Study Guide Exam 2
**Know 20 African Countries: Just google blank African map and print it out and practice. Print out a filled in map as well or just use your book as a reference.
1. Types of Diffusion
∙ Spatial Diffusion: These are the ideas and inventions that spread over cultures and a population. An example would be the religion of Islam. o Expansion Diffusion: This is when the thing being spread arises from a strong source area and spreads outwards. An example would be a thought arising in a city and spreading throughout the surrounding villages. Islam is a form of expansion diffusion.
▪ Hierarchical: Trickling down from the top to spread to the
bottom. Kings took on Islam, so the people under him took
it on, too.
▪ Contagious: Spreading by contact. Islam spread from village to village.
o Relocation Diffusion: This is when migrants carry the innovation to distant lands. An example could be the virus AIDS.
2. Boundary Evolution: The 3 D’s
∙ Definition: The boundary is formed by countries getting together and creating a formal definition of the division of land in something like a treaty.
∙ Delimitation: Mapmakers then take the written definition of the boundaries and mark them on the maps. We also discuss several other topics like What does civilianization entail?
Don't forget about the age old question of What is a superficial mycosis?
∙ Demarcation: Authorities then mark the boundaries on the ground by means of signs, fences, checkpoints on road systems, or gates.
3. Medical Geography is the study of human health in spatial contexts. a. Vectors: These are the carriers of the infectious disease. An example is a mosquito carrying the malaria disease in its saliva.
b. Hosts: These are the people with the disease, or hosting the disease. The ones who get infected. Don't forget about the age old question of Which are free radical reactions?
c. Endemic: When a disease infects many people, but they do not die rapidly. The disease stays with them and hinders their quality of life for a long time. An example would be hookworm or hepatitis. If you want to learn more check out What refers to the sum of all atomic masses in a compound?
d. Epidemic: This is when a disease spreads rapidly and results in widespread death in a local location. It remains confined to a specific area. An example would be sleeping sickness which has its vector as a tsetse fly. The disease is limited by the tsetse fly and its personal movement limitations.
e. Pandemic: This is when a disease spreads rapidly on a worldwide scale. An example is Malaria carried by the Mosquito. Another example is AIDS. If you want to learn more check out What are the types of smog?
∙ Rift Valleys are located in Eastern Africa and they differ from typical valleys. They are formed by parallel cracks/faults running along the Earth’s crust that causes the ground in the middle to sink. Some of them are even filled with water. They stretch from the Red Sea through Ethiopia down to South Africa.
∙ Apartheid refers to the racist policy intact in South Africa between 1950 and 1990. It was in favor of European white people as opposed to black Africans. The word literally means apartness, and the policy called for separate development between the whites and the blacks.
∙ The two countries that were never colonized by the Europeans are: o Ethiopia
∙ The number one killer in Africa is Malaria. This blood disease causes nausea and fevers and chills. It is spread by mosquitos carrying the pathogen in their salvia. They inject you with their saliva in order to thin your red blood cells.
∙ Climates vary symmetrically as they get further away from equator. The center of the continent where the equator is located is a tropical rainforest. The sections of land to the immediate north and south of the equator have much drier winters, then above and below that are the savannah and grass land climates, then the deserts, and then at the top and bottom of Africa the climates are Mediterranean. The soils are generally not fertile and quite poor. This is not true for all the soils, because Kenya is productive in agriculture. Kenya is specifically known for producing copious amounts of cut flowers. In drier climates corn is grown. The main livestock are cattle, goats, and chickens. We also discuss several other topics like What makes azores high?
∙ Africa is the center piece of the original connected landmass of Pangea. This is where all the continents were connected in one giant landmass prior to continental drift (founded by Alfred Wegener.) Continental drift simply refers to the separating of the landmass due to plate tectonics. Africa’s location in the center is called Gondwana.
∙ Africa is a plateau continent meaning that most of the continent is above 1000 feet of elevation. This is particularly true for South Africa. Surrounding the plateau are steep coastal lowlands.
∙ 400 years after the Europeans had entered Africa, they began to argue over territory boundaries. Thus called for the Conference of 1884 in Berlin Germany to solve the conflict. At the conference the countries divided up the land peacefully.
∙ The largest sector of the African economy is subsidence agriculture.
∙ The West African slave trade was directed towards North and South America. The Eastern African slave trade was directed toward Arab states.
∙ The Caprivi Strip is located in Namibia (Southwest Africa) and it is a small protrusion of territory that stretches to connect with the Zambezi River. It looks like a panhandle jutting out to the right.
North Africa/Southwest Asia
∙ 5 Pillars of Islam
o Repeated Expressions of the Creed (there is only one god: Allah) o Daily Prayer
o A month of daytime fasting between dawn and dusk during Ramadan which is the 9th month on the Islamic calendar.
o Giving of Alms (charity to the less fortunate)
o There is to be one pilgrimage to Mecca during a Muslim’s lifetime.
∙ Islam is the predominant religion in this realm. It arose in the 600s CE (aka AD) by the birth of Mohammed in Arabia. He was the appointed prophet of Allah. The religion spread like wildfire throughout the world. Other rules that are sometimes enforced are no smoking, no alcohol, no gambling. Mohammed died in 632 CE which caused a split in Islam over who the successor who is to interpret the Koran should be:
o Those who believed the successor should be the blood relative, Mohammed’s nephew Ali, are known as the Shiites.
o Those who believed that the successor should be the father of Mohammed’s wife who was Mohammed’s student in Islam (not a blood relative) are known as the Sunni’s.
∙ The Pyramids were formed in the cultural hearth of Ancient Egypt. o Extra Context Information:
o This civilization is 7000 years old. It rose up on the Nile River supposedly when the Sahara transitioned from a fertile area to a desert, causing the people living there to move to better land.
o There were two kingdoms: The upper and the lower. They merged together.
o Known for the Great Pyramids which are a complete mystery as to how the people could transport the tons of limestone across the Nile River to the construction location miles inland. Very complex structures.
o Some of the first pyramids were failures for the engineers and did not stand. They eventually figured out the exact angle needed to keep the structure stable.
o The Pyramids are thought to be tombs for the Pharaohs. o The afterlife was very important to the ancient Egyptians. They had very advanced ways of embalming bodies to last long, and they removed all the internal organs.
o Their art and jewelry was extraordinary for the age.
o The civilization reached an end in the 27th century BCE due to political instability.
∙ Maghreb and Its Neighbors: This is the region of North Africa. France and Spain were colonial influences in these nations. They are located within the Atlas Mountains (It is a very mountainous region).
∙ The largest oil reserves in the Middle East are found in Saudi Arabia.
∙ Afghanistan is known as the buffer state, which means it relieves tension between two opposing forces on each side.
∙ The capital of Israel is eternally Jerusalem and it is a holy city for all the religions surrounding it.
∙ The 6 “stans” of Turkistan (stan means “land of”):
∙ Religious associations
o Egypt-Coptic (form of Christianity)
o Iran-Shiite Muslims
o Iraq-Sunni Muslims
∙ Some Characteristics:
∙ Culturally Diverse: ethnically, linguistically, and religiously. ∙ It is a shatter belt, meaning there is fragmentation of states politically and centrifugal forces prevalent in the land.
∙ It is a series of smaller states located some mainland and some as an archipelago of islands.
∙ There are some resources, but not a whole lot.
∙ It is a buffer zone between powerful countries like India and China. ∙ The climate is mainly humid tropical and they grow rice patties and have some plantations.
∙ The population is low density everywhere except in the Primate Cities. ∙ Primate Cities are usually located on the coasts and they are heavily populated. This is where the wealth is concentrated. There is conflict between modern and traditional influences.
∙ They are generally racially a mix of Indian and Chinese
∙ Main Colonial Spheres of Influence:
∙ The Dutch took Indonesia
∙ The French took Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia and called it French Indo China.
∙ ***The Spanish took the Philippines and then the USA took it from them. ∙ The British took Burma.
∙ Boundary Classifications:
o Physiographic: The natural landscape such as mountains and rivers. Mountains are more effective barriers.
o Anthropogeographic: This is the cultural boundaries created by people.
o Geometric: These are the political lines that mark the separation from one country from another.
o Antecedent: The boundaries drawn on the map before human settlement arose.
o Subsequent: The political boundaries of neighboring states, like Vietnam and China.
o Superimposed: Boundaries drawn without regard to culture. This is typically done during colonial expansion.
o Relict: Boundaries that cease to function such as North and South Vietnam.
∙ State Shape Theory:
∙ Compact: Round and squat. Like Cambodia. This is supposed to be the shape for the most effective government.
∙ Protruded: This is just a compact land mass with a tail of land, or a protrusion. An example is Thailand.
∙ Elongated: Narrow and stretched thin and long. Vietnam and Chile. ∙ Perforated: This is when a country is located inside another bigger country. Lesotho is located inside of South America.
∙ Fragmented: Hundreds of islands. Fragmented land. Like the Philippines. This is supposed to be the shape with the least effective government.
∙ Cambodia is where the ancient city of Angkor Wat was located during the Khmer Empire. 90% of the population here is ethnically Khmer’s. The French restored the ancient location.
The 2 regions:
∙ Mainland: Rugged terrain, located underneath/connected to China and India.
o Vietnam: The French came in the early 19th century and by 1860 had established power in Vietnam. Their imperial court lasted until 1954 when they were defeated by the Communist Vietnamese. This divided the North of Vietnam into a communist area, and Southern Vietnam as a non-communist area. The Japanese invaded in 1940 as the communists were seeking independence from France. In the Cold War, the USA’s mission was to stop the spread of communism. The communists were moving into Laos and South Vietnam. Eisenhower and Kennedy both attempted negotiations with Northern Vietnam, both of which failed, and they even assassinated the president of Northern Vietnam. Lyndon B Johnson was the president who got the go ahead from Congress to send in US troops to Vietnam in the 60s and 70s.
o Burma/Myanmar: Extremely poor and currently under the rule of a dictatorship.
o Thailand: The most prosperous and stable of the region. It is ruled by a monarchy.
o Cambodia: Also a poor country. This is where the ancient city of Angkor is located during the Khmer Empire. 90% of the population here is ethnically Khmer’s.
∙ Insular: This is the archipelago (island chain) beneath the Mainland. It consists of the Philippines (they speak mostly English), Indonesia, Malaysia (predominantly Islamic where Singapore is located), and half of New
Guinea. It is an area of active volcanos. The population is increasing at a faster rate here than in the Mainland.
∙ An Archipelago is a chain or string of islands. This is the Insular region of Southeast Asia.
∙ The Mekong River is the most important in the region. It is known as the Danube of Southeast Asia. It goes through 5 of the realms countries and starts in China.