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GWU - SOC 1001 - SOC 1001 Midterm 2 Study Guide - Study Guide

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GWU - SOC 1001 - SOC 1001 Midterm 2 Study Guide - Study Guide

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background image SOC 1001 Midterm 2 Study Guide    Social Stratification-  -  the social stratification system is a hierarchical arrangement within society/hierarchy of  social classes  o  what differs from society to society is the organization of the hierarchical  structure  -  Methodologies Used to Study Social Stratification:  o  (1) Objective- gather information through census data or survey; information  regarding residence, education, income, and occupation  o  (2) Subjective- Self-identification; ask people questions such as “in which social  class do you belong?”    W.I. Thomas, “Thomas Dictum”- if people define something as real,  then it is real in its consequences  -  Indications of Social Class:  o  (1) Household Income 
o  (2) Education 
o  (3) Occupation 
o  (4) Residence 
-  Mobility  o  Horizontal Mobility- Moving locations and go to a similar status in a new location 
o  Vertical Mobility- is the change of social status up or down 
  The US is considered to be a “credentialed society”    Very specific things needed to move up the social ladder  o  Intergenerational Mobility- comparing social status of your own to previous  generations of family members  -  Class vs. Caste  o  Most societies are somewhere between a class and caste system    Caste- focuses on things/aspects that you are born with; extremely rigid  society    Class- purely based on ability  -  Consequences of Social Class Status  o  Demographic group most at risk of poverty is children    Biggest predictor of your social class is your parents’  -  Social Class Matters because…  o  It affects access to resources (education, emergency care, health care, jobs, etc.) 
o  Affects perspective of ourselves 
o  Predictive value of “life changes” or “life options” 
o  Linked to mobility (see above) 
-  Natalie Rogoff  o  Conducted a study answering the question “to what degree does a person’s social  class position influence their expectation to go to college?”    Used three indicators to construct a measure of socioeconomic/education  status    (1) Head of household’s income    (2) Head of household’s highest level of schooling 
background image   (3) Any older siblings? Higher education for these siblings?    Found that social class influences more than ability  -  Joseph Kahl  o  Did a study conducting the identical hypothesis of Natalie Rogoff with a smaller  population, and consisting of only males, results were very similar  -  August Hollingshead and Frederick Redlich  o  Studied social class and mental illness 
o  Found that the treatment of illness depends on social class 
  Diagnosis of illness, especially mental illness, is dependent on social class  -  Richard Wohl  o  Looked at the Horatio Alger stories which are mainly about young men becoming  successful    Did a content analysis and analyzed their plots  o  Found that most of the men in the stories became rich purely by luck, whereas  society was trying to teach us to work to be successful  -  Andrew Brimmer  o  First black man working on Fed Board 
o  Examines if the social programs to help people actually work at what they are 
doing by looking at median household income  -  Michael Harrington, The Other America  o  If you cannot convince people that something is in their self-interest, they  probably won’t both the change the issue  -  Herbert Ganz, The Positive Functions of Poverty, From the Viewpoint of the Non-poor  o  Takes a functionalist view to poverty finding the positives, of which there are 4  major ones he identified:    (1) Argues there are certain kinds of work that can only get done because  we can depend on an underclass to do it    (2) Proportionally poor people are affected more than any other class by  war    (3) Police, social work, and charity are all professions that depend mainly  on the poor    (4) Very functional psychologically to have people below you to remind  yourself that you do not have it that bad  Social Deviance  -  Behavior that violates the norm  o  If norm violating behavior is very serious it will probably be written in law  -  Fallacies About Social Problems/Social Deviance:  o  (1) How much?      Grossly underestimated in most cases 
  The idea that they will always be with us 
o  (2) Who exhibits?    Assumption is that most social problems are instituted by “evil people”  o  (3) What causes them?    Underlying causes &  root causes  o  (4) How to reduce behavior? 

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School: George Washington University
Department: Sociology
Course: Introduction to Sociology
Professor: Richard Zamoff
Term: Fall 2016
Name: SOC 1001 Midterm 2 Study Guide
Description: Social Deviance and Social Stratification
Uploaded: 11/14/2016
3 Pages 85 Views 68 Unlocks
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