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USC / Business Administration / BA 371 / leadership is the ability to do what?

leadership is the ability to do what?

leadership is the ability to do what?

Description

School: University of South Carolina
Department: Business Administration
Course: Principles of Management
Professor: Patrick demouy
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: mgmt, 371, and Management
Cost: 50
Name: Study Guide Exam 3
Description: This is a study guide covering chapters 15, 16, 11 from the lectures and the book chapters. This also includes notes from the two powerpoints that will also be on the test.
Uploaded: 11/18/2016
5 Pages 3 Views 5 Unlocks
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Test 3


leadership is the ability to do what?



Friday, November 18, 2016 9:06 AM

Chapter 15

• Leadership is the ability to influence people toward the attainment of goals

• Four approaches of leadership:

○ Level 5 Leadership: highest level in hierarchy of manager capabilities, lack of ego, shy, credit other people

Servant Leadership: work exists for the development of the worker, leaders transcend self-interest to serve others, give  away power, ideas, information, recognition, credit and money

▪ Leaders operate on two levels: for fulfillment of subordinates' goals and realization of mission of organization ○

Authentic Leadership: leaders who know and understand themselves, inspire trust and commitment, stay true to values and  beliefs, respect viewpoints, help others learn, grow and develop as leaders

Interactive Leadership: leaders favor consensual and collaborative process, influence comes from relationships rather than  positions of power and authority


Can leadership replace management?



• Traits: distinguishing personal characteristics of a leader

• Strengths: natural talents and abilities that have been supported and reinforced with learned knowledge and skills • Management promotes stability, order and problem solving

• Leadership motivates toward vision and change

• Leadership cannot replace management, there should be a balance of both Don't forget about the age old question of What is External locus of control (“externals”)?

• Need management first so business will survive, leadership moves it forward and grows it • Effective leaders possess varied traits and combine these with their strengths


What is the Substitute for leadership?



• Short-term is task oriented  

• Leadership is based on relationship with followers and readiness level of followers

• Ohio State studies: Leader's style is task oriented or relationship oriented

Consideration: people-oriented, mindful of subordinates, respects  their ideas/feelings and establishes trust

Initiating structure: task-oriented, directs subordinate work activities  toward goal attainment

Don't forget about the age old question of What is marginal benefit?

Situational model of leadership: links leader's behavioral style with the  readiness level of followers

Fiedler's contingency theory: suitability of a leader's style is determined by  whether the situation is considered favorable or unfavorable to the leader • We also discuss several other topics like What did Mendel Falsify?

Substitute for leadership: situational variable that makes a leadership style  redundant or unnecessary Don't forget about the age old question of Patient civil rights

Neutralizer: situational variable that counteracts a leadership style and  prevents leader from displaying certain behaviors

• Visionary leaders speak to the hearts of employees to be a part of something big

• Michigan studies:

Employee-centered leaders: most effective supervisors that established high performance goals and displayed supportive behavior   Study Guide Page 1

Employee-centered leaders: most effective supervisors that established high performance goals and displayed supportive behavior  toward subordinates (most effective) If you want to learn more check out What creates poverty?

Job-centered leaders: less concerned with goal achievement and human needs in favor of meeting schedules, keeping costs low and  achieving production efficiency (not effective)

• Charismatic leader: leader who has ability to inspire and motivate people to transcend their expected performance

Transformational leader: distinguished by special ability to bring about innovation and change by creating an inspiring vision, shaping values,  building relationships, and providing meaning for followers Don't forget about the age old question of What are the three layers of the earth?

Transactional leader: clarifies subordinates' roles and task requirements, initiates structure, provides rewards, and displays consideration for  followers

• Charismatic leaders are skilled in the art of visionary leadership, inspire and motivate people to do more ○ Visionary leaders speak to the hearts of employees to be a part of something big

• Mersk: world's largest shipping line, carry 18,000 shipping containers, 111 million pairs of shoes

• Everyone in an organization is a follower and a leader

• Alienated follower: passive, independent, critical thinker, do not participate in developing solutions and complain about their bosses • Conformist: participates actively with boss but doesn't use critical-thinking, doesn't consider consequences

Pragmatic survivor: has qualities from all 4 extremes, uses whatever style best benefits their position and minimizes risk, does whatever is  needs to get through difficulty, plays different roles at different times based on how they see things going

• Passive follower: exhibits neither critical, independent thinking or active participation, do only what are told to do and under supervision • Effective follower: critical, independent thinker and active, don't avoid risk/conflict, self-manageable  

• Satisficing: choosing the first alternative that meets your needs

• Position Power:

○ Legitimate power: job title

○ Reward power: better hours, raises, etc.

○ Coercive/Threat/Punishment power: rarely used by good leaders

• Personal Power:

○ Expert power: people respect you because of your knowledge

Referent power: people like you and therefore give you power, bragging  doesn't give you power

• Other sources of Power:

○ Personal effort

○ Network of relationships

○ Information: reading and continuing to learn

Chapter 16

• Motivation: the arousal, direction, and persistence of behavior • Intrinsic: feelings inside

• Extrinsic: reward for things I do for other

• Employee motivation affects productivity

• People will always remember criticism and forget praise • You as a supervisor come into play as belongingness

First two levels should be met by pay, working conditions,  etc. should come with the job

○ Cannot meet higher level needs until lower needs are met

Esteem needs, belongingness and self-actualization are  higher level needs

• You will never reach self-actualization because the more you know about something, the more you know you don't know something  Study Guide Page 2

• You will never reach self-actualization because the more you know about something, the more you know you don't know something • ERG Theory: 3 levels

○ Existence needs: needs for physical well-being

○ Relatedness needs: needs for satisfactory relationship with others

○ Growth needs: needs that focus on development of human potential and desire for personal growth

○ Frustration-regression principle: failure to meet a high-order need may trigger a regression to an already fulfilled lower-order need • Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory:

○ Hygiene factors: working conditions, pay, interpersonal relationships

○ Motivators: esteem and self-actualization, recognition, opportunity for growth

• Acquired Needs:  

○ Need for achievement: desire to accomplish something difficult, master complex tasks

○ Affiliation: desire to form close personal relationships, avoid conflict

○ Power: desire to influence or control others, be responsible for others and have authority

• Process theories: explain how people select behavioral actions to meet their needs

○ Goal Setting Theory: increase motivation by setting goals

▪ Goal specificity: difficulty, acceptance and feedback components

▪ Goal difficulty: don't make it too easy or too hard

▪ Goal acceptance: make sure each other agree and accept terms of goal

▪ Feedback

○ Equity Theory: individual perceptions of fairness, perceived inequity can be reduced by:

▪ Changing work effort

▪ Changing outcomes

▪ Changing perception

▪ Leaving job

▪ Inequity occurs when input-to-outcome ratios are out of balance

Expectancy Theory: motivation depends on individuals' expectations about their ability to perform tasks and receive desired  rewards

▪ E-P: putting effort into a given task will lead to high performance

▪ P-O: successful performance of a task will lead to the desired outcome

▪ Valence: value or attraction an individual has for an outcome

• Social Learning Theory: individual's motivation can result from thoughts, beliefs, and observations ○ Vicarious learning: observational learning from seeing others' behaviors and rewards ○ Self-reinforcement: motivating yourself by reaching goals and providing positive reinforcement for yourself ○ Self-efficacy: belief about your own ability to accomplish tasks

Job Design: application of motivational theories to structure of work for  improving productivity and satisfaction

○ Job rotation: move employees between jobs to provide variety

Job enlargement: combine small tasks into broader job to perform  variety of activities

○ Job enrichment: incorporating high-level motivators into work ○ Job simplification: make jobs easier to perform consistently

• Employees receive information about company performance • Employees have knowledge and skills to contribute to company goals • Employees have power to make substance decisions

• Employees are rewarded based on company performance

Chapter 11

• Organizational change: adoption of a new idea or behavior by an organization • Change and innovation can come from outside forces

• Managers want to initiate change from the inside

• People resist change because:

○ Self-interest

○ Lack of understanding and trust

○ Uncertainty

○ Different assessments and goals

Disruptive innovation: innovations in products or services that typically start small and end up completely replacing an existing  product or service technology for producers and consumers

Ambidextrous approach: incorporating structures and processes that are appropriate for both the creative impulse and for the  systematic implementation of innovation

• Product change: change in the organization's product or service outputs

• Technology change: change in the organization's production process, how the organization does its work • Innovation strategies:

 Study Guide Page 3

• Innovation strategies:

○ Exploration: designing the organization to encourage creativity and the initiation of new ideas ○ Cooperation: creating conditions and systems to facilitate internal and external coordination and knowledge sharing

Innovation roles: managers put in place processes and structures to ensure that new ideas are carried forward for  acceptance and implementation

Creativity: refers to the generation of novel ideas that might meet perceived needs or respond to opportunities for the  organization

• Idea incubator: safe harbor where employees can develop ideas and experiment

Horizontal linkage model: several departments, such as marketing, research, and manufacturing, work closely together to  develop new products

Open innovation: extending the search for and commercialization of new ideas beyond the boundaries of the organization and  even beyond the boundaries of the industry  

• Managers should support entrepreneurship activities and foster idea champions

• Sponsors approve and protect ideas when critics challenge the concept

• New-venture teams give free rein to creativity

○ New-venture funds provide resources for new ideas

• Skunkworks are informal, autonomous, secretive groups that focus on breakthrough ideas

• People change = training and development

• Culture change = organizational development (OD)

• Organizational development: planned, systematic process of change that uses behavioral science knowledge and techniques to  improve an organization's health and effectiveness through its ability to adapt  

• OD helps address three types of problems:

○ Mergers/acquisitions

○ Organizational decline/revitalization

○ Conflict management

• Large culture change is not easy

• Most companies hire external firms to do the change process in organizational development

• OD firms start off with 3 major activities: team-building activities, survey-feedback activities, large-group interventions • OD major steps: unfreezing, changing, refreezing

○ Unfreezing: Formalize job descriptions, evaluate what process should look like, go through and make changes ○ Changing: most uncomfortable part of process, new responsibilities, products change, bosses move, etc. (run by OD specialists) ○ OD specialists team leaves after changing process, stay in communication though

○ Refreezing: allow employees to balance lives, readjust, become more effective

• Implementing changes:

○ Create sense of urgency: people are not willing to change unless they see a problem, strong need for change lowers resistance ○ Apply force-field analysis: technique for determining which forces drive a proposed change and which forces restrain it ○ Use implementation tactics

▪ Top management support

▪ Communication and education

▪ Participation

▪ Negotiation

▪ Coercion  

○ Never use coercion(threat) unless you have to (least favorite)

○ Always start off with communication and education

Managing Change Process Powerpoint

• Change management: approach to shifting or transition individuals, teams, and organizations from current state to desired future state Process, tools and techniques to manage the people-side of change to achieve desired outcomes

 Study Guide Page 4

○ Process, tools and techniques to manage the people-side of change to achieve desired outcomes

• Three phases:

○ Preparing for change: identify problem, collect data, analysis, determine strategy

○ Managing change: state goal, allocate resources, establish target dates for implementing, evaluate change and modify if neede d ○ Reinforcing change: determine effectiveness, reinforce and maintain the change

○ Kurt Lewin's Change Management Process:

▪ Behavior as dynamic balance of forces working in opposing directions

▪ Driving forces: push for change

▪ Restraining forces: resist change

▪ Status quo level: balanced state or state of equilibrium between 2 forces

○ Unfreeze, changing, refreezing

• Planned change: initiatives that are driven from top of organization

• Emergent change: a situation in which change can originate from any level in organization

• Areas of change in organization:

○ Strategic

○ Structural

○ Process-oriented

○ People-centered

• Challenges in change management:

○ Planning

○ Lack of consensus

○ Communication

○ Employee resistance

Strategic Choice Powerpoint

• Most companies allocate scare resources to projects that have greatest positive impact on revenue growth or improvements in  productivity and efficiency that can increase profit margins

• Ansoff Growth matrix: marketing planning tools that helps a business determine its product and market growth strategy

• Market penetration: maintain/increase market share of current products, secure  

dominate growth markets, drive out competitors, increase customer usage

• Market development: new geographical markets, new packaging, new distribution  

channels, different pricing policies to attract customers

• Product development: R&D and innovation, detailed insights into customer needs, be  

first to a market

• Diversification: name given to growth strategy where a business markets new  

products in new markets

 Study Guide Page 5

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