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VIRGINIA TECH / HNFE / HNF 3824 / What are the structures of the foot?

What are the structures of the foot?

What are the structures of the foot?

Description

School: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Department: HNFE
Course: Kinesiology
Professor: Williams
Term: Fall 2016
Tags:
Cost: 25
Name: HNFE 3824 Week 12
Description: Foot and Ankle
Uploaded: 11/16/2016
5 Pages 40 Views 1 Unlocks
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Week 12


What are the structures of the foot?



Tuesday,  November  8, 2016 9:32 AM

Foot and Ankle

Structures of the foot and ankle

bones

○ Tibia fibula ○ Talus

○ Calcaneous

Tarsals (5)

Navicular (medial) 

□ Landmark of the foot  

○ Metatarsals

○ Phalanges  

Joints

Tibiofibular (distal)

▪ Lateral side of ankle

Talocrural (talus, tibia, and fibula)

▪ Tibiotalar


What is the most common ankle sprains?



▪ Fibulotalar

Subtalar (talocalcaneal)

▪ Talus and calcaneous

Transverse

▪ Talus, calcaneous, and 1st row of tarsals

Ankle Sprains

Inversion- lateral

○ Most common

Eversion- medial

○ Deltoid

High ankle sprain -lateral

○ Tibiofibular joint and ligament  ○ Somewhat common  

Lisfranc ligament

 

High ankle sprain -lateral

○ Tibiofibular joint and ligament  ○ Somewhat common  


What are the structures of the ankle?



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Lisfranc ligament

• Tan color on image is the lisfranc ligament  

Issue ○

Toes are hyperextended and a force is applied to  the heel, which  causes displacement of metatarsals and causing them to shift  forward

Toe ligament

Turf toe

Metatarsophalangeal sprain  

Hyperextension of big toe which causes the ligament to  rupture  

Arches of the foot

Lateral  

Plantarcalcaneonavicular ligament  

▪ Spring ligament  

Plantar fascia/aponeurosis  

▪ Big thick connective tissue you feel on bottom of foot  

Medial arch

○ More important

○ Spread contact ground  forces Don't forget about the age old question of Who is the father of baseball?

Store elastic energy  

Pes Planus

The arch flattens out when  there are impact forces, like when  the foot hits the ground

• Flat foot  

• Navicular bone is inferior

Pes Cavus

• High arch  

• Navicular bone is superior

Feiss line

• Medial malleolus->navicular-> 1st metatarsal

Plantar Fascitis

• Strained plantar fascia  

• Most often  towards  the heel end

 

• Medial malleolus->navicular-> 1st metatarsal

Plantar Fascitis

• Strained plantar fascia  

• Most often  towards  the heel end  

• Treated with orthotics  

Movements of the ankle

Talocrural joint

Dorsi and plantar flexion ▪ Dorsi- toes go up  

▪ Plantar- toes go down

Subtalar

○ Inversion and eversion

Abduction  and adduction

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B-> C movement

○ Is dorsiflexion  

Plantar and Dorsi Flexion

Inversion

○ Supination

Inversion and adduction ▪ plantarflexion

Eversion

Pronation

Abduction  and eversion □ dorsiflexion

Pronation starts at the hip • Coxa varus Don't forget about the age old question of Why are the voice onset times for voiceless stops longer?

• Genu valgus

Pronation

○ Large q angle  

Pronation corrected • Midsole wedge  

Orthotics

○ Straightens alignment of subtalar joint  

Correcting knee Valgus and ACL injuries

 

• Midsole wedge  

Orthotics

○ Straightens alignment of subtalar joint  

Correcting knee Valgus and ACL injuries  

• correct foot and ankle alignment may cause reduction in ACL injuries

Plantar Flexor Muscles

• Gastrocnemius

Soleus  

○ Contract to prevent  from going into dorsiflexion  ○ Maintains ankle stability

Dorsi Flexor Muscles • Tibialis anterior

Extensor digitorum, longus ○ Extends  the digits If you want to learn more check out How is a piece of music laid out from beginning to end?

Flexion/eversion

Peroneus longus and brevis

○ Passes posterior to  the lateral malleolus  

Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome

Shin splints

○ Not enough arch support  ○ Over pronation  

Barefoot Running

• Not as much control of the  foot Foot Stike

Rear foot

○ Land on heel first  

Midfoot

○ Land flat footed

Forefoot

○ Land on ball of foot

○ Heel may or may not hit the ground  

Running  

Looked  for all people that grew up barefoot and compared them  to kids  in another neighborhood  that ran with shoes  Don't forget about the age old question of Define electrophoresis.

Barefoot  

      

○ Heel may or may not hit the ground  Running  

Looked  for all people that grew up barefoot and compared them  to kids  in another neighborhood  that ran with shoes  

Barefoot  

▪ Tend to be forefoot strikers  

▪ Less impact force for people that are forefoot strikes

People that ran with shoes running barefoot causes much more jarring and  impact force

We don't know long term effects of it  

Reducing Impact

Running barefoot all life gives the kids much better calf muscles and  proprioception  

• Running barefoot must be done neuromuscular

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