Functions of Respiratory System Wednesday, November 16, 2016 9:22 AM□ Describe 4 key events in gas movement in and out of body. ▪ Pulmonary Ventilation: Moving air into and out of the lungs. ▪ External Respiration: Exchange of gases with air alveoli and blood. ▪ Cardiovascular Respiration: Transport of gases through bloodstream itself. ▪ Internal Respiration: ExchangIf you want to learn more check out - Concentrates Urine due to H2O absorption - How at the Naso pressin Requested?
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e of O2 into cells. To use for mitochondria to do work. Take out co2. ▪ How would you describe bulk flow? All the air into the same direction. (Pressure gradients move air into one direction). How would you describe diffusion? Concentration of the gas # of molecules (movement in all directions/ random)(some can move from blood to alveolus or from alveoli to blood). □ Trace the path of air into and out of the lungs *KNOW DIRECTION OF AIRFLOW* □ Explain the advantage of warming and humidifying inhaled air ▪ Close proximity of blood adds warmer temperature to the air (better for gas exchange, molecules moving faster). Air cooled off as it's leaving losing water wetting the nose. (recollect moisture). ▪ Air is cleaner going through cilia and mucous. Protecting alveoli from dirt bacteria etc. ▪ The nasal conchae's epithelium has ciliated cells covered with mucous to trap dirt and pathogens. It has lots of blood capillaries to warm outside air entering the airways. □ How do the vocal cords produce sound ▪ Vocal cords: Elastic ligaments ▪warm outsie air entering te airways. □ How do the vocal cords produce sound ▪ Vocal cords: Elastic ligaments ▪ What regulated pitch? Tighten strings vibrating them faster. ▪ Growth of vocal cords as we grow we drop pitch. Men get thicker vocal cords, length longer. Vocal cords open so air goes out (vibrating air vibrates and begins to create sounds). □ What is the role of cilia and mucous in the airways? ▪ Pharynx you get goblet cells and glands producing mucous. As you go down there are fewer ciliated cells and less mucous. Advantages of cilia: Protecting alveoli (because it's the most important). Preventing entry of pathogens/ bacteria. Keeping mucous moving (escalator) to go to stomach. Smoking can damage cilia. Cilia stop working when it's cold. ▪ No mucous in alveoli ▪ Use phagocytosis to remove bacteria if it gets down there □ What are the advantages of cartilage in the trachea & bronchi? What can change airway diameter? ▪ Bits of cartilage wrap around the bronchi. Cartilage is critical to prevent compression of airways. Bronchioles have muscle but lack cartilage (they will close off when they are under stress). ▪ In asthma wall thickness goes up as well as muscle (much smaller airways). Mucous will increase with asthma constricting airway. ▪ Someone who has chronic asthma has more mucous, thicker layers of smooth muscle, and smaller lumens for airflow. □ What are the immune system responses in an allergic/ asthmatic (draw picture off slide 8) ▪ Immune system will overreact to specific allergen. APC pick up antigen turning on T-cells turning on B-cells which are making antibodies. IgE isn't one you would crank out in large amounts it will target mast cells so they release inflammatory chemicals. We takes histamine or leukotrienes cells. Eosinophil behavior dampening will somewhat treat asthma. ▪ It can be genetic making more igE's than normalantibodies. IgE isn't one you would crank out in large amounts it will target mast cells so they release inflammatory chemicals. We takes histamine or leukotrienes cells. Eosinophil behavior dampening will somewhat treat asthma. ▪ It can be genetic making more igE's than normal □ Which factors are strongly associated with asthma ▪ Family history of asthma, rhinitis or eczema, smoking parents, short of no breast feeding. Delivery of antibodies during breast feeding. □ What is the benefit of the high SA/V created by numerous, small alveoli? (draw picture off slide 10) ▪ Septal cells-> makes surfactant ▪ What is the function of elastic fibers? Makes them stretch ▪ Alveoli increase SA/V They have elastic fibers allowing them to stretch and recoil ▪ Something outside alveoli is controlling pressure gradients □What is cancer? How we fight it. Tuesday, November 15, 2016 12:17 PMCancer cells: chromosome numbers high, mutations in nucleolus. □ Cancer is now the leading cause of death in the U.S. Compare the incidence rates. Prostate cancer had a huge spike around 1990. (because a new method ▪ of diagnosis was developed so people who didn't know they had it did). Lung cancer has been high and strongly associated with smoking ▪ (numbers are changing b/c of fewer smokers). Climate has changed in the way we regard smoking. Why is smoking not so prevalent in women 1995 it started to climb (not as many women smokers). Polo rectal cancer has gone down, why? Better diagnoses with screening ▪ removing polo's before they become cancerous. Why is melanoma going up? (skin cancer) Ozone layer thinning, artificial ▪ tanning (culture wants to look dark skinned). □ Variation in stem cell divisions predicts lifetime risk of different types of cancer. The more cell divisions you have the greater the lifetime risk of cancer of ▪ that type goes up. (stem cell division). Cells that copy themselves a lot either need a long telomere or enough ▪ telomerase enzymes (that makes telomere). ▪ Region of repeat DNA serves as an attachment point. ▪ Cancer do require telomeres properties of being "immortal cells". Cancer cells can become immortal if these cells acquire a random ▪ mutation that turns on telomerase. □ How do cancer cells differ from normal cells? ▪ Cell immortality ▪ Gnome instability and mutation ▪ Avoiding immune destruction Cancer cells multiply and takes over whole tissue or organ (no start ▪ signal require). ▪ Promote inflammation to promote growth. Tumors trigger blood vessel growth (blood supply, waste removal etc. ▪ ▪ Avoiding immune destruction Cancer cells multiply and takes over whole tissue or organ (no start ▪ signal require). ▪ Promote inflammation to promote growth. Tumors trigger blood vessel growth (blood supply, waste removal etc. ▪ makes it able to grow faster). Angiogenesis. □ Describe the progression in colorectal cancer. Starting at epithelial cells. Cells mutate and form abnormal cells. Tumor ▪ free to travel in lymph vessels and can travel among the body. T-calls should destroy them. (as you get older there's a decline in the immune system, accumulation of mutation increases risk for cancer). Metastasis: cancerous cells travel and invade other parts of the body. Cancer drugs are used for numerous types of cancer b/c they share ▪ common genetic mutations. Why is early detection important? It prevents death. At stage one ▪ concern for over diagnosing patients is put into consideration. (wasn't helping to do treatment for no good purpose). ▪ Controversial among general public whether to frequent screening and if it's done a "too much". □ How should the immune system respond to cancer cells? Dendritic cells will pick up foreign cells and show them to T-cells they will ▪ kill cells. □ How do cancer cells evade our immune systems? Which of the cells below will most easily be attacked by killer T-cells? ▪ If T-cell is good match to (self) antigen there will be no binding. If T-cell is a good match to (non-self) antigen there will be a strong ▪ binding. ▪ If T-cell is a bad match to (non-self) antigen there will be weak binding. There can be mysterious cancer cells that survive and reproduce very ▪ rapidly making them hard to catch. Drugs can mark all cancer cells and your own T-cells do that attack rather than using (old) chemo that kills all cells. ▪ Targets now a days are more localized. Do we inherit most cancer mutation or do they occur randomly? We ▪ inherit very few from family most happen over the lifetime. Cancer cells with only self (non-tumor) antigens on it's membranes are ▪most likely to evade the immune system. ▪ inherit very few from family most happen over the lifetime. Cancer cells with only self (non-tumor) antigens on it's membranes are ▪most likely to evade the immune system. How do we breath? Thursday, November 17, 2016 9:27 AM□ Relationship between air pressure and volume and air pressure and temperature. The greater the volume the lower the pressure. The times the gases will hit ▪ the walls decreases. Decreasing volume number of collision increases. As temperature increases pressure will increase molecules will move faster (more collisions, higher the pressure). □ We'll use mmHg to measure air pressure. Why is air pressure higher at sea level? As you go above sea level atmospheric pressure decreases (it's cold, ▪ molecules are moving slower, air thinner, weight of air is less). Air pressure is higher at 0km above sea level because the air molecules are more tightly packed together. □ Use this equation to explain how air moves in/out: ▪ Air flow =(Patmosphere-Palveoli)/Resistance Diaphragm contraction regulates airflow. As diaphragm gets pulled down ▪ rib cage pulled up= increase volume of lung cavity (less pressure). Air moves down pressure gradient into the lungs. When diaphragm relaxes moves up ribcage gets smaller overall volume of lung cavity increases. Abdominals are contracting with bringing ribs closer together. ▪ What is causing air resistance? Decreased diameter of the vessels (asthma). □ Explain alveolar pressure & air flow changes in ventilation. (draw graph) □ Why do peak expiratory flow values differ between men and women and change with age? ▪ As you get older flow rate PEF decreases. (skeletal muscle weakens diaphragm movement weakens. Men have a higher PEF (men's upper body tend to be bigger, more muscle mass we need oxygen, structural anatomy they have larger trachea (lower resistance higher flow rate). Taller you get higher PEF rate larger ventilation structures. ▪ □ Vital capacity =TV+ERV+IRV What does that mean? ▪ Some air never gets recycled. Inspiratory reserve volume Why aren't we using all the air from the alveoli all the time? If you need a ▪ sympathetic push. Vital capacity= max amount of lung you can use. □ Explain why vital capacity changes with aerobic exercise and age. Why does it differ between sexes? As we strengthen muscles involved in respiration with exercise. Lungs ▪ aren't able to recoil as nicely with age. Muscles are weaker. Men are bigger. □ Which muscles aid ventilation? How would airway resistance alter the cost of breathing? Cost of breathing heavily is metabolic activity of skeletal muscle. Intercostal ▪ bring rib cage up. Takes a lot of energy to use all these muscles for breathing, people with breathing problems tend to be skinny. □ How does the depth of a breath alter the amount of fresh entering lungs? Inhaling we breath in dead space air and new air. Bigger volume of alveoli's ▪ the more fresh air in the system. Air is coming to equilibrium of birth fresh and stale air. Dead space is CONSTANT. □ Why can't residual volume ever be exhaled?nang we rea n ea space ar an new ar. gger voume o aveos ▪ the more fresh air in the system. Air is coming to equilibrium of birth fresh and stale air. Dead space is CONSTANT. □ Why can't residual volume ever be exhaled? Residual volume air in alveoli that remains. Bronchus, trachea is also dead ▪space anything not in contact with alveoli isn't exchanging oxygen so it's dead space. How did tidal volume get bigger? Cut into the reserve (taking deeper breaths).