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Exam 3 Study Guide: Biopsychology Compilation of notes with highlights for what we spent the majority of class discussing.Communication and language Different than any other animal, species. Can generate thousands of words with unique meaning.I. Lateralization located predominately on one side of the brain. Most language disturbances occur after damage to the left side of the brain, whether one is lefthanded or righthanded.A. aphasia braindamagedproduced deficits in the ability to produce or comprehend language. Must be due to some type of insult to the brain that hinders thecomprehension or production of speech. B. Early evidence for lateralization autopsy studies. 60% of righthanders who had left hemisphere lesions, became aphasic; only 2% of righthanders who had right hemisphere lesionsC. Sodium amytal test (Wada test)—much more sophisticated. Take sodium amytal and inject into carotid artery. 9295% of right handers are left hemisphere dominant for speech. 70% of left handers. 30% in people with early left hemisphere damage. Inject left carotid artery, knocks out the left hemisphere. Cannot communicate and talk very well. When injected in the right carotid artery, right side knocked out and can still communicate. D. Dichotic listening test in healthy normal. Put headphones on subject. If at same time, you have left side saying “2, 4, 6” and right saying “1, 3, 7” and will most always say whatever is going in on the right side (1, 3, 7) because hearing is contralateral and processed in the left hemisphere. E. Other tests for "normals" flash word F. Gender differences some evidence that males may be more lateralized for language than females. Females use both hemispheres more than men do forlanguage. The more condensed the section is, the more it is dedicated to a certain behavior. Language centers in the left hemisphere in females is smaller and use less space, but that may be more beneficial. Females tend to show more bilateral, symmetrical patterns of language Size may be inversely related to language ability G. What about sign language?
Coded exactly the same as any other language. Not just a string of welllearned and trained fine motor movements. Is it adaptive? Can I communicate with these signals? If you lesion the left hemisphere of a deaf person, but leave all of the motor centers in tact, then the person cannot communicate, suggesting that sign language is a true language. II. Why would cerebral asymmetry evolve? A. Two theories 1. Two basic modes of thinking. Cannot use the same wiring of nuclei going back and forth because they are so different. a. Analytic thinking left hemisphere logical, analytical, computerlike. Serial things that build on one another. b. Synthetic right hemisphere analyzes wholes: processes wholes: overall stimulus. Viewing wholes and 3D. 2. Sensorimotor theory control of fine motor movements is localized, and one of these is talking. Argues that in the left hemisphere we’ve lateralized talking and moving our mouths. If you get a lefthemisphere lesion and does not cause an aphasia, many people struggle with fine motor movements. Suggest that the preciseness of movements are lateralized in the left hemisphere. III. So the right hemisphere has nothing to do with language? A. No, damage to right hemisphere makes it difficult to read maps, perceive spatial relations, and recognize geometrical forms: also, subtle aspects of language comprehension. Subtleties of language, emotionality, jokes, sarcasm, proverbs, morals. All add to the richness of right hemisphere functionality. IV. Strict localization theories aspects of language localized to specific areas of the brain A. Broca's area small area of the frontal cortex in front of primary motor cortex and lateral fissure: center of speech production. Region of the frontal cortex located rostral to the base of thebrain. 1. Damage to this area caused expressive deficits. Speech production deficits. Slow, laborious, but meaningful speech. 2. Have trouble with function words 3. Can say content words nouns verbs adjectives and adverbs
3 typical symptoms of Broca’s aphasia a. aggramatism difficulty with correct grammar b. anomia – (most hallmark example of Broca’s aphasia) word finding difficulty. Cannot remember the appropriate word to describe an object, action, or attribute. Circumlocution: a strategy by which people with anomia find alternative ways to say something when they are unable to think of the most appropriate word. c. articulation difficulty Struggle with comprehension in word order. Ex) “Pick the picture where the cow is kicking the horse.” Struggle with ambiguous word order. May make sense when words are switched. If words and word order are rigid, then no difficulty with comprehension. B. Wernicke's area – 20 years after Broca. Left temporal lobe behind the auditory cortex: responsible for just language or speech comprehension. Fluent and meaningless speech. Patient does not believe that anything is wrong, think that they are communicating and wait for you to talk and then talk again. Appears to be grammatical but few content words, and words strung together do not make sense. Symptoms of Wernicke’s aphasia 1. Damage to this area resulted in receptor deficits trouble understanding meaningless speech. Difficulty with recognition of spoken words, comprehension of the meaning of words, and the ability to convert thoughts into words. 2. Wernicke felt this area was actually the location of memories of the sequences of sounds that constitute words C. transcortical sensory aphasia Posterior language area: behind Wernicke’s. When damages, you get transcortical sensory aphasia. Cannot comprehend or produce meaningful speech. They can repeat speech; make corrections if someone says a wellknown saying wrong. Can produce repeated speech and sounds of the words correctly but cannot create any original, meaningful speech. Can recognize and repeat what other people say but can't comprehend, trouble comprehending meanings, and inability to convert thoughts to words D. Conduction aphasia arcuate fasciculus connects Wernicke's to Broca's. Can engage in meaningful and fluent speech. They can repeat things as long as there in meaning. Very poor at repetition, especially for words than do not have meaning. If someone is welleducated, large vocabulary, may not be noticeable. May give synonyms, or meaning, not the sounds. Meaning is going forward; first word that comes to mind is said. Ex) repeat after me: boat, automobile. “Ship, car.” It would be impossible to learn a new word, or new language because they have only the meaning attached, but not a sound that they could say.
Pure word deafnessPrimary auditory cortex damage is caused by damage to Wernicke’s area or interruption of auditory input. The ability to hear, to speak, and (usually) to read and write without being able to comprehend the meaning of speech. Pure recognition problem. Not comprehending any speech, even when you are talking. V. WernickeGeschwind model 1. Problems a. Overlap between symptoms of Brocas and Wernicke’s b. surgical removal of Broca's area does not result in longterm aphasia. Brain is malleable, can compensate for damage/this area missing. Damage earlier in the pathway will be more severe. c. CAT and MRI scans—very complex to see damage d. PET scans—difficult to see damage VI. Reading and writing disorders A. Reading and writing skills of aphasics resemble their speaking abilities B. Alexia –brain damage induced inability to read. Must be an individual who knew how to read and write and suffered brain damage and lost the ability to read. (Pure alexia is inability to read, can still write) how do we read? 2 mechanisms 1. wholeword reading recognize a familiar word by shape and pronounce it 2. Phonetic reading with unfamiliar words we recognize individual letters and the sounds they produce C. Dyslexias problems with reading 1. Acquired dyslexias damage to brains of people who already know how to read a. surface dyslexia—person has problems with wholeword reading. All reading has to be done phonetically. Lacks wholeword reading, more challenges with English.
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School: Kent State University
Professor: Douglas Delahanty
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: sleep, learning, memory, Language, communication, and disorders
Name: Exam 3 Study Guide for Biopsychology
Description: These notes cover what will be on the next exam Wednesday 11/16