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USC / Biology / BIOL 101 / Define polygenic inheritance.

Define polygenic inheritance.

Define polygenic inheritance.

Description

School: University of South Carolina
Department: Biology
Course: Biological Principles I
Professor: Milan dhameja
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: bio101, Biology, 101, Polygenic, Inheritance, chromosome, Theory, Sex-linked, gene, recombinant, polyploidy, aneuploidy, deletion, duplication, inversion, Reciprocal, translocation, replication, DNA replication. Heredity., helicase, okazaki, Fragments, ligase, DNA, Polymerase, exonuclease, Chargaff, topoisomerase, transcription, translation, protein, amino, acid, mRNA, tRNA, initiation, elongation, termination, codons, RNA, processing, mutations, tryptophan, operon, splicing, spliceosomes, genetic, code, start, stop, histone, acetylation, methylayion, phosphorylation, regulation, Expression, and dhameja
Cost: 50
Name: Biology 101 Study Guide Exam 4
Description: This study guide covers what will be on the next exam on Tuesday, November 22nd, in Mr. Dhameja's class.
Uploaded: 11/18/2016
11 Pages 32 Views 5 Unlocks
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4th ExamDon't forget about the age old question of What are the differences between classical and modernist?

      Half of C -         14Don't forget about the age old question of Can non-violence be justified without using religious grounds?
We also discuss several other topics like How to find the ph of a strong acid solution?

                15

                16If you want to learn more check out What is the critical value for a 95 confidence interval?

                17

                18

We also discuss several other topics like What abdominal structures are retroperitoneal?

Polygenic Inheritance

  • Quantitative characters are those that vary in the population
  • Shades of skin pigmentation

Don't forget about the age old question of What is the most common post translational modification?

Nature and Nurture

  • Multifactorial
  • Norm of reaction is the phenotypic range of a genotype influenced by the environment
  • Norms of reaction are generally broadest for polygenic characters
  • Such characters are called multifactorial because genetic and environmental factors influence phenotype

Recessively Inherited Disorders -  Albinism

Cystic Fibrosis- the most common lethal genetic disease

  • Absent or defective chloride transport channels in plasma membranes

Sickle-cell disease- 1 out of 400 African Americans

  • Combats malaria
  • Substitution of single amino acid in the hemoglobin protein

Dwarfism- dominant trait

Karyotyping

  • Amniocentesis- a liquid that bathes the fetus is removed and tested.
  • Chorionic Villus Sampling- sample of the placenta is removed and tested.

Locating Genes along Chromosomes

  • Genes are located chromosomes
  • The location of a gene can be seen by tagging isolated chromosomes with a fluorescent dye that highlights the gene.

Chromosome Theory of Inheritance

  • Mendelian genes have a specific location on chromosomes
  • Chromosomes undergo segregation and independent assortment

        Law of Segregation- the two alleles for each gene separate during gamete formation.

Independent Assortment- Alleles of genes on nonhomologous chromosomes assort independently during gamete formation

Morgan’s choice of experimental organism

        Wild type - normal

Chromosomal Basis of Sex

  • Sex-linked gene - an X or Y chromosome
  • The inactive X condenses into a Barr body
  • Heterozygous- mosaic characters
  • Linked genes- sitting close to each other
  • SRY Gene on Y chromosome codes for the development of testes

Recombinase- offspring from two parents

        Parental type- has phenotype from one of the parents

        Recombinant- different phenotypes from both parents

Deviations in Chromosome Number

  • Aneuploidy
  • Polyploidy and Zygotes

Inheritance of Sex-Linked Genes

        Monosomic- one copy of a particular chromosome

        Trisomic- three copies of a particular chromosome

        

        Polyploidy- 3n, 4n, 5n; 69 chromosomes, 96, etc. Triploid, tetraploid.

        Common in plants; not as harmful as aneuploidy

Problems in Chromosome Structure

  • Deletion- worst; losing DNA
  • Duplication
  • Inversion
  • Reciprocal Translocation

Klinefelter Syndrome- XXY

Genomic Imprinting- sometimes, only paternal gene shows/matters (Dwarf Mouse)

Extranuclear genes- genes found in organelles in the cytoplasm

  • Mitochondria, chloroplasts, carry small circular DNA molecules
  • Come from mother, because of zygotes cytoplasm

Replication of DNA

        Chargaff’s Rules

  • State that in any species there is an equal number of A, T and G, C bases.
  • Purines - A, G - two rings
  • Pyrimidines- T, C - one ring
  • Phosphodiester bond- bond between two sugars or phosphate groups

Semiconservative Model- predicts that when a double helix is split, the other half can be determined.

KNOW ENZYMES FOR NEXT CLASS

Also, know the process as a whole (replication?)

Helicase- unzips DNA

Primase- starts RNA process -makes primer

DNA Polymerase- links RNA to primer from 5’ to 3’ direction

Okazaki Fragments- are used for the other unzipped strand. 3’ to 5’ direction

Exonuclease- removes RNA primer strands.

DNA Ligase- seals strands (Blends Okazaki fragments and DNA polymerase I mase fragments)

Anti parallel

Topoisomerase- corrects “unwinding”, relieves stress.

DNA Polymerase III goes from 5’ -> 3’ (of its daughter, new strand)

DNA polymerase reads 3 to 5 so that it can go from the 5 to 3 direction of the daughter strand.

DNA Polymerase I- puts DNA in a lagging strand after exonuclease removes RNA from primers.

DNA Polymerase does not recognize Uracil, so if it didn’t replace RNA, DNA replication would go no further when a daughter DNA strands became a parent.

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