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UTEP / Biology / BIOL 2313 / What is a systemic response that raises the body temperature?

What is a systemic response that raises the body temperature?

What is a systemic response that raises the body temperature?


Exam 4 Study Guide

What is a systemic response that raises the body temperature?

Fever- chapter 21  

∙ Abnormal high body temperature= systemic response to infection  ∙ Leukocytes and macrophages release pyrogens when exposed to foreign  substances  

∙ Pyrogens

o Act on the body’s thermostat raising the body temperature above  normal  

∙ Fever- adaptive response beneficial to the body

o Causes liver and spleen to hide away iron and zinc- makes them less  available to support bacterial growth  

o Speeds up repair processes-increases metabolic rates

External Nose- chapter 22

Surface features

∙ Root- area between the eyebrows

What fever inducing molecules are secreted by leukocytes and macrophages?

∙ Bridge

∙ Dorsum nasi- anterior margin

∙ Apex- bridge of the nose

External openings  

∙ Nostrils

∙ Nares

∙ Alae

Skeletal framework  If you want to learn more check out What is an independent variable with invasive manipulations?

∙ Nasal and frontal bones- forming the root and bridge

∙ Maxillary bones

∙ Hyaline cartilage- alar and septal flexible plates  

Noses vary in shape and size- due to differences in cartilage  Skin covering lateral and anterior aspect of nose- thin containing sebaceous  glands  

What connects the oral cavity to the esophagus?

If you want to learn more check out What is dwarfism?

***For an image of the nose and structures reference the 10th edition text pg  809***

Pharynx- chapter 22  

∙ Connects the nasal cavity and mouth superiorly to the larynx and inferiorly  the esophagus 

∙ Aka the throat  

∙ Divided into 3 regions

o Nasopharynx

o Oropharynx

o Laryngopharynx  

**Muscular pharynx- skeletal muscle  


∙ Posterior to nasal cavity  

∙ Inferior to sphenoid bone  

∙ Superior to the soft palate

∙ Serves only as air passageway  

o Swallowing  

 Soft palate and uvula move superiorly, this closes off the  

nasopharynx to prevent food from entering the nasal cavity  If you want to learn more check out What are the differences between classical and modernist?

 Pharyngeal tonsil- traps and destroys pathogens entering the  nasopharynx in air


∙ Lies posterior to the oral cavity continuous to the isthmus of the fauces  ∙ Inferior portion of the pharynx  

∙ Extends inferiorly from soft palate to the epiglottis  both food and air pass  through it  Don't forget about the age old question of Is war justified when the danger of attack is remote?

o palatine tonsils- on lateral walls of oropharyngeal mucosa  

o lingual tonsils- covers posterior surface of the tongue


∙ serves as a passageway for air and food  

∙ lined with stratified squamous epithelium

∙ esophagus conducts food and fluids  

∙ air enters the larynx after  If you want to learn more check out What does percent ionization mean?

o during swallowing food goes first and air passage temporarily stops 22.2 

Lower respiratory system consists of:

∙ larynx

∙ trachea  

∙ bronchi  

∙ lungs  

Respiratory zone- site of gas exchange

∙ respiratory bronchioles

∙ alveolar ducts

∙ alveoli

∙ all microscopic structures

Conducting zone  

∙ conducting zone organs cleanse, humidify, and warm incoming air  o air reaching the lungs= less irritating  

The larynx 

∙ aka voice box,  

∙ has 3 functions

o provide patent airway  

o switching mechanism to route food and air  

o voice production  

∙ except epiglottis all laryngeal cartilages are hyaline  

∙ thyroid cartilage formed by fusion of 2 cartilage plates  

∙ midline laryngeal prominence (thyroid muscle) aka Adam’s apple o ring-shaped, anchored to trachea inferiorly- cricoid cartilage  not  paired 

o pairs small cartilages  

 arytenoid  

 cuneiform  

 corniculate  Don't forget about the age old question of What are the favorable outcomes when rolling a die and trying to get an odd number?

o most important of these- pyramid-shaped arytenoid anchor vocal  chords  

∙ epiglottis  

o composed of elastic cartilage  

o covered by taste bud mucosa  

o during swallowing the epiglottis covers the laryngeal inlet o aka guardian of airways prevents food from entering the lower  respiratory passages

∙ vocal folds

o vocal ligaments attach arytenoid cartilages to thyroid cartilages  ligaments composed of elastic fibers  

o vocal folds aka true vocal cords- lack blood vessels  

o vestibular folds aka false cords  

o vibrate producing sounds as air rushes from lungs  

 glottis- medial opening between vocal folds  

 vestibular folds- help close the glottis when we swallow  

∙ Trachea  

o Aka windpipe  

o Ends dividing into 2 main bronchi at midthorax

o Tubular organs  

 Mucosa  

 Submucosa

 Adventitia  

 + hyaline cartilage  

∙ Mucosa- goblet-cell containing pseudostratified epithelium  o Cilia continually propels mucus to pharynx  

o Rests on fairly thick lamina propria elastic fibers

∙ Submucosa

o Connective tissue layer  

o Adventitia- outermost layer of connective tissue  

 C-shaped rings of hyaline encased by adventitia  

 Trachealis- smooth muscle fibers  

∙ Contraction decreases the trachea’s diameter  

∙ Conducting zone structures

o Trachea divides to form right and left main bronchi

 Lobar bronchi- 3 on right lung, 2 left lung

 Segmental bronchi divide into smaller and smaller bronchi  

 Bronchioles “little bronchi”  

 Terminal bronchioles- tiniest of them  

∙ Gross anatomy of the lungs  

o Each coned-shape lung surrounded by pleurae and connected to the  mediastinum by bronchial attachments lung root  

o The anterior, lateral and posterior lung surfaces lie in close contact w.  ribs and form costal surface  

∙ Respiratory zone  

o Alveoli  

o Respiratory bronchioles  

o Alveolar ducts- lead to alveolar sacs  

∙ Scattered amid the squamous type I alveolar cells that form the major part of the alveolar walls are cuboidal type II alveolar cells


∙ Form thin double-layered serosa

∙ Layer called parietal pleura  

∙ Visceral pleura to cover the external lung surface  

Role of the hypothalamus- chapter 24


∙ Center of thermoregulation

o Heat-loss center and heat-promoting center

o Receives afferent input from  

 Peripheral thermoreceptors-  

 located in the skin &  

 Located in the body core including the anterior portion of hypothalamus  

o Responds to input by reflexively initiating appropriate heat-promoting or heat-loss activities  

o Central thermoreceptors have more influence than the peripheral ones  Fever- chapter 24

∙ Fever is controlled by hyperthermia

∙ Most often results from infection  

∙ Mainly caused by:

o Cancer

o Allergic reactions  

o CNS injuries

o Pyrogens act on hypothalamus causing release of prosta-glandins  reset hypothalamic thermostat to a higher than normal  

o Sweating begins and the skin becomes flushed and warm   Physicians have long recognized these signs as signals that body temperature is falling.

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