles

Leaf venation                veins usually parallel                veins form a network

Root system                fibrous (no main root)        taproot (main root) usually there

Flowers                floral organs usually                floral organs usually

                        multiples of 3                        multiples of 4 or 5

                        pollen grain with single        pollen grain with three

                        furrow or pore                        furrow or pore

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