Week 3 * Renia, Angiotensta, aldosterone, - Remin S angiotensi mogen! Ang latenel I • Lux Angiotensin II x - es stim vasopressin release (H2o vetension) Stim, alsoterone release (Nat retention) Constricts efferent arterioles ur - Renin Anglotensin system - *What regulates the Penin? > to stretch on Juxtaglomerker Cells In WesWe also discuss several other topics like lqq opera
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If you want to learn more check out the uterus is a thick muscular chamber inferior to the urinary bladder.
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ses near DCT - Ly Respond to UBP w/renia release . the hemorrhage, dehydration, Nat depletion A symp activity to kidneys can also promote Renin Release -> Hormones a Catrial natriuretic peptide) Released when Atrial Pressure is 4 (Indicates 1 *ANP & Nat reabsorption directly @ Kidneys -> Inhillolts altosterone * decrease in Bu (Atrial n *AND * Although Nat gradients > Other factors can mechanisches are key influence to Water reabsorption H2O absorption via Other Aquaporing * Protein Channels * Facilitated Regulate to specific for H2O Infusion of Azó reabsorption via aquaporing -> Hormones * Vasopressiu Canto dourette hormone (ADH) -Acts on nephron Collecting Juet - Causes an ↑ In subtype of aqueportas wlin Collecting duet * A rate of aquaporin synthase ** Plasma membrane Insertion → increase H2o absorption - Concentrates Urine due to H2O absorption - How at the Naso pressin Requested? Ost Osmoreceptors O Baroreceptors BP Shrink In hypertonie solution one altering firing rate of barosecepators A firing rate to * Waso pression release Stim. reflex and to A vasopression release 2 4 Bu(return to "BU osmotic balquee) *BU ENDOCRINE SYSTEM . - Functions of the endocrine system *Regulate, along w/ nervous system, activities within bog Os Major Regulatory systems Nervous US immediate Short Lived effect *Direct Contact Enterlochine *Delay, Long Lasting * Any Cell within the body that has a receptor for that hormone can respond with target organ - Importance of Receptors *these are proteins > Any cell that has a receptor for a speekic hormone I can respond to that hormone Major systems Regulated by the Endocrine system *Metabolie process #growth & developement *Reproduction * (mmune response * Homeostasis Glando * Exocrine >duct » Release non-hormonal secretions to epithelial surface * Endocrine - Have no ducts -> Heavily Vascularized typically release hormonal recreates to the ECF As secretons Steget into bloodstream * Thyroid for Major Endocrine glands * Portuitary (Master gland) * Parathyroid * Adrenal gland * Thymus * Pineal gland Other Organs that make hormones *Discrete endocrine Organs a gonado (testes & auarties) hypothalamus * Organs that make hormones eventhough it is not Priliary Function -> heart Kidneys » Pancreas stomach What is a Hormone? * A Chemical substance secreted by cells into extracelluler Matrix . *tightly Rregulated & Controled within blood * Have very profound effects on Overall physiology @ very Low Concentrations * Alters Cell actionty >leChanges in membrane permeability * Changes in gene expression * Quzyme activation & deactivation * Modement I cytoskeletal Changes * Stimulation of mitosis changes actualtas acheletal → Major Classes of amino acido O MODNted amino acids *Derived from tyrosine 1. Epil norepinephrine 2 Polypeptide / Protein * Most hormones . Insulin, glucagon, FSH, ALH 3 Steroids * Gonalds A adrenals . * Synthesized from cholesterol G-proteins Coupled Receptors *Most n a ch modified amino acids & peptides use a G- Protein receptor system -> Receptors *embedded wlin plasma membrane * binding site Faces ECF - G-protein st Closely associated wireceptor an Intracellular surface * GTPase (GTP GDP); be a & BY -> G Protein dependent Proteins , * those enzymes/proteins impacted by G-protein acturation ->2nd Messengers (not all generate and messengers) generated * Chemical signal In response to G-protein activation * Chemo o - Ligane ECF G-proten binds receptor to receptor goes . through confirmade Couplet onfirmation receptor ABY --- > GDP Memilerame BY--- GTP 3 x-GDP GE=GTP... G-protein ICF By do subunits Seperate Kaltwated Influence G-protein dependent proteins Inside. Cell E and Chori binds Weligans (homone) @ Conf. Change , adenylyl a Cyclase ligons bonds of receptor may M LLAT ATP -> GPCRs BY -> of receptor By GP BActivation of Goprotela Subunits GDP-BY Ampk 2nd I messenger ICF eventually) P of various protelus -> alter gene expression > alter enzyme activitas salter cytoskeletal movements -> Steriod hormone Stenod hormone - a plasma membrane - ECF 3 nucleus Steroid Cytosolit hormone receptor Complex Receptor Pregulate or I regulate transcription rate G s * DNA - Control of Hormone release * Synthesis & release of hormones is usually regulated via to negative feed-back -> Humoral stimul! & Hormone is secreted. Im response to Changina Levels of lous) nutalents >le Insulin * ^ blood glucose Promotes Insulin release which causes a decrease in blood glucose Neural Stimull * Nerve Fibers Stimulate hormone release le Symp stimulation *NE* Noe pinephrine from adrenal medulla - postgang of CNX regulating gastrin releases ..some 2 Hormonal stimuli * Hormone release following stimulation to Other hormone -> lie thyroid hormone *. See release following thyroid stimuls the hormone from the anterior pituitary * Negative feedback of final hormone at hypo or pituitary: amtenter Potugntry . ISH . thyroid y inord >Hypothalamus-Hypophysial axis #structures @ the base of the brain that regulates Much of the endocrine system - Hapo thalamus * Directs actulty of Pitut tary Pituitary gland *Connects to hypothalamus Ura infundibulum > Anterior pitu olt) > Posterior pituitary (post pit) * Neuro secretory Neurons x Neurons that following stimulation release hormones o into the blood stream * Neurons of hypo that Innerdate blood of post.pt or Innergate the median eminence Releasing Hormones & Release Inhibiting hormones * Promote (RIH) or lahibit (R&H) target, - - Anterior pituitary (Adenohypophysis) * Glandellar tissue * Endocrine Cells secrete hormones Following stimulation by hypothalamus Tropic hormones *Stimulate another endocrine aloud to release Its hormones ale gonadotrophins stimulate release of estrogen from Fotos Dvarles. -* How are these Hormones released? 3 Neuro secretory Cells of hypo release hormones 1. Into median eminence >% hypotest hormones travel in blood stream through hypothalamus-hypophyseal portal system => 3 Endocrine cells of ant. Pito bind to hypo hormones * Regulate release of ant. Pit hormones les Posterior Pituitary (Neurohypophysis) *Neurosecretory neurons in hypothalamus send their axons lato posto sito Hormones gets released directly into bloodstream/ Wide circulation * Oxytocin » Mick release .- Pair bonding * Vasopressin Acts on Kidneys hypothalamus on Infundibulum Mediam eminence Post pit stimulation hommand Antenor Pitutar Circulation Arculation Thyroid Gland (2 lobes) * Thyroid hormone thyroxine (T4) & triiodothyronine (TB) *Stimulate enzymes involved in glucose ->h metebore vate to consumistion heat oxidation Production * BP regulation, - Calcitocin ... * Break down ctetur & Blood Ca2+ Calcium ->Parathyroid gland (4 glands) *On posterior of thyroid * Parathyroid hormone - Control Cast in blood . *^ blood Ca2+ by - Stimuleting bone break down - entrance Cazt reabsorption in kidneys - absorption of Ca2+ In Intenstine - Adrenal gland * Cortex Mineralocorticoids * Aldosterone - -. Controls electrolyte [ ] In blood & ECE * target DCT & Stimulates Nat reabsorption > Glucocorticoids * Cortisol -> Influences metabolism & Important for stress response * ^ Corculating ty Levels of biomolecules Promotes coneogenesis, breakdown of fat stores DT Pineat grand * Regulating Circadium rhythms & Receives into from CNII (from eyes) via sugracht so the Supra Chias matte Nucleus ->When is dark * Melatonlm is released Regulates FSH & LH secretion, » Regulates Physiologreal Functious . *le Circadian rhythms in -> stimulation from x Estrogen (A) 7 Progesterone Gonade *Secrete gonadal steriods Following FSH & LH *Gonadal steriods > development of secondary , sex characteristics > Maturation of sperm sova → Development / 1. LH (xy Maintainance of Uterine lining XX FSHE - testosterone Lt)