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SOC 1001 Midterm 2 Study Guide Social Stratification- - the social stratification system is a hierarchical arrangement within society/hierarchy of social classeso what differs from society to society is the organization of the hierarchical structure- Methodologies Used to Study Social Stratification:o (1) Objective- gather information through census data or survey; information regarding residence, education, income, and occupationo (2) Subjective- Self-identification; ask people questions such as “in which social class do you belong?” W.I. Thomas, “Thomas Dictum”- if people define something as real, then it is real in its consequences- Indications of Social Class:o (1) Household Income o (2) Education o (3) Occupation o (4) Residence- Mobilityo Horizontal Mobility- Moving locations and go to a similar status in a new location o Vertical Mobility- is the change of social status up or down The US is considered to be a “credentialed society” Very specific things needed to move up the social laddero Intergenerational Mobility- comparing social status of your own to previous generations of family members- Class vs. Casteo Most societies are somewhere between a class and caste system Caste- focuses on things/aspects that you are born with; extremely rigid society Class- purely based on ability- Consequences of Social Class Statuso Demographic group most at risk of poverty is children Biggest predictor of your social class is your parents’- Social Class Matters because…o It affects access to resources (education, emergency care, health care, jobs, etc.) o Affects perspective of ourselves o Predictive value of “life changes” or “life options” o Linked to mobility (see above)- Natalie Rogoff o Conducted a study answering the question “to what degree does a person’s social class position influence their expectation to go to college?” Used three indicators to construct a measure of socioeconomic/education status (1) Head of household’s income (2) Head of household’s highest level of schooling
(3) Any older siblings? Higher education for these siblings? Found that social class influences more than ability- Joseph Kahl o Did a study conducting the identical hypothesis of Natalie Rogoff with a smaller population, and consisting of only males, results were very similar- August Hollingshead and Frederick Redlich o Studied social class and mental illness o Found that the treatment of illness depends on social class Diagnosis of illness, especially mental illness, is dependent on social class- Richard Wohl o Looked at the Horatio Alger stories which are mainly about young men becoming successful Did a content analysis and analyzed their plotso Found that most of the men in the stories became rich purely by luck, whereas society was trying to teach us to work to be successful- Andrew Brimmer o First black man working on Fed Board o Examines if the social programs to help people actually work at what they are doing by looking at median household income- Michael Harrington, The Other Americao If you cannot convince people that something is in their self-interest, they probably won’t both the change the issue- Herbert Ganz, The Positive Functions of Poverty, From the Viewpoint of the Non-pooro Takes a functionalist view to poverty finding the positives, of which there are 4 major ones he identified: (1) Argues there are certain kinds of work that can only get done because we can depend on an underclass to do it (2) Proportionally poor people are affected more than any other class by war (3) Police, social work, and charity are all professions that depend mainly on the poor (4) Very functional psychologically to have people below you to remind yourself that you do not have it that badSocial Deviance - Behavior that violates the norm o If norm violating behavior is very serious it will probably be written in law - Fallacies About Social Problems/Social Deviance: o (1) How much? Grossly underestimated in most cases The idea that they will always be with us o (2) Who exhibits? Assumption is that most social problems are instituted by “evil people” o (3) What causes them? Underlying causes & root causes o (4) How to reduce behavior?
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School: George Washington University
Course: Introduction to Sociology
Professor: Richard Zamoff
Term: Fall 2016
Name: SOC 1001 Midterm 2 Study Guide
Description: Social Deviance and Social Stratification