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MSU / Environmental Science / ES 101 / What is the metal extrusion process?

What is the metal extrusion process?

What is the metal extrusion process?

Description

School: Michigan State University
Department: Environmental Science
Course: Elementary Japanese I
Professor: Uheara
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Packaging
Cost: 50
Name: PKG Exam 3 Study Guide
Description: This is a study guide for PKG Exam 3
Uploaded: 11/15/2016
12 Pages 56 Views 1 Unlocks
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Exam 3 Study Guide


What is the metal extrusion process?



Tuesday,  November  15, 2016 10:15 AM

Tube Invention 

• Crimpedone end

Types of Tubes 

• Two (2) major types of materials  

1. Plastics and 2. Metals  

• Metal  

1. Aluminum  

2. Tin  

• Plastic  

1. PE

2. PP

Metal Tubes 

• Three (3) types:  

○ Aluminum- by far the most common metal used for tubes  ○ Tin  

○ Lead  

Aluminum Tubes  


What is aerosol formulation?



• Wide range of common products  

• Easy to print on  

Tin Tubes 

• Tends to be more non-reactive than Aluminum  

Most common application is for the packaging of special pharmaceutical  products, particularly ointments for burns and eye treatments  

• Expensive, relative to all other tube materials

Advantages of Metal Tubes 

• Collapse when squeezed  

○ Stays collapsed - best "dead fold" properties  • Roll up from bottom  

○ Indication of remaining contents  


What healthcare packaging needs can you influence?



If you want to learn more check out How do you know if a series is alternating?

• Controlled dispensing  

    

• Collapse when squeezed  

○ Stays collapsed - best "dead fold" properties  • Roll up from bottom  

○ Indication of remaining contents  If you want to learn more check out What are the 4 major greenhouse gasses?

• Controlled dispensing  

○ Little waste  If you want to learn more check out Who is boyd brady?

▪ Ex. toothpaste

• Sanitary  

○ No backflow = "Suck back"

Metal Barrier Protection Advantages 

• Oxygen  

• Moisture  

• Contamination  

• Loss of flavor

○ Example: cigars  

Disadvantages of Metal Tubes (similar to advantages)  • Stays collapsed- unsightlywith use  

Printed labeling or spot paper labels - fragmented or disfigured with use - unsightly  

• Possible stress cracks with repeated flexing from rolling and unrolling Metal Tubes 

Metal tubes are made on high speed machinery using the impact extrusion  process.

Metal Tube Filling 

• Tube filled from the bottom  ○ Crimped  

Plastic Tubes  

• Called "Squeeze tubes"  • Generally Non-collapsible  • Alternative to metal  

• Single plastic, or  

• Co-extrusions, or  

• Laminations

Plastic Tubes

• Polyethylene  We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of adipocyte in module terminology?
Don't forget about the age old question of How do you find the probability of an event given that another event has occurred?

• Polypropylene  

 

Plastic Tubes  

• Polyethylene  

• Polypropylene  

• Developed in 1950s

• Uses  

○ Shampoo

○ Hand creams  

○ Tanning lotions  

○ Food  

○ Pharmaceuticals  

• Rebound to original shape after use  

○ Positive marketing impact  

▪ Appearance  

• Suck back  

• Light weight  

• Leak proof  

• Can be transparent  

• Durable  

• Unbreakable  

• Extrusions  

• Co-extrusions  

• Laminated material

○ Foil, paper, plastic layers

• Aesthetics "feel good" in hand  

• Quality, appearance maintained throughout the life of the package  ○ When "dead fold" is not desired We also discuss several other topics like What is a systemic response that raises the body temperature?

Laminated Tubes  

Laminated tubes can consist of seven or more layers of polyethylene, aluminum  foil, paper and other plastics  

Plastic versus Metal Tubes  

Plastic tubes  

Lightweight

Leak proof

Unbreakable  

Metal tubes

Emptied more completely  Strong barrier  

Stress Cracking  

Transarent "Deformable"

     

Lightweight

Leak proof

Unbreakable  

Transparent

"Rebounds"

I. Aerosols  

Emptied more completely  Strong barrier  

Stress Cracking  

"Deformable"

No Suck Back

In packaging, it is a pressurized package that dispenses products in the form of  a spray, stream, gel, or foam.

Aerosol Package Types  

• 3 piece metal can - same process as making a standard 3-piece can  • 2 piece Aluminum can - same impact Extrusion process as tubes  • Few in glass  

• Plastic  

Three (3) Aerosol Systems 

1. 2-Phase  

2. 3-phase  

3. Captive Propellant  

2 Phase (emulsion) Aerosol  

• 2 phase aerosol  

○ Liquid phase  

• Vapor phase  

2-phase Aerosol - Specific Food 

• Specific use for food  

○ Whipped cream  

• Nitrous Oxide  

• Product and propellant must be COMPATIBLE  

○ Taste  

○ Safety  

3-phase (immiscible) Aerosol  

• Immiscible product and propellant  

○ Propellant does not mix with product  

Captive Propellant Aerosol

• Propellant and product separated  

○ Two types  

     

○ Propellant does not mix with product  

Captive Propellant Aerosol 

• Propellant and product separated  

○ Two types  

▪ Collapsible inner bag to hold product, or  

▪ Apply pressure through the use of a piston  

For both types of systems, the propellant is introduced through the  

bottom  

Gillette fusion ProGlide PLASTIC Aerosol System 

What healthcare packaging needs can you influence • Medication Adherence  

• Healthcare Setting Acquired Infections  Two Major Categories of Pharmaceuticals 

Ethical Medications - also called prescription drugs - sold public only on a  physician prescribed basis.  

• Proprietary Medications - also called over-the-counter (OTC) medications  

Pharmaceutical Packaging - the FOUR functions  

1. Protection  

a. Shelf life  

i. Moisture protection  

ii. Oxygen Protection  

iii. Light protection  

iv. Temperature Protection

b. Child resistance  

c. Tamper evidence  

d. Counterfeiting  

Device Classifications - BASED ON RISK  

First thing to ask when developing packaging for a medical device is "What class is it?" • Regulatory Classes of Devices  

○ Class 1: General Controls - Low Risk  

▪ Tongue Depressor, arm slings, etc.  

○ Class 2: Special Controls  

▪ Contact lenses, hearing aids, etc.  

○ Class 3: Pre-Market approval category-high risk  

▪ Pace makers, heart valves, etc.  

Traditional Types of Sterilization 

▪ Contact lenses, hearing aids, etc.  

○ Class 3: Pre-Market approval category-high risk  ▪ Pace makers, heart valves, etc.  

Traditional Types of Sterilization 

• Ethylene Oxide (EO)  

• Radiation - high energy  

• Dry or Moist Heat 

I. Tamper Evident & Child Resistant Packaging  • Federal Rules  

Packaging designs for drugs that resists tampering or provide evidence  

that tampering has occurred  

• Various techniques  

○ Shrink neck bands  

○ Inner seals  

○ Destruction labels  

○ Destruction metal or plastic closure bands Inner Seals on Food Products 

Federal rules do NOT currently require tamper evident features on food  products  

Manufacturers obtain packaging benefits in addition to tamper evidence from  the use of the tamper evident feature.

Inner Seals Image 

Destructive Bands Image 

Child Resistant Features  

• Child resistant features of a drug package

○ Generally, built into the cap (closure)  

• Basic approach  

○ Require two simultaneous motions to open the cap  

▪ Push down and turn, as an example  

▪ Actions that require more strength than a child can exert Federal Regulations on CR 

Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) ruled that manufacturers must  provide CR closures on  

○ Any OTC drug packages  

○ Prescription drugs packages issued by pharmacists  

Elderly / Senior Citizens, users - CPSC changed regulations to allow an  

elderl erson to secif closures that are not child resistant for  

Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) ruled that manufacturers must  provide CR closures on  

○ Any OTC drug packages  

○ Prescription drugs packages issued by pharmacists  

Elderly / Senior Citizens, users - CPSC changed regulations to allow an  

elderly person to specify closures that are not child resistant for  prescription items  

The CR rules also apply to many non-pharmaceutical products, such as home  use pesticides, antifreeze, household cleaning agents, some types of paint, etc.  

Non-Pharma Applications Image 

Child-Guard Slider Technology Image  • Press-to-engage (PTE) re-sealable slider

Boulder Clean  

Natural Laundry Detergent Packs 

Slider Child resistant slider zipper on the stand up pouch will launch December  2016

Packaging Graphics  

• Packaging graphics - illustrations, symbols, colors and words

Graphics can cost as much as 35% of the overall package costs, but are essential  in selling the product in a competitive market-oriented society.

• CPG = Consumer Packaged Goods

• Two general methods for placing graphics on a package  1. Decorating (non-ink based)  

2. Printing (ink-based)

Decorating  

• Decorating methods (not involving ink)  

1. Incorporate the coloring agent into the material  2. Ex. Colored plastic and glass

Decorating Rigid Containers 

• Decorating Methods (not involving ink)  

1. Molding for rigid containers  

Ex. Plastic and glass  

Decorating methods (not involving ink)

1.

Hot stamping - foil is transferred in a pattern to the substrate (substrate means  material)  

2. Embossing - pattern raised above the substrate

Decorating methods (not involving ink)  

1.

Hot stamping - foil is transferred in a pattern to the substrate (substrate means  material)  

2. Embossing - pattern raised above the substrate Printing  

The most common method, by far, of applying images and words to packages is  printing.

• Two ways we can apply ink to a package  1. Print directly on the package  

2.

Print on separate substrate and then apply it to the package; which we  call a "label"

• One obvious requirement for printing is that the ink must stick to the substrate  ○ Paper - most common printing substrate

Printing Methods  

• 4 main types of printing methods  

1. Offset Lithography  

2. Rotogravure  

3. Flexography  

4. Screen printing 

Printing Images  

• Three main categories  

1. Line images  

i. Line images consist of solids and lines

2. Halftone images  

i. Formed by a series of discrete dots  

3. Process images  

i. Halftone color printing created by the color separation process  Color Separation  

Most packaging graphics consist of more than one color. When these images  are printed, only one color is printed at a time.

Registration  

This registration section helps assure that the printing plates are lined up  correctly, so that the image comes out with the colors in the right places.

Labeling 

1. Pressure Sensitive  

  

This registration section helps assure that the printing plates are lined up  correctly, so that the image comes out with the colors in the right places.

Labeling 

1. Pressure Sensitive  2. Wet-Glue Paper  

3. Wrap Around  

4. Shrink  

5. Applied Ceramic  

6. In-Mold 

Magnitude of Counterfeiting 

The WCO (World Customs Organization) reports the counterfeiting has grown  100 times over the past 20 years  

• IN 2004 it was estimated at over $500 billion  

• Equates to 7-10% of global trade  

• Counterfeiting is a function of market growth

Targeted Counterfeit Products 

• The majority of counterfeit products are not luxury brands/products  • Approximately 5-10% of all counterfeit products are luxury brands/products  

The Counterfeit crime Triangle 

• Criminal

• Victim  

• Opportunity  

Actions  

• Detect  

• Deter  

• Prevent  

Counterfeit Countermeasures  

• Overt  

• Covert  

Pfizer Inc. Viagra example  

• Custom bottle  

• Color shifting ink  

• EPC code (unique to each bottle)  

• RFID tag under label  

Innovation 

• Eliminates costl liner (30%) and disosal issues  

• Color shifting ink  

• EPC code (unique to each bottle)  

• RFID tag under label  

Innovation 

• Eliminates costly liner (30%) and disposal issues  

Eliminates the need for pre-printed labels by printing the entire graphic directly  on the container

Basic package filling and closing equipment:  

○ De-palletizing machines  

○ Container cleaning equipment  

○ Filling machines  

○ Closing and capping machines  

○ Induction sealing equipment  

○ Labeling machines  

○ Inspection equipment  

○ Conveying equipment  

• Sometimes referred to as "front-end" of a packaging line  

"End of Line" equipment 

• Cartoning machines  

• Case packaging machines

• Palletizing machines  

• Pallet wrapping machines  

Container Cleaning Equipment Options  

• Air  

• Washed  

• Sterilized  

Filling Machines 

The primary function of filling equipment is to place the correct amount of a  product into a package.  

• There are three general approaches that are used:  ○ Volume filling  

○ Weight filling  

○ Count filling  

In-line fillers 

The product is placed into containers without removing the container from the  conveyer.  

For situations where the setup changes frequently and where high speed is not  required  

In-line fillers 

The product is placed into containers without removing the container from the  conveyer.  

For situations where the setup changes frequently and where high speed is not  required  

Rotary fillers  

Rotary fillers are used for higher capacity lines and for lines that package the  same product for long runs.  

• The "Key machine" in most packaging operations  Form-fill-seal (FFS) machines 

Form-fill-seal machines form the package, meter in the product, and close the  package, all within a single machine.  

• There are three types of FFs machines  

Vertical form-fill-seal machines image 

Horizontal Form-fill-seal machines image 

Thermoform-fill-seal machines image  

Inspection Equipment 

• Check weighers  

• Metal detectors  

• X-Ray equipment  

• Vision systems  

"End of Line" equipment 

• Cartoning machines  

• Case packing machines  

• Robots  

• Palletizing machines  

• Pallet wrapping machines  

Robots 

• Can pack fragile items  

• Diverse items  

• Faster and more accurately than a human worker can  • Less damage to the product  

Controls and computers

Packaging lines are usually complex assemblies of large, expensive, complicated  machines.  

The goal is to make the whole set of equipment operate as if it was a single  

       Controls and computers

Packaging lines are usually complex assemblies of large, expensive, complicated  machines.  

The goal is to make the whole set of equipment operate as if it was a single  large-machine  

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