Week 3 * Renia, Angiotensta, aldosterone, - Remin S angiotensi mogen! Ang latenel I • Lux Angiotensin II x - es stim vasopressin release (H2o vetension) Stim, alsoterone release (Nat retention) Constricts efferent arterioles ur - Renin Anglotensin system - *What regulates the Penin? > to stretch on Juxtaglomerker Cells In WesWe also discuss several other topics like What is a cannabis used for purification?
If you want to learn more check out What is a maclaurin series expansion?
If you want to learn more check out What is the female reproductive system more complex than the male reproductive system?
If you want to learn more check out What is the gravitational force between them?
We also discuss several other topics like How does status shape on how people eat?
Don't forget about the age old question of What is the function of eyebrows?
ses near DCT - Ly Respond to UBP w/renia release . the hemorrhage, dehydration, Nat depletion A symp activity to kidneys can also promote Renin Release -> Hormones a Catrial natriuretic peptide) Released when Atrial Pressure is 4 (Indicates 1 *ANP & Nat reabsorption directly @ Kidneys -> Inhillolts altosterone * decrease in Bu (Atrial n *AND * Although Nat gradients > Other factors can mechanisches are key influence to Water reabsorption H2O absorption via Other Aquaporing * Protein Channels * Facilitated Regulate to specific for H2O Infusion of Azó reabsorption via aquaporing -> Hormones * Vasopressiu Canto dourette hormone (ADH) -Acts on nephron Collecting Juet - Causes an ↑ In subtype of aqueportas wlin Collecting duet * A rate of aquaporin synthase ** Plasma membrane Insertion → increase H2o absorption - Concentrates Urine due to H2O absorption - How at the Naso pressin Requested? Ost Osmoreceptors O Baroreceptors BP Shrink In hypertonie solution one altering firing rate of barosecepators A firing rate to * Waso pression release Stim. reflex and to A vasopression release 2 4 Bu(return to "BU osmotic balquee) *BU ENDOCRINE SYSTEM . - Functions of the endocrine system *Regulate, along w/ nervous system, activities within bog Os Major Regulatory systems Nervous US immediate Short Lived effect *Direct Contact Enterlochine *Delay, Long Lasting * Any Cell within the body that has a receptor for that hormone can respond with target organ - Importance of Receptors *these are proteins > Any cell that has a receptor for a speekic hormone I can respond to that hormone Major systems Regulated by the Endocrine system *Metabolie process #growth & developement *Reproduction * (mmune response * Homeostasis Glando * Exocrine >duct » Release non-hormonal secretions to epithelial surface * Endocrine - Have no ducts -> Heavily Vascularized typically release hormonal recreates to the ECF As secretons Steget into bloodstream * Thyroid for Major Endocrine glands * Portuitary (Master gland) * Parathyroid * Adrenal gland * Thymus * Pineal gland Other Organs that make hormones *Discrete endocrine Organs a gonado (testes & auarties) hypothalamus * Organs that make hormones eventhough it is not Priliary Function -> heart Kidneys » Pancreas stomach What is a Hormone? * A Chemical substance secreted by cells into extracelluler Matrix . *tightly Rregulated & Controled within blood * Have very profound effects on Overall physiology @ very Low Concentrations * Alters Cell actionty >leChanges in membrane permeability * Changes in gene expression * Quzyme activation & deactivation * Modement I cytoskeletal Changes * Stimulation of mitosis changes actualtas acheletal → Major Classes of amino acido O MODNted amino acids *Derived from tyrosine 1. Epil norepinephrine 2 Polypeptide / Protein * Most hormones . Insulin, glucagon, FSH, ALH 3 Steroids * Gonalds A adrenals . * Synthesized from cholesterol G-proteins Coupled Receptors *Most n a ch modified amino acids & peptides use a G- Protein receptor system -> Receptors *embedded wlin plasma membrane * binding site Faces ECF - G-protein st Closely associated wireceptor an Intracellular surface * GTPase (GTP GDP); be a & BY -> G Protein dependent Proteins , * those enzymes/proteins impacted by G-protein acturation ->2nd Messengers (not all generate and messengers) generated * Chemical signal In response to G-protein activation * Chemo o - Ligane ECF G-proten binds receptor to receptor goes . through confirmade Couplet onfirmation receptor ABY --- > GDP Memilerame BY--- GTP 3 x-GDP GE=GTP... G-protein ICF By do subunits Seperate Kaltwated Influence G-protein dependent proteins Inside. Cell E and Chori binds Weligans (homone) @ Conf. Change , adenylyl a Cyclase ligons bonds of receptor may M LLAT ATP -> GPCRs BY -> of receptor By GP BActivation of Goprotela Subunits GDP-BY Ampk 2nd I messenger ICF eventually) P of various protelus -> alter gene expression > alter enzyme activitas salter cytoskeletal movements -> Steriod hormone Stenod hormone - a plasma membrane - ECF 3 nucleus Steroid Cytosolit hormone receptor Complex Receptor Pregulate or I regulate transcription rate G s * DNA - Control of Hormone release * Synthesis & release of hormones is usually regulated via to negative feed-back -> Humoral stimul! & Hormone is secreted. Im response to Changina Levels of lous) nutalents >le Insulin * ^ blood glucose Promotes Insulin release which causes a decrease in blood glucose Neural Stimull * Nerve Fibers Stimulate hormone release le Symp stimulation *NE* Noe pinephrine from adrenal medulla - postgang of CNX regulating gastrin releases ..some 2 Hormonal stimuli * Hormone release following stimulation to Other hormone -> lie thyroid hormone *. See release following thyroid stimuls the hormone from the anterior pituitary * Negative feedback of final hormone at hypo or pituitary: amtenter Potugntry . ISH . thyroid y inord >Hypothalamus-Hypophysial axis #structures @ the base of the brain that regulates Much of the endocrine system - Hapo thalamus * Directs actulty of Pitut tary Pituitary gland *Connects to hypothalamus Ura infundibulum > Anterior pitu olt) > Posterior pituitary (post pit) * Neuro secretory Neurons x Neurons that following stimulation release hormones o into the blood stream * Neurons of hypo that Innerdate blood of post.pt or Innergate the median eminence Releasing Hormones & Release Inhibiting hormones * Promote (RIH) or lahibit (R&H) target, - - Anterior pituitary (Adenohypophysis) * Glandellar tissue * Endocrine Cells secrete hormones Following stimulation by hypothalamus Tropic hormones *Stimulate another endocrine aloud to release Its hormones ale gonadotrophins stimulate release of estrogen from Fotos Dvarles. -* How are these Hormones released? 3 Neuro secretory Cells of hypo release hormones 1. Into median eminence >% hypotest hormones travel in blood stream through hypothalamus-hypophyseal portal system => 3 Endocrine cells of ant. Pito bind to hypo hormones * Regulate release of ant. Pit hormones les Posterior Pituitary (Neurohypophysis) *Neurosecretory neurons in hypothalamus send their axons lato posto sito Hormones gets released directly into bloodstream/ Wide circulation * Oxytocin » Mick release .- Pair bonding * Vasopressin Acts on Kidneys hypothalamus on Infundibulum Mediam eminence Post pit stimulation hommand Antenor Pitutar Circulation Arculation Thyroid Gland (2 lobes) * Thyroid hormone thyroxine (T4) & triiodothyronine (TB) *Stimulate enzymes involved in glucose ->h metebore vate to consumistion heat oxidation Production * BP regulation, - Calcitocin ... * Break down ctetur & Blood Ca2+ Calcium ->Parathyroid gland (4 glands) *On posterior of thyroid * Parathyroid hormone - Control Cast in blood . *^ blood Ca2+ by - Stimuleting bone break down - entrance Cazt reabsorption in kidneys - absorption of Ca2+ In Intenstine - Adrenal gland * Cortex Mineralocorticoids * Aldosterone - -. Controls electrolyte [ ] In blood & ECE * target DCT & Stimulates Nat reabsorption > Glucocorticoids * Cortisol -> Influences metabolism & Important for stress response * ^ Corculating ty Levels of biomolecules Promotes coneogenesis, breakdown of fat stores DT Pineat grand * Regulating Circadium rhythms & Receives into from CNII (from eyes) via sugracht so the Supra Chias matte Nucleus ->When is dark * Melatonlm is released Regulates FSH & LH secretion, » Regulates Physiologreal Functious . *le Circadian rhythms in -> stimulation from x Estrogen (A) 7 Progesterone Gonade *Secrete gonadal steriods Following FSH & LH *Gonadal steriods > development of secondary , sex characteristics > Maturation of sperm sova → Development / 1. LH (xy Maintainance of Uterine lining XX FSHE - testosterone Lt)