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FSU / Physics / PHY 4701 / What are the chemical properties of oxygen and carbon dioxide that req

What are the chemical properties of oxygen and carbon dioxide that req

What are the chemical properties of oxygen and carbon dioxide that req

Description

School: Florida State University
Department: Physics
Course: Human Physiology
Professor: Debra fadool
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Human and Physiology
Cost: 50
Name: Study Guide for Exam 3
Description: Entire study Guide for the 3rd exam is completed
Uploaded: 11/16/2016
19 Pages 16 Views 18 Unlocks
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Human Physiology Study Guide Exam #3 


What are the chemical properties of oxygen and carbon dioxide that require gases to be transported?



1. Know the equations for respiration and the carbonic anhydrase  shift. Know

the "CO2/O2 shuttle system" that defines how CO2 is transported  from working

tissues to the lungs and how O2 is transported from the lungs to  working

tissues.

Respiration:

C6H12O6 + 6O2  6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP

Carbonic Anhydrase Shift:

CO2 + H2O  H2CO3  H+ + HCO3-

-CO2 and O2 are transported by gas exchange that takes place in the  capillaries. We have a very high energetic need in our tissues, so to facilitate  this a respiratory pigment is used. This pigment is called hemoglobin and it  allows our cells to carry more oxygen! Hemoglobin (Hb) binds O2 and (CO2  and H+) and transports it via the bloodstream (O2 to tissues and CO2 to  lungs.) You want a respiratory pigment to be light, have great O2 carrying  capacity, and there to be a lot of it.  


What is the structure of hemoglobin?



2. What are the chemical properties of oxygen and carbon dioxide  that require these

gases to be transported? What is the structure of the key  vertebrate respiratory

pigment, where do the gases attach to the molecule, and how does  the molecule  

change configuration when it is saturated? Know the difference  between oxyhemo

globin, carbaminohemoglobin, and carboxyhemoglobin. In what  form are O2 and CO2

transported?

Chemical Properties and why they need to be transported: - they have a low solubility in fluids We also discuss several other topics like unscientific surveys to gauge public opinion

- O2 must be transferred due to the high energetic needs of our tissues  - 0.3 ml O2/100 ml is insufficient for larger organisms (why we have  respiratory pigment)


What is obstructive lung disease?



- CO2 can reach toxic levels if not removed  

Structure of Hemoglobin:

- Hemoglobin is constructed of 4 hemes (each heme can carry 1 O2) - The core of each heme is Fe3+

- They also have 4 polypeptide chains (CO2 is carried by these chains) - It has two states: Tense & Relaxed. It is tense when it does not have O2 and relaxed when an O2 is attached.

- Packaged in red blood cells to the point of crystallization  Oxyhemoglobin: Hemoglobin carrying oxygen (carried of heme)

Hb + O2 HbO2  

Carbaminohemoglobin: Hemoglobin carrying CO2 (carried on polypeptide  chain) We also discuss several other topics like How does political violence differ from other forms of violence?

Hb + CO2  HbCO2  

Carboxyhemoglobin: Hemoglobin carrying CO  

Hb + CO  HbCO

How Transported:

O2: physically dissolved: 1.5

 As HbO2: 98.5%

CO2: physically dissolved: 10%

 As HbCO2: 30%

 H2CO3H+ + HCO3+: 60%

3. What determines whether Hb will bind or dissociate with a gas  molecule and

how does it determine which gas? For this answer think about the  Haldene Effect,

partial pressure, and the sigmoid kinetics of oxygen-hemoglobin  affinity.

-Partial Pressure is what determines whether the gas will bind to the  respiratory pigment

-as the partial pressure increases, the likelihood that a gas will bind  increases  

-partial pressure decreases this way as air diffuses:

Airlungbloodtissues  

Cooperativity: a property of CO2

- it allows more O2 to be bound

- once 1 molecule of O2 binds to a heme, it makes it easier for each  subsequent O2 to bind

Haldene effect: a property of CO2

- Hb will always bind CO2 over O2 when all other variables are  equivalent (such as partial pressure) We also discuss several other topics like history 1302 notes

-where Hb will bind which gas is a combination of the partial pressure and  CO2. If they are equal, then CO2 will be bound

4. How would one calculate the PP for a given gas, given the total  atmospheric

pressure? What is the average PP for oxygen in the pulmonary  capillaries? In the  

systemic capillaries? At half saturation? How is PP related to Hb oxygen saturation

(describe properties of the sigmoid curve)?

Partial Pressure = % gas x total pressure  

Normal atmospheric pressure = 760 mm Hg = 14.7 lb/in^2 = 1 atm  PP of O2 in pulmonary capillaries = 100 mm Hg

PP of O2 in systemic capillaries = 75 mm Hg

PP of O2 at half saturation (also known as P50) = 50 mm Hg  - as pp increases the percent saturation increases  

- the curve is a log scale (it increases until it plateaus and levels off,  which means all the respiratory pigments are saturated)  Don't forget about the age old question of mylicon nursing implications
We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of f. m. r. i. in phrenology?

- If the partial pressure gets too low, then all the O2 gets dissociated  from Hb or “dumped”

5. What is the Bohr Effect? How does the kinetics/affinity of Hb for  oxygen  

change if there are changes in PP CO2? pH? temperature? 2,3- DPG? CO poisoning?

or changes in breathing/ventilation? Make sure that you can  identify which

of these conditions would force oxygen to dissociate sooner than  normal and which

Why or why not?

-The Bohr Effect is a change in the amount of O2 associated with Hb  depending on the pH and other factors in the blood (this essentially means a  left or right shift in the Bohr curve)

Right Shift: leads to P50 increasing (takes longer to get half saturated), O2  will dump sooner

- Increase in PCO2 (leads to low breathing)

- Increase in H+ (increase in acidity)

- Increase in temperature

- Increased concentration of 2,3-DPG (bi-product of glycolysis) Left Shift: leads to P50 decreasing (quicker to get half saturated), O2 will  dump later

- Decrease in PCO2 (hyperventilating)

- Decrease in H+ (becoming more basic)

- Decrease in temperature

- Decrease in 2,3-DPG (from a blood transfusion) We also discuss several other topics like What are some of the pieces of evidence wegener presented to support continental drift?

6. What are the anatomical components and functions of the  conducting zone

versus the respiratory zone of the lungs? Where is the only true  location

for gas exchange in the lungs?  

Conducting Zone: function is to transport air (CO2 & O2) to area of true gas  exchange

- Includes:

- Nasal passaged that bring air to the respiratory cells

- Pharynx (helps transport air/food)

- Trachea

- Larynx (has vocal cord stretched over it)

- Right & left brachia

- Bronchioles (connection between conducting zone and respiratory  zone)

Respiratory Zone: function is gas exchange (give O2 to tissues & get rid of  CO2)  

- Includes:

- Respiratory bronchioles at termini  

- Alveoli (air sac) – the only true location of gas exchange 

7. How does Boyle's Law and the movement of the diaphragm and  related muscles

surrounding the pleural cavity explain the act of breathing in terms  of  

pressure gradients? Know which muscles and nerves are  operational during the

inspiration and expiration. Know which processes require an input  of ATP.

-Boyles Law focuses of air falling down the psi (pressure) gradient  -P1V1=P2V2

-pressure is inversely related to volume  

- breathing is done through inspiration (thoracic cavity gaining volume) and  expiration (thoracic cavity losing volume). By using various muscles to  change the volume it causes air to always fall down the psi gradient and  either fill the thoracic cavity with air (inspiration) or lose the air (expiration) Inspiration:  

- Diaphragm contracts via the phrenic nerve

- External intercostal muscles also used to contract

- Volume of thoracic cavity increases  

- Requires ATP (active process)

- Accessory muscles may also be recruited (in neck & more) Expiration:

- Diaphragm relaxes  

- External intercostal muscles relax & ribs fall with gravity - Requires no ATP (passive process under normal conditions) - Forced expiration may recruit additional muscles (which will require  ATP)

8. What is the physiological basis for asthma, bronchitis,  emphysema, lack

of compliance, and SIDS? What is the difference between an  obstructive versus

a restrictive lung disease? If provided a set of "normal" spirometry  values

and given a set of values from a patient, be able to diagnose the  likely  

disease state based on the provided lung capacity values.

Obstructive lung disease: can’t exhale (TLC stays the same, distribution  changes)

Restrictive lung disease: can’t inhale (TLC, VC, IRV decreases) Asthma: obstructive disease

- Bronchioles are constricted

- Smooth muscle of trachea constricted

- Excess mucus

- It is allergy induced

- It is exercise induced  

- Edema (swelling)

- Can be triggered by pollution

- Inflammation released from mask cells  releases substances that act  as vaso constrictors

- 1st treatments targeted inflammation

o Epinephrine  B1 in heart

o Vasodialate  B2 in bronchioles  

- Increases RV (residual volume of lung always there), decreases VC  (vital capacity), decreases ERV (expiration reserve volume), no change  in TLC (total lung capacity)

Bronchitis: obstructive disease

- Increase in ciliary mucus  

- Decreases VC & ERV, increases RV, TLC stays the same

Emphysema: obstructive disease  

- Collapse of bronchioles & physical breakdown of aveoli  - Fewer # of alveoli (they are larger in size, which decreases surface  area for gas exchange)

- Irreversible damage

- can be caused by toxic components/pollution  

- Causes air trapping air resides in alveoli  

- Decreases VC & ERV, increases RV, TLC stays the same  SIDS: (sudden instant death syndrome) restrictive disease  - Decreases synthesis of pulmonary surfactant  

- Difficult to inhale from closed state  

- Type I & Type II alveolar cells (SIDS affects type II)

- IRV,TLC,& VC decreases, ERV increases  

Age:  

- FEV decreases (can only expel 40-60%, normal is 80%)

Gender:

- males have larger lung volumes than females  

9. Be very familiar and expect calculations for spirometry!! They  will be very

similar to what you have already done for your homework questions. TV = tital volume= VC – ERV – IRV

IRV = inspiration reserve volume = VC – TV – IRV  

IC= inspiration volume = lung volume that is always there (1.0 L) FRC= functional residual capacity = ERV + RV

VC = vital capacity = TV + ERV + IRV  

TLC = total lung capacity = VC + RV

FEV= forced expiration volume (in 1 second) = should be 80% of volume  

1. If your patient's TLC was 7.0L and VC was 5.5L, calculate the residual volume of air still in the lung?

ANSWER: 1.5L

2. If this same patient weighed 54 kg and had an ERV of 2.5L and an IRV of 2.5L, what would be the amount of fresh air brought into the lung with each inspiration?

ANSWER: 392 ml

3. If a patient has an IC of 3.5L and an IRV of 3.2L, weighs 60 kg and an VA of 400 ml, how fast is this person breathing?

ANSWER: 2.2/min

4. What is the VC of an individual wih an IRV of 2.5L, an IC of 3L,  a FRC of 4L? Assume that the RV of this individual is 2.5L (quite large). ANSWER: 4.5L (there are several routes to this answer)

5. If you had a VC of 6L, a TV of 600 ml, a ERV of 2L, what would your  Inspiratory capacity be?

ANSWER: 4L

10. What are some basic renal processes and why is the kidney so critical to the operation of so many organ systems?

-Kidneys remove waste from the body, if waste (N-waste, drugs, pesticides,  hormones, etc.) is not removed then all the organs in the body will be negatively  affected  

-filters 20-25% of the body’s blood/min  

-Functions:

1. stabilize electrolytes (Na+, K+, Ca2+, HCO3-)

2. balance H20 level  

3. excrete nitrogenous waste (urea, uric acid, creatinine)

4. produces very important hormones  

- erythropoietin (produces red blood cells)

- renin

5. regulates acids/bases in blood

6. gets rid of waste in the blood by excreting it in urine

- hormones

- drugs

- pesticides

- food additives  

- non-nutritional substances  

11. What is the smallest functional unit of the kidney? What are the  two types or classes of these functional units and how do they differ functionally and anatomically?

-smallest functional unit is the nephron  

-cluster of capillaries wrapped around the kidney where waste is filtered from is  called a glomerulus  

2 Types of Nephrons:

1. Cortical Nephron

- Glomeruli outer cortex

- They are smaller loops of Henle

- Make up 80% of the nephrons in humans

- Surrounded by peritubular capillaries  

2. Juxtamedullary Nephron

- Glomeruli lie adjacent to medulla, but in the cortex

- Longer loops of Henle that penetrate deep into the medulla - Associated with vasa recta (a straight vessel)

- Make up 20% of the nephrons in humans (higher percentage of this type of  nephron in animals that require very little water evaporation)  

12. What are the 5 major regions of the nephron? What is filtered in

each region? What is the primary function that is linked to each region? What can clinically disturb the function or filtration in a particular  region? What are the regulatory processes that occur in each region (hormonal? active transport? simple diffusion?)?

1. Glomerulus

- Acts as an “ultra-filtrate”

o Any particle less than 6 nm can pass

o Filters about 125 ml/blood per min

o Filters carbohydrates, electrolytes, H2O, small proteins, plasma, and  free cellular material

o Does not filter plasma proteins (albumin) or Hb  

- Things that can affect the glomerulus include afferent & efferent arteriole  constriction, arteriole pressure, plasma protein concentration, and osmotic  pressure  

- Passive process that is done by blood pressure and diffusion  2. Proximal Convoluted Tubule

- Absorbs solutes, salt, and H20 from the blood that was filtered in the  glomerulus  

- Filters Na+ (2/3), glucose (100%), Cl- (1/2), urea (1/2), H20 (2/3), K+ (1/2) - Uses passive diffusion, primary active transport, secondary active transport  - Same things that effect glomerulus can affect PCT

3. Loop of Henle

- Absorbs Na+, Cl-, and H20

- Primary role is to concentrate the salt in the tissue surrounding the loop  - Active transport used to pump Na+ & Cl-

- This allows passive transport for H20 reabsorption

4. Distal Convoluted Tubule  

- Filters H20, K+, & Na+

- Uses hormones to filter  

- Does most of the last filtration before sending the urine to the bladder (get 3  ml for every 1000 ml of blood)

- Alcohol can disturb one of the hormones which in turn disturbers H20  absorption  

5. Juxtaglomerular Apparatus  

- Regulates blood pressure & filtration rate of the glomerulus  

- Secretes renin (hormonal)

13. Compare the three major functions of the kidney (GF, TR, and TS). GF = Glomerulus Filtration  

- Passive process fueled by blood pressure & is non-selective  

- Filters some of the materials and then sends glomerular filtrate to the tubules TR = Tubular Reabsorption

- Involves reabsorption of essential materials back into the blood system - Uses either active transport or osmosis  

TS = Tubular Secretion  

- Releasing the filtered substances from the tubules into the urine - Uses active transport and passive diffusion  

- Essentially reverse reabsorption

14. How is clearance of substances through the glomerulus physically and structurally regulated by size and charge of the molecule?

- has a basement membrane that is strong and repels negatively charged  molecules

- Substance must be less than 6 nm to pass through

- Positively charged molecules get in easiest, then neutral, and negatively  charged molecules have the hardest time  

- Substance must be less than 68000 KDa MW  

- If there is more than 1% albumin then it is an indication that there is a  disruption of the basement membrane (albumin is a plasma protein)

15. Define GFR in terms of an equation and functionally. How would the follow perturb GFR?.....exercise, hemorrhage, excess fluids, diarrhea, burns, trama, kidney stones. What is autoregulation and how does it  keep GFR in register?

GFR = Glomerulus Filtration Rate  

GFR = Kf x NFP

- K = pores

- NFP = net filtration rate  

As GFR increases  urine production increases  

What Disturbs GFR:

- Exercise = increase C.O (cardiac output), GFR, and urine

- Hemorrhage = decrease b.p (blood pressure), GFR, and urine - Excel fluid = increase b.p, GFR, and urine

- Diarrhea = increase plasma blood osmolarity, inhibits filtration, decreases  GFR and urine

- Burns/trauma = decrease plasma osmolarity, decrease inhibition of filtration,  increases GFR and urine

- Kidney stones = physically oppose filtration, decrease GFR and urine  Autoregulation: maintains a stable GFR

- C.O. (contraction of the heart drives the rate of the flitration) - As C.O. increases blood pressure increases in turn GFR increases  

- When Na+ increases the juxtaglomerular cells in the afferent arteriole  constrict, they also release renin which activates the angiotensin-renin  system, this then constricts the arterioles which increases the GFR  

16. How is glucose reabsorption defined by a carrier-limited reabsorption process? How much is the renal threshold for glucose? What is glucosuria? How can Diabetes mellitus be clinically determined?

-Glucose is 100% reabsorbed by the PCT

-It is done by secondary active transport  

-glucose absorption increases linearly until it plateaus  

-tubular transport max is 375 mg/min

-average renal threshold is 170 mg/ml

- excess glucose is excreted in the urine

-glucosuria = increased glucose in the urine  

-amount of substance = concentration substance x GFR filtered (glucose) Diabetes Mellitus:

-causes sweating, hypoglycemia, artery disease, have poorly controlled blood  glucose levels

Type I, II, & III:

Type I:

-born with this type

-permanent  

Type II:

-acquire & not permanent

-build up insulin resistance  

Type III:  

-co morbid with obesity and Alzheimers  

17. Describe the physiological steps for transepithelial transport for Na across the pct. How is transport of water facilitated by this process? 1. Na+ crosses the lumen (passive)

2. Na+ crosses the epithelial cell wall (active)

3. Na+ crosses into the ISF (passive)

4. Na+ crosses through the endothelial cells into the peritubular capillaries  

- When Na+ crosses the lumen, and goes through the tight junctions it  accumulates before it travels to the capillaries  

- H20 moves through the tight junctions because it is attracted to the osmotic  force of Na+ accumulating in the lateral space  

18. Describe fully the process of countercurrent multiplication in the loop of Henle.

-it is a mechanism that expands energy to create a concentration gradient  somewhere else  

1. If you start process in glomerulus with 1000 ml blood, you have 100 ml of filtrate enter the loop of Henle  

2. The blood starts at the top of the descending loop where the Na+  gradient is (280-300 mOsm)  

3. As the blood goes down the descending loop H20 is absorbed through  the walls (only location where Na+ is not actively transported)

4. Once the filtrate reaches the bottom of the loop of the salt is  concentrated (900-1200 mOsm)

5. As the filtrate travels up the ascending loop Na+ and Cl- and pumped  out using active transport (this is what causes the counter current  multiplication and draws the H20 out of the descending loop)

6. The filtrate reaches the top of the ascending loop and is back to a  normal concentration (280-300 mOsm), there is about 10 filtrate left at this point

7. It is then sent to the bladder where at the end of the process there is 3  ml of urine

19. Compare and contrast the function of vasopressin and aldosterone in the dct. How do protein hormones operate differently than steroid hormones?  Vasopressin:

- Protein hormone

- ADH anti-diuretic hormone

- Increases H20 reabsorption  

- Peptide hormone: octopeptide 

- Hormone is released from posterior pituitary & travels via the bloodstream  

- ADH travels to ADH-receptors. Once they attach, aquaporins open and H20  will leave the lumen and will get absorbed

- Alcohol doesn’t allow ADH to be sent from the pituitarychannels don’t open   H20 doesn’t get absorbed urine increases  

Aldosterone:  

- Steroid hormone

- Released from adrenal cortex

- Increases Na+ absorption and K+ secretion

- Acts at nucleus as a derepressor  

- Allows new protein synthesis  

o Na+/K+ pumps are inside epithelial cells

o Na+ channels are at wall between lumen and epithelial cell  - Takes longer to regulate blood pressure than Vasopressin

- ANP = atrial natriuretic peptide  

20. How is Na reabsorption functionally linked to K secretion? Are they  always coupled? Why is it so essential to maintain regularity in the level of potassium in the plasma?

- If there is not enough Na+ in the blood, or too much K+ then aldosterone is  released (this is the Renin-Angiotensin system)

- They are usually coupled with Na+/K+ ATPase pumps  

- Aldosterone increases the synthesis of Na+/K+ ATPase pumps  Excess K+:

-leads to a lower resting potential  increased AP threshold  overexcitability in  heart  arrhythmias  

Deficiency of K+:

-leads to increasing resting potential  causes hyperpolarization  leads to muscle  weakness, diarrhea, abdominal distortion, abnormal impulse conduction, etc.

- this can be solved by eating bananas!  

21. Understand the anatomy and function of specialized regions within the JGA.

Know intricately the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system and how this system  regulates

salt and water balance.  

- Made up of the macula densa & granular cells  

- Macula densa releases vasoactive chemicals that can restrict blood flow in  the afferent arteriole  

2 Main Processes:

1. Local

- Tubuloglomerular feedback loop  

2. Granular cells will release renin  aldosterone and ADH will be released which act on DCT and CT

Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System:

1. Liver has inactive angiotensin in it

2. If Na+ or b.p. is low in the kidney then renin is release from the JGA 3. Renin will turn the inactive angiotensin into angiotensin I

4. An angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) in the lungs converts angiotensin I  into angiotensin II

5. Angiotensin II goes to the adrenal cortex which releases aldosterone which  leads to an increased production in Na+/K+ ATPase pumps & Na+ channels  

6. Angiotensin II also goes to the posterior pituitary which then releases ADH,  which leads to an increased thirst and drinking (which increases salt & H20  which helps maintain homeostasis)

7. The ADH also causes the kidney collecting tubules to maintain more H20

22. Be familiar with the following complications as they pertain to renal failure such as albuminuria, proteinuria, hypertension, and congestive heart failure. What is athletic pseudonephritis? glomerulonephritis? Why is activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone an "inappropriate trigger" during a cardiac arrest?

1. Albuminuria & proteinuria

- Disruption at glycoprotein in basement membrane

- Causes damage to fenestration of pores  

o This can lead to an increases b.p and GFR

- This can result from cancer (especially bone cancer)

o This can be treated with radiation therapy

o Radiation therapy can lead to tissue damage which leads to an  increased protein load

2. Hypertension

- Have abnormally high renin-angiotensin-aldosterone activity o Leads to increased Na+ reabsorption in tubules

- Major cause of end stage renal failure

- Increased blood pressurekidney failureincreased blood pressure (a cycle) - can be caused by glomerulonephritis, arteriosclerosis, and an ischemic kidney 3. Congestive Heart Failure

- Blood volume is just 15-20%  

- Excess ECF volume is 200%

- Heart failure  increased cardiac output  decreased systemic b.p  sympathetic trigger of afferent arteriole (which leads to an increased GFR)  release of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (which leads to an increased H20 &  Na+ reabsorption, and increased tissue edema and fluid retention)  

4. Athletic Pseudonephritis

- Accumulation of the protein urea due to jogging or other physical activity  o Leads to increased permeability  

o Decreased tubular reabsorption & GFR (blood is diverted to muscle) 5. Glomerulonephritis  

- inflammation causes thickening around pores

- leads to a decreased GFR  

-A weakened heart cannot pace death due to circulatory congestion and pulmonary  edema)

-do not need to retain more fluids and salts during heart failure

23. What is the principle mechanism underlying the artificial kidney? Distinguish between acute, chronic, and end-stage renal failure. What are some advantages and disadvantages for kidney dialysis?

- It is needed when a patient is in end-stage renal failure

- It is what filters the blood during dialysis  

- Just assumes the job of the kidney (not as efficient as original kidney) Acute Renal Failure:

- Causes rapid reduction in urine production (produce less than 500 ml/day) Chronic Renal Failure:

- Slow & progressive loss of function in the kidney

- Can maintain with noticeable change in function with as much as 75% of the  nephrons destroyed

End Stage Renal Failure:

- 90% of nephrons impaired/loss of function  

- Every organ in the body is affected

- It is irreversible  

- Can only be treated with dialysis or a transplant  

Advantages:

- 4x the rate as normal kidney

- Can maintain life for 15-20 years

- Can be fed an increased amount of glucose to increase the concentration Disadvantages:

- Decreased quality of life

- Must do it 4-6 hours a day 3 times a week

- Other functions are impaired for the kidneys

- Production of erythropoietin is decreased

- Anticoagulants in blood

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