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School: Tulane University
Department: Psychology
Course: Educational Psychology
Professor: Sarah grey
Term: Summer 2015
Tags: educational psychology
Cost: 50
Name: Education Psychology Quiz #3 Study Guide
Description: All material from Ormrod Ch. 12-15, as well as all in-class notes
Uploaded: 11/14/2016
20 Pages 140 Views 0 Unlocks

what is the main why schools go about diagnosing learning and performance problems?

What is the 3 level approach to addressing aggression and violence at school?

What are the components of mastery learning?

Evidence-Based Practice Backward Design Teacher-Directed Instruction Learner-Directed Instruction Authentic Activity Differentiated Instruction Formative Assessment Instructional method or other classroom strategy that research has consistently shown to bringIf you want to learn more check out fren 3200 study guide
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about significant gains in students' development and/or academic achievement Approach to instructional planning in which a teacher first 1. determines the desired end result (i.e., what knowledge and skills students should acquire), then 2. identifies appropriate assessments, and finally 3. determines appropriate instructional strategies Approach to instruction in which the teacher is largely in control of the content and course of the lesson Approach to instruction in which students have considerable control regarding the issues they address and the ways they address them Classroom activity similar to an activity that students are apt to encounter in the outside world Practice of individualizing instructional methods-- and possibly also individualizing specific content and instructional goals-- to align with each student's existing knowledge, skills, and needs Assessment conducted before or during instruction to facilitate instructional planning and enhance students' learning Instructional Goal Desired long-term outcome of instruction Instructional Objective Desired outcome of a lesson or unit General statements regarding the knowledge and skills Standards that students should gain and the characteristics that their accomplishments should reflectCommon Core State Standards Bloom's Taxonomy Task Analysis 3 general approaches to task analysis: Set of standards that most U.S. states have adopted to guide instruction and assessment in English-language arts and mathematics Taxonomy of six cognitive processes,varying in complexity,thatlessons mightbe designed to foster. 1.Remember - recalling information 2.Understand - constructing meaning 3.Apply - using knowledge in a familiar/new situation 4.Analyze - breaking down information to a deeper level,identifying inter-relationships 5.Evaluate - making judgments aboutinformation using certain criteria/standards 6.Create - putting together knowledge/procedures to form a coherentand structured (possibly original) whole #6 is the goal,and highestcognitive process (mosteffective in learning and retaining information in the long term) R.U.A.A.E.C.= (RU)by (A)te (A)pples (E)very (C)hristmas Process of identifying the specific behaviors, knowledge, or cognitive processes necessary to master a particular topic or skill 1. behavioral analysis 2. subject matter analysis 3. information processing analysis Behavioral analysisAnalyzing a complex task by identifying the specific behaviors required to perform it Analyzing a complex task by breaking down Subject mater analysis the subject matter into the specific topics, concepts, and principles that it includes. Information processing analysisAnalyzing a complex task by specifying the cognitive processes involved in a task Predetermined guide for a lesson that identifies Lesson Plan Teachable Moment Expository Instruction instructional goals or objectives, necessary materials, instructional strategies, and one or more assessment methods Situation or event (often unplanned) in which students might be especially predisposed to acquire particular knowledge or skills Approach to instruction in which information is presented in essentially the same form in which students are expected to learn itLower-Level Question Advance Organizer Higher-Level Question Direct Instruction Mastery Learning What are the components of mastery learning? Hypermedia Question that requires students to retrieve and recite what they have learned in essentially the same way they learned it Introduction to a lesson that provides an overall organizational scheme for the lesson Question that requires students to use previously learned information in a new way-- that is, to engage in complex cognitive processes Approach to instruction that uses a variety of techniques (e.g., explanations, questions, guided and independent practice) in a fairly structured manner to promote learning of fundamental knowledge and skills Approach to instruction in which students learn one topic thoroughly before moving on to a subsequent one 1. small, discrete learning 2. a logical sequence 3. demonstration of mastery at the end of each unit 4. additional activities for students needing extra help or practice to attain mastery Interlinked collection of computer-based, multimedia instructional materials (e.g., text, pictures, sound, animations) that students can examine in a sequence of their own choosing Computer-Based Instruction (CBI)Academic instruction provided by means of specially designed computer software Computer software program that provides individually Intelligent Tutoring System Distance Learning tailored instruction and practice, plus ongoing guidance and feedback, related to a particular topic and set of skills Technology-based instruction in which students are at a location physically separate from that of their instructorReciprocal Teaching Discovery Learning Inquiry Learning Cooperative Learning Base Group Jigsaw Technique Scripted Cooperation Peer Tutoring Approach to fostering reading and listening comprehension skills in which students take turns asking teacher-like questions of classmates Approach to instruction in which students construct their own knowledge about a topic through their own firsthand interaction with an aspect of their environment Approach to instruction in which students apply complex reasoning skills in their examination and interpretation of new phenomena and data sources Approach to instruction in which students work with a small group of peers to achieve a common goal and help one another learn Cooperative learning group in which students work together for an entire semester or school year to provide mutual support for one another's learning Instructional technique in which materials are divided among members of a cooperative group, with different students being responsible for learning different content and teaching it to other groups members Technique in which cooperative learning groups follow a specified set of steps, or script, that guides members' verbal interactions Approach to instruction in which one student provides instruction to help another student master a classroom topicClassroom ManagementEstablishment and maintenance of a classroom environment that's conducive to learning and achievement Classroom ClimateOverall psychological atmosphere of the classroom Sense of CommunityShared belief that teacher and students have common goals, are mutually respectful and supportive, and all make important contributions to classroom learning BelongingnessGeneral sense that one is an important and valued member of the classroom WithitnessClassroom management strategy in which a teacher gives the impression of knowing what all students are doing at all times Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support Systematic use of behaviorist principles to encourage and reinforce productive behaviors in all students; typically involves multiple layers of support in order to accommodate the varying needs and behavior patterns of different students Sense of School CommunityShared belief that all faculty and students within a school are working together to help everyone learn and succeed MisbehaviorAction that disrupts learning and planned classroom activities, puts students' physical safety or psychological well-being in jeopardy, or violates basic moral standards CueingUse of a verbal or nonverbal signal to indicate that a certain behavior is desired or that a certain behavior should stop Statement that communicates the adverse effects of a I-Message student's misbehavior, including one's own reactions to it, in a calm, relatively non-accusatory manner; its intent is to convey information, not to lay blameCognitive Behavioral Therapy 3 ways to establish and maintain productive teacher-student relationships What is the 3 level approach to addressing aggression and violence at school? Planned, systematic combination of behaviorist techniques and cognition-based strategies (e.g., modeling, self-regulation techniques) as a means of bringing about desired behaviors 1. regularly communicate caring and respect for students as individuals 2. remember that caring and respect involve much more than just showing affection 3. work hard to improve relationships that have gotten off to a bad start Level I. Creating a nonviolent school environment Level II. Intervening early for students at risk Level III. Providing intensive intervention for students in troubleAssessmentProcess of observing a sample of a student's behavior and drawing inferences about the student's knowledge and abilities Formative AssessmentAssessment conducted before or during instruction to facilitate instructional planning and enhance students' learning Summative AssessmentAssessment conducted after instruction to assess students' final achievement Informal AssessmentAssessment that results from a teacher's spontaneous, day-to-day observations of how a student performs in class Formal AssessmentPreplanned, systematic attempt to ascertain what students know and can do Paper-Pencil AssessmentAssessment in which students provide written responses to written items Performance AssessmentAssessment in which students demonstrate their knowledge and skills in a non-written fashion Traditional AssessmentAssessment that focuses on measuring basic knowledge and skills in relative isolation from activities typical of the outside world Authentic AssessmentAssessment of students' knowledge and skills in a context similar to one that might be found in the outside world Standardized TestTest developed by test construction experts and published for use in many different schools and classroomsTeacher-Developed Assessment Instrument Assessment tool developed by an individual teacher for use in a specific classroom Criterion-Referenced AssessmentAssessment instrument designed to determine what students know and can do relative to predetermined standards or criteria Norm-Referenced AssessmentAssessment instrument that indicates how students perform relative to a peer group Approach to diagnosing a cognitive impairment in which students are identified for Response to Intervention (RTI) in-depth assessment after failing to master certain basic skills despite both whole class and remedial small-group instruction that research has shown to be effective for most students; can also be useful with non-disabled but chronically low-achieving students RubricList of characteristics and components that a student's performance on an assessment should ideally have; used to guide learning Dynamic AssessmentSystematic examination of how easily and in what ways a student can acquire new knowledge or skills, usually within the context of instruction or scaffolding ReliabilityExtent to which an assessment yields consistent information about the knowledge, skills, or characteristics being assessed StandardizationExtent to which an assessment involves similar content and formal and is administered and scored similarly for everyone ValidityExtent to which an assessment actually measures what it is intended to measure and allows appropriate inferences about the characteristic or ability in question Content ValidityExtent to which an assessment includes a representative sample of tasks within the content domain being assessedCurriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) Use of frequent assessments to track students' progress in acquiring basic skills; assessments are typically quite short (e.g., one to four minutes) and each focus on a specific skill Table of SpecificationsTwo-way grid indicating the topics to be covered in an assessment and the things students should be able to do with those topics Predictive ValidityExtent to which the results of an assessment predict the future performance in a particular domain Construct ValidityExtent to which an assessment accurately measures an unobservable educational or psychological characteristic PracticalityExtent to which an assessment instrument or procedure is inexpensive and easy to use and takes only a small amount of time to administer and score RSVP Characteristics of Assessment R - Reliability S - Standardization V - Validity P - Practicality Halo EffectPhenomenon in which people are more likely to perceive positive behaviors in someone they like or admire Horns EffectPhenomenon in which people are more likely to perceive negative behaviors in someone for whom they have little affection or respect Recognition TaskAssessment task in which one must identify correct information among incorrect statements or irrelevant information Recall TaskAssessment task in which one must retrieve information from long-term memory with only minimal retrieval cuesConstructed-Response TaskRecall assessment task that requires a lengthy response; typically also requires elaboration, analysis, synthesis, and/or application of learned information Analytic ScoringScoring a student's performance on an assessment by evaluating various aspects of it separately Holistic ScoringSummarizing a student's performance on an assessment with a single score TestwisenessTest-taking know-how that enhances test performance Test AnxietyExcessive anxiety about a particular test or about assessment in general Item AnalysisFollow-up analysis of patterns in students' responses to various items in an assessment Item Difficulty (p)Index reflecting the proportion of students getting a particular assessment item correct Item Discrimination (D)Index reflecting the relative proportion of high-scoring versus low-scoring students getting a particular assessment item correct Restricted PerformanceWhen performance tasks are quite short Extended PerformanceWhen we want to determine what students are capable of doing over several days or weeksRaw Score Assessment score based solely on the number or point value of correctly answered items Criterion-Referenced ScoreAssessment score that specifically indicates what a student knows or can do Assessment score that indicates how a Norm-Referenced Score Norms Grade-Equivalent Score Age-Equivalent Score Percentile Rank Normal Distribution (normal curve) A normal distribution divided by the mean and the standard deviation: student's performance compares with the performance of others In assessment, data regarding the typical performance of various groups of students on a standardized test or other norm-referenced measure of a particular characteristic or ability Test score matching a particular student's performance with the average performance of students at a certain grade level Test score matching a particular student's performance with the average performance of students of a certain age Test score indicating the percentage of peers in the norm group getting a raw score less than or equal to a particular student's raw score Theoretical pattern of educational and psychological characteristics in which most individuals score in the middle range and only a few score at either extreme Mean Mathematical average of a set of scoresStandard DeviationStatistic indicating the amount of variability characterizing a set of scores Test score indicating how far a student's Standard Score IQ Score performance is from the mean in terms of standard deviation units Score on an intelligence test,determined by comparing a person's performance on the testwith thatofothers in the same age-group;for mosttests,it's a standard score with a mean of100 and a standard deviation of15 ETS ScoreStandard score with a mean of 500 and a standard deviation of 15 Stanine Standard score with a mean of5 and a standard deviation of2;always reported as a whole number between 1 and 9 Standard score with a mean of 50 and a standard NCE Score deviation of 21.06; an NCE score of 1 equals a percentile rank of 1, and an NCE score of 99 equals a percentile rank of 99 Z-ScoreStandard score with a mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1 Range around an assessment score Confidence Interval reflecting the amount of error that is likely to be affecting the score's accuracy PortfolioCollection of a student's work compiled systematically over a lengthy time period Portfolio compiled and available for Electronic Portfolio (e-folio) inspection on a CD, DVD, flash drive, or other electronic storage mechanismWorking Portfolio Developmental Portfolio Course Portfolio Best-Work Portfolio Standardized Test Scholastic Aptitude Test ongoing collections of a students work samples focused on the improvement over time in a students self evaluated skills a portfolio designed to collect information on the development and continued progress of a particular skill or knowledge area over a specified amount of time, also referred to as a growth portfolio a collection of selected work which demonstrates the range and depth of experience and skills gained from an entire course. includes artifacts intended to showcase the students particular achievements and unique talents Test developed by test construction experts and published for use in many different schools and classrooms Test designed to assess a general capacity to learn and used to predict future academic achievement Specific Aptitude TestTest designed to predict future ability to succeed in a particular content domain Test designed to assess cognitive skills School Readiness Test Adaptive Testing High-Stakes Testing important for success in a typical kindergarten or first-grade curriculum Computer-based assessment in which students' performance on early items determines which items are presented subsequently Practice of using students' performance on a single assessment to make major decisions about students, school personnel, or overall school qualityAccountability No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) Value-Added Assessment Bias (In Assessment) Cultural Bias Stereotype Threat Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) An obligation of teachers and other school personnel to accept responsibility for students' performance on high stakes assessments; often mandated by policy makers calling for school reform U.S. legislation passed in 2001 that mandates regular assessments of basic skills to determine whether students are making adequate yearly progress relative to state determined standards in reading, math, and science Approach to evaluating teacher and school effectiveness based on students' progress rather than on absolute achievement levels Factor in an assessment instrument or procedure that consistently and differentially influences students' performance for reasons unrelated to the characteristic being measured; reduces the validity of assessment results Extent to which assessment bias tasks either offend or unfairly penalize some students because of their ethnicity, gender, or socioeconomic status Awareness of a negative stereotype about one's own group and accompanying uneasiness that low performance will confirm the stereotype; leads (often unintentionally) to lower-quality performance U.S. legislation passed in 1974 that gives students and parents access to school records and limits other people's access to those records2 X 10 strategy assessment formative assessment summative assessment spend 2 minutes a day for 10 days talking to a student that you're trying to improve your relationship with (proven to help) observing a sample of students behavior and drawing inferences about the students knowledge and abilities (an estimate of what students can do) can happen before or during instruction ex: homework assignments (before), and in-class assignments and quizzes (during) assesses students achievement after instruction ex: final exams informal assessment spontaneous, unplanned observation planned in advanced, used for a specific purpose formal assessment (scheduled at particular time, students can prepare for it, intended to yield information about particular instructional goals or content area standards) paper-pencil assignment address questions or problems on paper performance assessment demonstrate abilities or skills measuring knowledge and skills in relative traditional assessment isolation from tasks typically found in the outside world authentic assessmentmeasuring students knowledge ands kills in a real-life contextstandardized assessment developed by test construction experts, published for use in many different schools and classrooms teacher-developed assessmenttypically used to access achievement related to specific instructional objectives what students have and have not criterion-referenced assessment norm- referenced assessment 6 categories assessment (2 per category) 5 reasons why we use assessment what is the main why schools go about diagnosing learning and performance problems? how does assessment promote learning? 3 best practices to enhance learning? 7 assessment strategies accomplished relative to predetermined standards yields percentile rank, and shows how students perform compared with the performance of their peers (maybe state wide, or nationally) 1.formative vs.summative 2.formal vs.informal 3.paper-pencil vs.performance 4.traditional vs.authentic 5.standardized vs.teacher-developed 6.criterion-referenced vs.norm-referenced F.F.P.T.S.C. "Franny Found Peanuts,Then She Coughed" 1.guiding instructional decision making 2.defining whatstudents have learned 3.evaluating the quality ofinstruction 4.diagnosing learning and performance problems 5.promoting learning G.D.E.D.P. "GDE's Don'tPlay" Response to Intervention (RTI) 80% = universal ability (Tier I) 15% = some interventions needed (Tier II) 5% = customized intervention (Tier III) 1.motivates students to study and learn 2.influences students cognitive processes as they study 3.provides valuable feedback aboutlearning progress 4.serves as learning experiences in and ofthemselves M.I.P.S. "May IPlease Sit" 1. make assessment criteria explicit and concrete for students 2. give students regular feedback about how they are progressing 3. suggest concrete and realistic steps that students can take to improve 1.use (C)hecklistand rubrics as scoring guides 2.describe instructional (G)oals and objectives in clear,understandable language 3.(A)ssess students progress frequently 4.(C)ommunicate the goal to enhance understanding and promote mastery 5.help students detectimportantdifferences between genuine (M)astery and more superficial knowledge (ex:teaching active reading and self-assessmentstrategies) 6.engage students in constructive (D)iscussion ofone another work with a focus on ideas for improvement 7.give students opportunities to (R)evise their work based on received feedback C.G.A.C.M. "Clark Gables Always Carries Mustard.Don'tRepeat"dynamic assessment what does dynamic assessment give insight into? Important Qualities for Good Assessment assessing students ability to learn something new in a one on one situation that includes instruction, assistance, some other form of scaffolding students: 1.readiness for instruction 2.motivational and affective patterns 3.work habits 4.potential obstacles to students learning R.M.W.P. "Read My Writing Please" 1. Reliability 2. Standardization 3. Validity 4. Practicality R.S.V.P reliabilityresults of an assessment should be consistent no matter when we give it standardizationassessment should have a similar format, continent, and procedure for all students validitythe assessment should measure what it is intended to measure the assessment and its procedures should practicality Recognition Vs. Recall In-Class example of recall be simple to use and take only a small amount of time to administer and score Recognition:vs.Recall - Scored Quickly - longer to score - objective,reliable - can be objective and reliable, butmore difficultto tell - many items,broader - longer to respond,limited sample sample - often lower-level skills - measures higher level skills - provide retrieval cues,- require broad search oflong limitlong term memory term memory search - lead to higher raw scores,- lead to lower raw scores, guessing inflates scores guessing has less influence - coming up with the capitals of countries - promote less studying - tend to promote more and learning studying and higher achievement just by seeing the country name (just countries listed) In-Class example of recognition- matching countries to their capital (all countries and capitals listed)Grade Equivalent Scores (GE Scores) Are the standard deviations for GE Scores smaller or larger in the earlier grades? DIBELS category designations of DIBELS For a high performing high poverty school, is the fall screening score lower or higher than the state average? standard scores GE scores are not interval scores ex: GE 4 --> the average score of a child in 4th grade on that specific test much smaller, not learning as much, as quickly (go very slow) Dynamic Indication (of) Basic Early Literacy Skills - a reading screening for students K-6th grade, it is very basic and quick - given 3 times per year - students are given category designations after test 1. at benchmark (met the goal) 2. strategic (some risk, requires intervention) 3. intensive (high risk, requires intervention) *if most of your class is not at benchmark, you need to change your teaching practices higher reflect position on the normal distribution - tells us how far a person's performance is from the mean, in terms of standard deviation units mean in a standard deviation (M) - average set of scores, always 100 standard score in a standard deviation 15 standard deviation (SD)statistic indicating the amount of variability characterizing a set of scores to be classified with an intellectual disability, you have to be ____ standard 2deviations from the mean T scores mean of 50 standard deviation of 10 Examples of tests that use standard scoresIQ, SAT, GRE, NCE scores (normal curve equivilent), Z scores what are tests that use standard scores often accompanied by? 4 teacher developed assessments: why are norm referenced scores occasionally appropriate? pro and con to grading for improvement good ways to incorporate grading for improvement into the classroom: how may you reinforce improvement in other ways than grading? expert opinion on grading for effort? portfolios confidence intervals equivalent - reflecting amount of error 1. criterion-referenced = most useful 2. raw scores = second best 3. norm-referenced referenced scores = occasionally appropriate good for identifying "best" and assessing complex skills - not as appropriate for grading though pro: may be motivating for students con: may be hard for high achieving students 2 show improvement - assign greater weight to assessments at the end of semester - give students opportunity to correct their errors and demonstrate mastery - consider offering retakes - reinforce improvement in other ways - performance graphing and setting your own goals as as student - most experts recommend against basing grades on effort because: 1. more skilled students don't need to exert much effort to do well 2. effort can only be assessed subjectively 3. effort can enhance motivation collection of student work - compiled systematically over time - includes assignments and other artifacts (physical or digital/electronic) - may include student reflections or self-evaluationspros to portfolios cons to portfolios - multifaceted and authentic - offer students sense of self- efficacy and practice self monitoring - can be easily integrated with instructions - may be hard to standardize - scoring may be unreliable - may be impractical working portfolio competencies up to the precent time developmental portfolio how student has improved over time course portfolioassignment and reference for a single course best work portfolioshowcase particular achievements and unique talents

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