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3e8/1e6

3e8/1e6

Description

School: New Jersey Institute of Technology
Department: Physics
Course: Earth in Space
Professor: Andrew gerrard
Term: Fall 2016
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Cost: 50
Name: study guide for exam
Description: these notes cover the exam material
Uploaded: 11/20/2016
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• WHAT IS THE WAVELENGTH OF AN FM RADIO WAVE?




• WHAT IS THE TYPICAL FREQUENCY OF RED ?




• ✂ HOW DO WE CONTROL/MOVE ATOMS & MOLECULES?



EARTH IN SPACE Basma Abukwaik • ???? INTRODUCTION • SPACE WEATHER IMPACTS OUR TECHNOLOGICAL AND BIOLOGICAL  SYSTEMS (AND CAN IMPACT WEATHER) • ASTRONOMERS & SKY OBSERVERS WILL BE SEEING INCREASED  SIGNATURES OF SPACE WEATHER • SOME OF THE WORLD’S LEADING AUTHORITIES OF SPACE WEATHER  AND CLIMATE CHANGE ARE PART OF NJIT’S CENTERIf you want to learn more check out patient who habitually chews tobacco is diagnosed with leukoplakia of the tongue, nicotine induced.
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We also discuss several other topics like cmsc250 umd
Don't forget about the age old question of overactive mirror neurons
FOR SOLAR TERRESTRIAL RESEARCH (CSTR) ???? PP2 – ATOMS ✂ SI UNITS • ENGLISH – MILES, FEET, POUNDS • METRIC = SI  • METER, KILOGRAM, SECONDS (SI UNITS ✂ SYSTEM INTL) o CENTIMETER-GRAMS-SECONDS • ✂ LEGOS • TAKE ELEMENTARY PIECES TO CREATE A MORE COMPLEX THING. THERE  ARE CERTAIN WAYS THEY CAN OR CANNOT CONNECT • THINK OF LEGOS LIKE ATOMS IN NATURE. SOME ATOMS COMBINE AND  OTHERS DO NOT. LIKE LEGO, ATOMS HAVE DIFFERENT  CHARACTERISTICS CALLED ELEMENTARY PARTICLES • ELEMENTARY PARTICLES ✂ ATOMS ✂ MOLECULES ✂ OBJECTS • ✂ ELEMENTARY PARTICLES • PROTON – HEAVY MASS, + CHARGE, (+ IS THE SYMBOL) • 1000X TIGHTER THAN ELECTRON • ELECTRON – LIGHT, -, (e-) • NEUTRON – HEAVY (PROTON + ELECTRON), NEUTRAL, n • TIGHTLY SQUEEZED TO BRING TOGETHER PROTON & NEUTRON • SPIN, KYARILTY ARE TUNNELING AND ALL ✂ BOHR MODEL OF ATOM • THE ATOM AS A SMALL, POSITIVELY CHARGED NUCLEUS SURROUNDED  BY ELECTRONS THAT TRAVEL IN CIRCULAR ORBITS AROUND THE  NUCLEUS • NUCLEUS CENTER (POSITIVELY CHARGED) • ELECTRON CLOUDS • ✂ ELEMENT• SMALLEST UNIT OF A SUBSTANCE THAT STILL HAS THE  PROPERTIES OF THAT SUSBTANCE (I.E. PERIODIC TABLE) • DETERMINED BY THE NUMBER OF PROTONS • ✂ ISOTOPE • SAME ELEMENTS WITH DIFFERENT NUMBER OF NEUTRONS • PHYSICISTS USE COLLOQUIAL NAMES INSTEAD • ✂ ION • SAME ELEMENT WITH UNEQUAL NUMBER OF PROTONS AND  ELECTRONS • PHYSICISTS USE COLLOQUIAL NAMES INSTEAD • ✂ EXAMPLES • HYDROGEN (H) • MOST ABUNDENT – 90% OF SUN IS HYDROGEN • DEUTRIUM  o ISOTOPE OF HYDROGEN W/AN EXTRA NEUTRON o IT’S THE “FAT” • TRITIUM (HAS TWO NEUTRON) o 2ND ISOTOPE OF HYDROGEN • HELIUM (He) • 2 ELECTRONS + 2 NEUTRONS • ALPHA PARTICLE (He2+) – ION OF HELIUM • LITHIUM (Li) ✂ COMMON ELEMENTS & SYMBOLS  • H = HYDROGEN • He = HELIUM • Li = LITHIUM • C = CARBON • O = [ATOMIC] OXYGEN • Na = SODIUM • Fe = IRON • Pb = LEAD • Si = Silicon • ✂ MOLECULE • A STABLE COLLECTION OF ATOMS IS CALLED A MOLECULE (“BULK  OBJECT”) • H2O ✂ WATER• O2 ✂ [MOLECULAR] OXYGEN (WE BREATHE THIS) • CO2 ✂ CARBON DIOXIDE • CH4 ✂ METHANE • WATER VAPOR -- #1 GREENHOUSE GAS • METHANE -- #2 GREENHOUSE GAS • CO2 -- #3 GREENHOUSE GAS • ✂ HOW DO WE CONTROL/MOVE ATOMS & MOLECULES? • THINGS WITH MASS GENERATE GRAVITY (G) • GRAVITY CAN AFFECT THINGS WITH MASS • ALWAYS ATTRACTIVE • THINGS WITH CHARGE (PROTONS & ELECTRONS) GENERATE ELECTRIC  FIELDS (E) • ELECTRIC FIELDS CAN AFFECT THINGS WITH CHARGE • NEEDS TO HAVE NET CHARGE TO EITHER ATTRACT OR REPEL • MASS DOES NOT AFFECT LIGHT BECAUSE LIGHT DOES NOT HAVE MASS.  BUT MASS IS ATTRACTED TO OTHER MASS.  • THINGS WITH CHARGE (PROTONS & ELECTRONS) THAT ARE MOVING  (ALSO CALLED A CURRENT) GENERATE MAGNETIC FIELDS (B) • MAGNETIC FIELDS CAN AFFECT THINGS WITH CHARGE THAT ARE  MOVING/CURRENTS • ELECTRIC FIELD & MAGNETIC FIELD == ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD • CAUSES FRICTON, RESISTANCE, ALLOWS YOU TO PICK THINGS UP ✂ FORCES (AKA FIELDS) • 4 FORCES o 2 IN NATURE ✁ GRAVITY & ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS o OTHER 2  ✁ STRONG FORCE & WEAK FORCE ???? EXPERIENCED WITHIN NUCLEUS/RADIATION • ✂ ENERGY • ALL FIELDS ARE ASSOCIATED WITH TRANSFER OF ENERGY • FICTITIOUS QUANITY THAT, GENERATED BY THE AFOREMENTIONED  FIELDS, ALLOWS FOR OBJECTS TO MOVE • MKS SYSTEM ✂ JOULES (J)  • CALORIE (ENGLISH UNIT) • JOULE PER SECOND == WATT (W)• WHEN ATOMS/MOLECULES “HAPPEN ACROSS” ENERGY: • 99.9% ✂ THEY “WIGGLE-JIGGLE” == TEMPERATURE o RANDOM MOVING • 0.01% ✂ IF THE ENERGY IS A SPECIAL TYPE OF  ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD AND A SPECIFIC FREQUENCY ==  ABSORBED o IDEA OF LIGHT • ✂ TEMPERATURE • HOW MUCH THE ATOMS AND MOLECULES OF A SUBSTANCE WIGGLE  AND JIGGLE • MKS – CELSIUS SCALE (C DEGREES) OR KELVIN SCALE (K) o K=C+273.15 • IN SPACE – LESS PARTICLES • 0C ✂ FREEZE, 100C ✂ BOIL • 0K ✂ NO MOTION ???? LECTURE 3: EM WAVES ✂ ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES • WHEN E & B COUPLE IN A SPECIAL WAYS  • AKA LIGHT == RADIO WAVES == RADIATION • DICTATE OUR LIVES • WHEN YOU TAKE A ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD AND REARRANGE IT IN A  SPECIAL WAY • 90 DEGREES – FEED OFF EACHOTHER • ALL WAVES ✂ FIELDS o NOT ALL FIELDS ARE WAVES • ACCELERATES (NOT VELOCITY) ✂ CREATES X  • SPEED OF LIGHT = WAVELENGTH * FREQUENCY • DISPERSION RELATIONSHIP • NO COLORS IN SCIENCE ✂ ITS WAVES • VL ✂ 370-750 • RED IS LONGER THAN BLUE ✂ EINSTEIN’S NOBEL PRIZE IN PHYSICS • ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES CAN BE MASSLESS ✂ PHOTONS  (ELECTROMAGNETIC PARTICLES) • ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES = PHOTONS = ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY  = LIGHT = RADIO ✂ RADIATION • THINGS WITH MASS AT HIGH ENERGY • TEACHER SPECIFIC ✂ ENERGETIC PROTONS, ELECTRONS, ATOMS,  NEUTRONS • REST OF THE WORLD DOES NOT HAVE THE SAME DEFINITION • ≠PHOTONS ✂ MASSLESS • ≠LIGHTS ✂ MASSLESS • THINGS WITH MASS MOVE SLOWER THAN THINGS WITHOUT MASS ✂ ENERGY ABSORBED • ENERGY IN FORM OF SPECIAL TYPE OF EM FIELD + SPECIFIC  FREQUENCY = ABSORBED • IF E- ABSORBS ENOUGH ENERGY, ITS GONE • IONIZED THE ATOM • GROUND STATE == LOWEST ENERGY • EXCITED STATE == “HIGHER” ENERGY • ✂ SPECTRA • ATOM OR MOLECULE’S SPECTRUM • EACH HAS A UNIQUE PRINT• HOW INTENSE ✂ HOW MUCH OF X THERE IS • BIG TELESCOPES ALLOW US TO COLLECT THE LIGHT TO TEST FOR X • ALLOWS US TO STUDY THINGS FROM AFAR • HYDROGEN EMISSION SPECTRUM IN VISIBLE REGION • WAVELENGTH VS INTENSTIY (ENERGY, FLUX(AMOUNT)) o 410nm PINK o 434nm BLUE o 486nm GREEN o 656nm RED (FIRST ONE FOUND – BIG DEAL, OTHERS ARE  BLURBS) • HELP US UNDERSTAND WHAT THINGS ARE MADE OF • I.E. SUN ✂ 90% OXYGEN • ✂ WHAT ABOUT BULK OBJECTS • BULK OBJECTS --- EVERYTHING  • I.E. AIR – 78% N2 • ALL THINGS GLOW • PLANCK DISCOVERED IT • HAVE A TEMPERATURE • COLOR ≠ WAVELENGTH • ROYGBIV ???? LECTURE 4: • nm=10^-9[m] • um=10^-6[m] • mm=10^-3[m] • Km=10^3[m] • Mm=10^6[m] ✂ MILLION • Gm=10^9[m] ✂ BILLION • [GW] == 10^9 [W] • 1[GHz]=1*10^9[Hz]=1*10^9[osc/sec] • CELL PHONES USE THIS • GPS  • VISIBLE LIGHT • 400NM-700NM • ROYGBIV  o BLUE – 400 o RED – 700• VISIBLE • RADIO WAVES • 10^4 – 10^11 Hz • FM = 1 MHz ✂ 10^6  • AM = 1 KHz ✂ 10^3  • WHAT IS THE TYPICAL FREQUENCY OF RED ? • 700*10^-9 NM = RED • 3E8/700E-9 = ANSWER • WHAT IS THE WAVELENGTH OF AN FM RADIO WAVE? • F = 1E6 Hz • 3E8 / 1E6 = 3E2 o TYPICAL FM WAVELENGTH ✂ 300m • CALCULATE THE ENERGY OF AN FM RADIO PHOTON • E=HF  o 1E6 * 6.626E-34 = 6.626E-28 J • HOW DO CATS SEE IN THE DARK? • 10% ✂ HEIGHTENED SMELL/HEARING • 20% ✂ REFLECTIVE CODING o SPECIAL EYES ALLOW THEM TO REFLECT THE MISSED LIGHT  TO SEE IT ✁ “RED EYES” • 70% ✂ BIG EYES  • CATS DON’T SEE IN THE IR • QUIZ 3 • ENERGY IN A BLUE WAVELENGTH • WHAT IS THE LIGHT HUMANS GLOW FROM o INFRARED • ???? LECTURE 5:• • Y AXIS – FIELD,ENERGY,INTENSTIY • IF A HYDROGEN ATOM KEEPS ABSORBING ENERGY ✂ TEMP INCREASE • TO STAY AT THIS SAME TEMP ✂ NEEDS TO EMIT ENERGY  • IF A BUNCH OF HYDROGEN  • DOPPLER SHIFT CAUSE THE SPECTRUM LINES (=EMISSION LINES) IN  THE GRAPH TO BECOME THICKER • UNSTABLE o NOTHING IS HELD PERFECTLY STILL (ONLY AT 0K) • BLACK BODY OBJECT (== BLACK BODY RADITION) • CONSTANT TEMP • EQUAL NUMBER/DISTRIBUTION OF MANY DIFFERENT ATOMS +  MOLECULES • SOME “STUFF’ • NOT IN ‘REAL’ LIFE • THINGS THAT OCCUR NATURALLY IN NATURE o ARE APPROXIMATIONS OF BLACK BODY OBJECT • (== BLACK BODY RADITION) o WHERE RADITION ✂ EM WAVES o PROFESSOR DOESN’T LIKE THIS VERISON SINCE RADITION  IS A DIRTY WORD • BULK OBJECT LOOKS VERY SIMILAR TO BLACK BODY OBJECT• WHAT ABOUT BULK OBJECTS? • • 4 OBJECTS – SAME SIZE, COMPOSITION BUT DIFFERENT TEMP o SUN @ 6000K ✁ 400NM-700NM  • EVOLUTION o HUMAN EYE EVOLVES TO BE SENSTIIVE TO WHEREVER SUN  IS SEEN/ LIGHT IS PEAKING  o IF IT WAS AT 3000K THE SUN & ALL THINGS ARE EQUAL✁ WED SEE INFRARED ✁ BUT ALL RADITION – SO NO EVOLUTION/LIFE • VERY IMPORTANT SLIDE • • INCREASE TEMP, INCREASE ENERGY EMISSION • MANMADE OBJECTS SPECTRUM IS MORE COMPLEX – DIFFERENT • STEFAN LAW o ENERGY PER UNIT TIME = POWER  ✁ T IN KELVIN (TO THE FOURTH POWER) ✁ A IS OBJECT SURFACE AREA ???? INCREASE SIZE, INCREASE ENERGY EMISSION ???? ϑ = STEFAN – BOLTZMANN CONSTANT ???? Σ = OBJECT’S EMISSIVITY (0✂1) • 0 ≠ BLACK BODY OBJECT • 1 = PERFECT BLACK BODY OBJECT o SUN IS ALMOST 1 • WEIN’S LAW o AS TEMPERATURE INCREASES, WAVELENGTH MAX  DECREASESo WHAT WAVELENGTH IS MOST OF THE ENERGY BEING  EMITTED ==== PEAK AT TIME TEMP ✁ 950NM (PEAK @ 3000K) ✁ ADD 1000K ✂ @ 4000K --- WAVELENGTH DECREASE ???? 750NM ✁ ADD 1000K ✂ @ 5000K --- WAVELENGTH DECREASE ???? 550NM ✁ EQUATION --- WAVELENGTH * TEMP ✂ CONSTANT o EX – ✁ SUN @ T=5800K & WAVELENGTH MAX = 500NM ???? 5800K * 500E-9M ✂ ✁ EARTH @ T=288K & WAVELENGTH MAX = 10 MICROM ???? WAVELENGTH IS IN INFRARED ???? 288K*10E-6M ✂ • SOLAR RADITION SPECTRUM • RED IN GRAPH ?? • O2 ✂ WE BREATHE • O3 ✂ OZONE • HOW IS ENERGY ENCOUNTERED/TRANSFERRED? • ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES  o USE TO BE RADIATION  • CONDUCTION (CONTACT) • CONVECTION (BULK FLOW) • CONDUCTION (CONTACT) • TRANSFER BY CONTACT  • COLLISON ✂ CAUSE BETTER CONDUCTION o CLOSER PARTICLES ✂ MORE COLLISONS  ✁ AIR VS CEMENT ???? BETTER IN CEMENT  • INSULATORS IN HOME ✂ HAS A LOT OF AIR BC AIR REDUCES  CONDUCTION o BAD CONDUCTORS = GOOD INSULATOR  ✁ AND VICE VERSA • COOKING • BOILING ✂ CONVECTION • BURNING HAND ✂ CONDUCTION• FIRE TO POT ✂ EM WAVES • CONVECTION (BULK FLOW) • FLOW OF A MATERIAL DUE TO DIFFERENTIAL HEATING • EX- WIND o WIND BLOWS TO EVEN OUT TEMPERATURE  • HOT AIR RAISES o THIS PROCESS/CYCLE = CONVECTION CYCLE • In the atmosphere: Why Does the Wind Blow?  o Jeffrey’s Theorem: The wind blows because of the existence  of horizontal temperature gradients  ???? REVIEW FOR TEST • LEVEL 1: WHAT IS 1 KELVIN IN C? • K=C+273 • 1=C+273 ✂ C= -272 • THE ENERGY OF ONE PHOTON = 1 JOULE • (LEVEL 2-3) WHAT IS ITS FREQUENCY?  o E=HF ✁ 1J/6.626E-34(J*S)=F • (LEVEL 3-4) WHAT IS ITS WAVELEGNTH? o WAVELENGTH * FREQUENCY = SPEED OF LIGHT ✁ 3E8M/S / (1J/6.626E-34(J*S)) = WAVELENGTH • LEVEL 5-6: YOU MEASURE A SPECTRUM (WAVELENGTH VS ENGERGY)  WHERE THE PEAK IS AT 200NM • WHAT IS THE OBJECT’S TEMPERATURE? o WEIN’S LAW (WAVELENGTHMAX*TEMP=0.0029) ✁ 0.0029/200E-9M == 14,500 K  • LEVEL 4-6: • WHAT HAPPENS WHEN AN ATOM OR MOLECULE COMES ACROSS  SOME ENERGY? o ATOM/MOLECULE WIGGLES & JIGGLES MORE ✁ INCREASE TEMPERATURE o IF IT IS AN EM WAVE & OF A SPECIFIC FREQUENCY, ENERGY  CAN BE ABSORBED • WHAT HAPPENS WHEN A BULK OBJECT COMES ACROSS SOME  ENERGY? o BULK OBJECT ✂LARGE COLLECTION OF ATOMS/MOLECULESo ENERGY TRANSFER ✁ CONDUCTION ✁ CONVENTION ✁ EM WAVES • LEVEL 9-10: HOW DOES A WOOL BLANKET KEEP YOU WARM? • CONDUCTION  o AIR IS A GOOD INSULATOR (TERRIBLE CONDUCTOR) ✁ AIR MOLECULES ARE FAR APART o THE WOOL KEEPS THE AIR IN PLACE THUS LESS ENERGY  TRANSFER FROM THE HUMAN • CONVECTION o THE MATERIAL OF THE BLANKET SUPRESSES/STOPS THE AIR  FROM CIRCULATING NEAR THUS KEEPING THE WARM AIR  THAT WAS HEATED VIA CONDUCTON CLOSE TO YOU o AIR TRAVELS OVER BLANKET, NOT OVER YOU • EM WAVE o NOTHING. • QUESTION – SURVIVAL  o DO NOT STOP CONDUCTION o CONVECTION ✁ AIR TRAVELS OVER BLANKET, NOT OVER YOU +^^ o EM ✁ SHINY METALS ✂ ARE VERY POOR EMITTER IN THE  INFRARED RED ???? (THUS SUPRESS EM WAVES) ???? WHERE DOES MOST OF OUR ENERGY GET  EMITTED? ✂ INFRARED • LEVEL 9: WHAT CAUSES THE BOTTOM OF A POT TO WARM UP • EM WAVES + CONDUCTION  • LEVEL 1: • HOW DO ELECTRONS AND PROTONS DIFFER • WHAT FIELD DOES MASS GENERATE • BOHR MODEL ?S • NAMES • ISOTOPES/IONS • WHAT IS AN ALPHA PARTICLE?• WHAT IS TRITIUM? • WHAT IS A BLACK BODY o NOTHING.  • WHAT IS A BULK BODY  • •EARTH IN SPACE Basma Abukwaik • ???? LECTURE 8: EARTH’S TROPOSPHERE & STRATOSPHERE • INCREASE “HEIGHT” --- INCREASE TEMPERATURE, THEN REACH A  CERTAIN CONSTANT • SOME AREAS SAME “WIGGLE & JIGGLE” AT DIFFERENT HEIGHTS o IT’S JUST THERES LESS MOLECULES✂ COLLISONS • AIRPLANES TRAVEL IN TOP OF TROPOSPHERE ( 10KM) o LEA • SPACE SHUTTLE IN THERMOSPHERE ✂ “OUTER SPACE” AROUND 350KM  • STILL DEALS WITH EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE • OUTSPACE IS ACTUALLY BY THE MOON • TROPOSPHERE  • TOP OF ✂ TROPOPAUSE o PAUSE/CONSTANT OF TEMP • WEATHER ZONE AREA o MOST OF OUR “WEATHER” OCCURS o BETWEEN 0KM – 10KM  o METEROROGLY & FORECASTING • TEMPERATURE DECREASES IN ALTITUDE & WATER VAPOR >  INSTABILITIES CAN DEVELOP  • ALWAYS HAVE WARM AIR UNDER COLDER AIR ✂ CONVECTION  PROCESS SINCE WARM AIR RISES o THUS TEMP WISE ✂ WELL MIXED o A LOT OF TURBULENCE  ✁ DON’T FLY AT 5KM BC MORE TURBULENCE o “NOISY” AKA HIGHLY VARIABLE  ✁ IMPACTS ON GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE STUDIES? • LOTS OF OBSERVATIONS – o DATA CONSTANTLY COMING o AIRPORTS – LIKE EVERY 6 HOURS (DONE WITH BALLOON  MEASUREMENTS) ✁ IDEA – CAN MAKE BETTER FORECASTS ???? USE PHYSICS LOL – ✁ BIG CHALLENGE FACING ACCURATE FORECASTS ✂ GETTING MORE OBSERVATIONS = DATA ???? PARTICULARLY OVER OCEAN ✁ 3 DAY FORECAST ✂ 68% ACCURACY ✁ 4 DAY FORECAST ✂ LESS THAN 40% ACCURACY  ✁ 7 DAY FORECAST ✂ AROUND 5% ???? HOW TO DO WE KNOW OCEAN WEATHER • EXTRAPOLATE BETWEEN TWO OTHER  LOCATIONS AROUND IT • HOW IS IT OBSERVED o IN-SITU OBSERVATIONS ✁ IN SITE LOCATION o RADAR ✁ USE RADIO EM WAVES ✁ USES RAINDROPS o LIDAR ✁ USES IR EM WAVES o BALLOONS ✁ BIG AIRPORTS ???? ABOUT 30KM ✁ NORMAL  ???? ABOUT 10KM • WHO STUDIES THIS? • MAJOR TAX FUNDED – PRETTY PUBLIC INFO o NWS ✂ NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICES o NOAA ✂ NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC  ADMINISTRATION ✁ ALPHA WOLF – LOTS OF POWER o NCAR ✂ NATIONAL CENTER FOR ATMOSPHERIC RESEARCH • DoD ✂ DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE (ALMOST EXCLUSIVE – LESS  OPEN TO PUBLIC) o NAVY DOES THE TROPOSPHERIC FORECAST o AIRFORCE ✂ SPACE WEATHER  o ARMY ✂ BATTLEFIELD ✂ LOCALIZED REGIONS o MARINES ✂ CAN DO RANDOM SEA • NSF ✂ NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION o LESS INVOLVED – MORE RESEARCH LIKE NCAR • NASA ✂ NATIONAL AERONAUTICS & SPACE ADMINISTRATION o STRATOSPHERE CONTROLLED. o LESS INVOLVED – MORE RESEARCH LIKE NCAR• WEATHER GUYS ARENT REALLY METEROLOGISTS ANYMORE o CUTE BOYS – EASY ON THE EYES o PAY FOR WEATHER THEN RECITE IT • NORTH EAST DIFFICULT TO GET THE WEATHER o ESP AREAS BY LAKES/OCEANS • STRATOSPHERE  • TOP OF ✂ STRATOPAUSE o PAUSE/CONSTANT OF TEMP • OZONE AREA • MORE SMOOTH FLOW BC WARM AIR IS OVER COLD AIR o THUS NO TURBULENCE o PUSH TO FLY THERE – WHY NOT ?? ✁ RELEASE OF POLLUTIONS IN AIR… RESEARCH BEING  DONE THERE. • MESOSPHERE • VERY IMPT, STILL GETTING INFO ON IT • CLIMATE CHANGE AREA • TOPOGRAPHIC MAP • ELEVATION MAPS • MORE SPREAD OUT LINES ✂ SHALLOW ASCENT • CLOSER ✂ MORE STEEP // FASTER  • BELOW SEA LEVEL ✂ FLOOD MORE • SIMILAR TO PRESSURE MAPS BUT THEY MEASURE PRESSURE o HIGH PRESSURE ✂ MORE AIR PUSHING DOWN ON YOU  o L & H ON MAP ✁ INFLUENCES WEATHER ✁ CAN FIGURE OUT WHICH WAY WIND IS FLOWING ✁ WINDS FLOW PARALLEL TO LINES OF CONSTANT  PRESSURE (ISOBAR) o LOW PRESSURE – RIGHT HAND CURL – COUNTER  CLOCKWISE ✁ SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE IS THE OPPOSITE  o HIGH PRESSURE – LEFT HAND CURL – CLOCKWISE  ✁ SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE IS THE OPPOSITE • o DEPENDING ON LOCATION – WEATHER CAN DECREASE OR  INCREASE ✁ COOL FROM NORTH, WARM FROM SOUTH • GEOSTROPHIC FLOW (Ug) • PRESSURE GRADIENT FORCE • WILL TRY TO FORCE “HIGH” TO “LOW” • ISOBARS ARE FIRST ORDER APPROXIMATIONS OF WIND FLOW  (I.E., STREAMLINES OF THE FLOW)  • • NOW DRAG/FRICTION• • MORE REALISTIC OF WORLD • • BC OF FRICTION—SLOWLY SPIRALING INWARDS O “LOWS FILL” ✁ ASSOCIATED WITH “BAD WEATHER” ???? OVERCAST, SNOWY, RAINY ???? IN LOW PRESSURE AREAS ???? “CRAP” COLLECTS• CONVECTION FRONTS O COLD AND WARM FRONTS – DEPENDS O NORTHEASTERN CELL ✂ A STORM OR WIND BLOWING FROM  THE NORTHEAST ✁ DIFFERENT HURRICANE? WINDS ARE STRONGER  • WHAT CLASSIFIES A HURRICANE? • AVG WIND SPEED • HIGH PRESSURE CELL • BRINGS DOWN COOLER “CANADIAN” AIR • CLEAR SKIES •• IN THE RED ZONE (WARM AIR) VS GREEN ZONE (COOL AIR) • TICKS ARE PLACED ON GRAPHS AND POINT TO TELL HIGH OR LOW  PRESSURE CELLS O “IN THE NEXT 24 HOURS” – (GIVEN 2 MAPS TO COMPARE) ✁ HIGH PRESSURE CELLS -- CW ✁ LOW PRESSURE CELLS – CCW O SPEED – ½ A DAY TO A FULL DAY TO GO CROSS COUNTRY O MOVE IN THE EAST DIRECTION  • TROPOSPHERE IS ALL WEATHER • THIS IS THE AGE OF BIG DATA SO DIFFERENT PEOPLE LOOK AT  THIS AND OTHERS INTERPRET AND ALL O A LOT ARE LOOKING FOR PEOPLE TO OVER CLOCK TO GET  DATA FASTER • ✂ CONVENTION IN THE TROPOSPHERE • WATER VAPOR IS COMPLICATED AND HAS MANY DIFFERENT  PHASES  • A BIG PUSH IN WEATHER – FINDING WATER VAPOR FOR SPECIFIC  AREAS… LIKE WHICH STREETS WILL GET THE MOST SNOW • • • ENERGY THUS SWITCHES DEPENDING • WEATHER PEOPLE – O WIND FALL + DRIFTING AROUND BUILDINGS, WEATHER  PATTERNS O THUNDER – GIANT CONVECTIVE CELLO RARE TO STUDY ONE CLOUD OR CELL – THERES USUALLY  MANY TOGETHER • INTER-TROPICAL CONVERGENCY ZONE (ITCZ) • WHEN TRAVELLING THRU THIS – TURBULENCE • MODELING POLLUTANTS • CONSTANT, MASSIVE THUNDERSTORMS • IT’S THE EQUATOR ???? SWITCHING HEMISPHERES • CFC OR OTHER POLLUTANTS ARE ALONG THE ITCZ AND ARE THEN  SHOT UP INTO THE STRATOSPHERE ✂ STRATOSPHERE • REGION ABOVE TROPOSPHERE  • TEMPERATURE INCREASES WITH ALTITUDE ✂ VERY STABLE • STRATIFIED AIR • NICELY LAYERED REGION ✂ STRATIFIED  • BETWEEN~10-KM & 50-KM • IDEAL AREA TO FLY IN BUT DON’T REALLY • “HIGH ALTITUDE” ACCORDING TO “PUBLIC”  o ITS NOT LIKE ITS OUTERSPACE o ITS JUST A REGION OF ATMOSPHERE OF EARTH • QUITE A FEW OBSERVATIONS • SPACECRAFT – HELPED MEASURE WINDS • BALLOONS WILL GET TO ABOUT 30KM • HOW OBSERVED? • IN-SITU (ROCKET, BALLOON, HIGH ALTITUDE AIRCRAFT (SINGLE  PILOT) • CAN NOW USE SPACE CRAFTS OR SATELLITE o SATELLITE – ALL SINCE ABOUT THE 70S • POLAR VORTEX – LOW PRESSURE CELL IN THE STRATOSPHERE (VERY  HIGH ALTITUDE) • TILTS THAT CAUSES PULL WITH COLD CANADIAN AREA  • DON’T KNOW HOW IT WAS 100 OR 1000 YEARS AGO • BUT WE CAN DO IT FOR TROPOSPHERE  o FROM RECORDS + “FROZEN STUFF FOUND” OR WHATEVER? • HIGH ALTITUDE AIRCRAFT • SINGLE RIDER, LIGHT  • NWS –• ABOUT 10 YEARS AGO STOPPED @ TROPOSPHERE BC THOUGHT  ONLY TROPOSPHERE GAVE WEATHER HERE ON EARTH BUT WRONG • NOAA • OZONE + STRATOSPHERE AND AERSOLES • NCAR  • AERSOLES FOR MOST PART • NASA? • NSF? • NAVY NO GAPS – GOES TO STRATOSPHERE • PRIVATE INDUSTRIES DON’T REALLY DO STRATOSPHERE  • IN THE TROPOSPHERE CELLS DON’T TILT BECAUSE THEY DON’T HAVE  ROOM. IN STRATOSPHERE – CAN TILT AND THAT’S HOW POLAR VORTEX  AFFECTS EARTH • OZONE HOLE ISSUE IS IN STRATOSPHERE • SO PLANES FLY OVER ANTARTIC TO LEARN ABOUT THIS • WHAT HEATS THE STRATOSPHERE? • THE OZONE ABSORBS EM WAVES AND STUFF HAPPENS IN  CHEMICAL RXN/COLLISIONS WHICH LETS OFF ENERGY WHICH  MAKES IT WARMER • IF NO OZONE THEN NO STRATOSPHERE OR MESOSPHERE o SEE THIS IN MARS – ONLY TROPOSPHERE o VENUS HAS MULTIPLE STRATOSPHERES ✂ OZONE HOLE ISSUE • OZONE CONCENTRATION BASED ON A SCALE • PURPLES/BLUES ✂ LOWER • REDS ✂ HIGHER • MEASURED BY DOBSON UNITS • OVER ANTARTIC CONTINENT ✂ THERE IS A LOW CONCENTRATION o THE WHITE HOLE MEANS NO DATA WAS ABLE TO BE  COLLECTED. o IT’S A DIMINISHING AMOUNT, NOT AN ACTUAL HOLE.  ✁ TYPICALLY SEEN OVER HOLES ???? SOUTH POLE HAS MORE DIMINISHED AMOUNT ✁ “HOLE DEEPENING” OVER YEARS • MODEL RESULTS: • DIMINSHING ABOUT OF OZONE AROUND THE ARTIC o THE HOLE WAS DEEPENING o THERE IS ONE IN THE NORTHERN HEMISPHERE, BEING  MEASURED BUT NOT AS DEEP AS THE SOUTHERN  HEMISPHERE o CFC (CHLOROFLUOROCARBON) – CHLORINE, FLUORINE,  BROMINE o DO NOT DESTROY OZONE ✁ CONTRAY TO THE 80’S DEBATE (OZONE CRISIS) ✁ NASA’S SPACE CRAFT VS BRITISH ON GROUND  SCIENTISTS ✁ BRITISH & NASA BOTH FIND DATA ???? NASA TRIES TO COVER IT BECAUSE THEY  THOUGHT THEIR INSTRUMENT WAS BROKEN ???? THE BRITISH (DOING HAND MEASUREMENTS)  ARE SAYING “THERE IS A HOLE” o OZONE HOLE IS NOT GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE  o IN THE 1980’S THE OZONE HOLE WAS A BIG ISSUE ✁ SAID ALL THIS UV, EM WAVES WOULD GET THROUGH ✁ ANDY + CO CONSIDER OZONE PROBLEM SOLVED ???? BY 1990’S/2000S – IT WAS NO LONGER A  PROBLEM  ???? IT CREATED A CONTROVERSY THAT MADE MANY  WORK TOGETHER  • POLAR STRATOSPHERIC CLOUDS (PSCS)/OZONE LOSS  •• FORM IN DARK WINTER TIME • CAN BE SEEN IN NORWAY, FINLAND • CREATE OZONE LOSS • THIN & VERY HIGH ALTITUDE FORMING CLOUDS o COMMON • PSCS FORM IN COLD, DARK, POLAR LOWER STRATOSPHERE  • CFCS CREATED AND TRANSPORTED TO HIGH LATITUDES  • PSCS REMOVE NOX (NO3,NO4,NO5), WHICH WOULD NORMALLY  PROCESS CL, F, BR  O STABLE O “DESTROY O3”  • PSCS PROCESS CFCS INTO SUN SENSITIVE RESERVOIR SPECIES  • CL, F, AND BR ARE RELEASED TO PROCESS O3 • SPRAY CANS RELEASING CFCS WERE THOUGHT TO BE THE  CULPRIT BUT FOUND THAT THEY DON’T BREAK DOWN • NATURAL WET LAB/ENVT – TOP OF ICE (THE WATERY PART) • SURFACE OF THE CLOUDS ARE LIKE A WET-LAB • STEPS ^^^ ✂ CLOUD COLLECTS CFC’S WHICH BREAK UP AND BR,  F, AND CL GET BROKEN UP AND SOAKED TO THE CLOUD HEXAGON • ICE CRYSTAL MELTS WHEN SUN COMES UP, IT ALLOWS F, BR, CL  TO GET AWAY. NOW THEY CAN GO REACT WITH OZONE • SOAKED TO THE CLOUD CRYSTAL • ENTRAPS • WHEN THE SUN COMES OUT – CRYSTAL MELTS SO THEN THE PSCS  GO BONKERS THEN CL, F, BR CAN INTERACT WITH OZONE • WHY DOES THE OZONE HOLE HAPPEN TO OCCUR DURING THE AUG,  SEPT, OCT, NOV TIME? • SPRING IN THE SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE • SUN CAME UP AND MELTED THE PSCS THEN THE PROCESS OF CL,  F, BR RELEASED  • OZONE DISSAPPEARED AT THAT TIME OF THE YEAR o OZONE HOLE SEEMS TO BE DEEPER DURING THESE MONTHS • THEORY SAID NOx WOULD TAKE CARE OF CL, F, BR – SO THEY  WOULDN’T BE THERE • PSCS ALSO ABSORB NOX ON THE WET SURFACE AND REMOVE IT • POLAR STRATOSPHERIC CLOUDS DO 2 THINGS• RELEASE ALL CHLORINE, FLUORINE, BROMINE • NOx IS DESTROYED BY PSC WHICH STOPS IT FROM BREAKING  DOWN Fl, B, CL o LIKE COPS ARE LOCKED UP AND ALL THE PRISONERS ARE  OUT • STEP ORGINIALLY TAKEN WAS TO BAN CFC’S, BUT THE OZONE HOLE  ISSUE WAS PUT TO REST WITH PSC THEORY • MONTREAL PROTOCOL – SLOWLY REDUCE THE CFCS • END OF 80S/BEGIN 90S – SOLUTION • END OF 90S – OZONE NO LONGER AN ISSUE • OVER THE LAST 2 DECADES – HOLE SLOWLY GETTING SMALLER • PROCESS OF 25 YEARS – FOUND PROBLEM, SOLUTION, SOLVED • DON’T USE AS MANY CFCS BECAUSE THEY GET CAUGHT IN PSCS • GLOBAL COOLING IN THE 60S • GLOBAL WARMING IN THE 80S – “ABSOLUTE DISGRACE” • ALGORE IN THE 2000S LOL • OZONE HOLE ISSUE – POSTER CHILD FOR HOW POLITICS SHOULD  WORK TO SOLVE A PROBLEM  ✂ TYPICALS QUIZ/EXAM QUESTIONS • WHERE DO PSCS FORM AND WHEN O POLAR STRATOSPHERE O WINTER - NO SUNLIGHT • HOW DO PSCS DESTROY O3? O PSCS PROCESS CFCS INTO SUN SENSITIVE RESERVOIR  SPECIES  ✁ CL, F, BR RELEASED TO PROCESS O3 O PSCS REMOVE NOX, WHICH WOULD NORMALLY PROCESS CL,  F, BR  • NASA TOMS INSTRUMENT? O TOTAL OZONE MEASUREMENT SYSTEM O NASA SPACE CRAFT  O ALWAYS A DATA GAP • HOW TO DRAW H AND L ISOBAR ON PRESSURE CELLS O L ✂ CCW O H ✂ CW  ✁ WHEN THE MEET/INTERSECT – STRONG WINDS???? AKA JET STREAKS • PLANES FLY AROUND IT  o WHEN IT IS 2 L’S? ✁ COUNTER OPPOSING WINDS ✁ WIND SHEAR ???? PLANES FLY AROUND IT  ✂ MESOSPHERE • “IGNO-SPHERE” • BETWEEN ABOUT 50-100KM • LARGELY IGNORED UNTIL THE EARLY 1980’S • IMPT ✂ “RECENTLY” FOUND THAT THE MESOSPHERE DRIVES THE  GLOBAL CIRCULATION • “HIGHER ALTITUDES” • IMPORTANT IN GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGES • (ATMOSPHERIC) WAVES ARE BROKEN • WAVES FROM THE TROPOSPHERE DEPOSIT THEIR ENERGY • THEY’D GET BIGGER AND BREAK IN THE MESOSPHERE o “BEACH/OCEAN” WAVES EXAMPLE • WELL MIXED • VERY FEW AND SPARSE OBSERVATIONS • HOW OBSERVED? • IN-SITU OBSERVATIONS (ROCKET) o 10-12 FT HIGH + STRONG ENGINE • RADIO FREQUENCIES (MF RADAR, METEOR RADAR) • LIDAR • PASSIVE OPTICAL (FABRY-PEROT, ALL-SKY IMAGERS) • WE CANNOT SUSTAIN FLIGHT • MUCH OF THE TECHNOLOGY COMES FROM ELECTRIC ENGINEERS • FOLKS THAT STUDY? ✂ INTENSE RESEARCH • NCAR ✂ • NSF ✂ • MID 80S/90S ✂ INTENSE BC NO ONE KNEW ABOUT IT • GRAVITY WAVES == BUOYANCY WAVES • ≠ GRAVITIONAL WAVES • UBIQUITOUS (BEEN KNOWN/RESEARCH FOR 200 YEARS)• AIR HAS TO PASS OVER THE RIDGE  o BECAUSE IT IS DENSER THAN THE NEW WAVE AIR IT WILL  GO DOWN ✂ OSCILLATES UNTIL EQUILIBRIUM  o CONTINUALLY DISPLACES THE AIR ABOVE THE OTHER o AIR IS A FLUID (IMAGINE THROWING A ROCK IN THE POND) o GETS LARGER BECAUSE DENSITY OF THE AIR IS FALLING  OFF (PRESSURE FALLING OFF) ✁ OCEANS ✂ GETTING SHALLOWER, SHALLOWER • o EX= WAVE PATTERN IN THE CLOUD FROM AIR  • THE LOWER AND MIDDLE ATMOSPHERE AT SOLSTICE • GO HIGHER UP IN ALTITUDE, TEMPS DECREASE IN TROPOSPHERE o RED✂ WARM o BLUE ✂ COLD • 0-10 KM ✂ TROPOSPHERE • 10-50 KM ✂ STRATOSPHERE • 50-100 KM ✂ MESOSPHERE • WINTER HEMISPHERE ✂ NO SUN AT POLE o PSC FORM (BLUE POCKET) o WHY ISNT IT COLD OVER THE BLUE POCKET? • SUMMER HEMISPHERE ✂ ONLY SUN AT POLEo REALLY WARM o BUT IN THE MESOSPHERE – COLDEST TEMP RECORDED ON  EARTH (-140K) • KNOW FROM THE COLORED MAP o PURPLE (GRAVITY) o YELLOW (CIRCULATION) ✁ WAVE BREAKING CAUSES CIRCULATION ✁ SOMETHING ABOUT DIRECTION ✁ GRAVITY WAVES PROPAGATE UPWARDS ✁ AIR GOES UP THRU ITCZ  ???? HEAT AIR BY COMPRESSION  • CONTINUES DOWNWARDS ???? SUCKS AIR FROM NORTH POLE  • SENDS COLD AIR ???? EXPANSION •✁ AIR GOES THRU ITCZ TO THE STRATOSPHERE THEN GO  TOWARDS THE TROPOSPHERE OR MESOSPHERE ???? MESOSPHERE ✂ GET LOST? o CLOUDS  ✁ POLARXCLOUDS ???? “X” ✂ XSPHERIC • MODELS THAT DON’T GO ABOVE 10K ✂ DO NOT HAVE LOSE ✂ NOT REAL LIFE • FIRST MODEL TO BE MADE BY NAVY ✂ NO GAPS MODEL o THE IDEA OF DOUBLING CO2 …. SOME THOUGHT IT STUCK  TO THE TROPOSPHERE THUS WARMED THE EARTH BUT IN  REALITY IT GOES THRU ITCZ AND SPREADS THRU  CIRCULATION ✁ ONLY RECENTLY DISCOVERED  • WHY IS IT COLD OVER THE EQUATOR? • BC THE ITCZ RISES THE HOT AIR AND THEN COOLS • WHAT SOURCES ALLOWS THE PSC TO FORM? • LACK OF SUNLIGHT • WHAT CREATES THE COLD MESOSPHERIC CLOUDS TO FORM • GRAVITY WAVES PROPAGATE UPWARDS THEN INDUCE  CIRCULATION THAT PULLS AIR UPWARDS THAT COOL AIRS • CFC GOES TO ITCZ (TRAVELS TO EQUATOR, UP TO ITCZ, THEN TO THE  POLAR CLOUDS) • MESOSPHERIC CLOUDS • BANDS + BILLOWS o DUE TO GRAVITY WAVE INSTABILITTY • THEORY OF HOW MESOSPHERE CLOUDS AT LOWER LATITUDES • WARMING THE EARTH (I.E. GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE) ✂ INCREASE THUNDERSTORMS AND CO (AREA OF ITCZ STUFF  INCREASES/// INCREASE CONVECTION) ✂ MORE GRAVITY WAVES  THAT BREAK THUS MORE PULLS MORE CLOUDS DOWNWARDS  (INCREASES UPWARDING PULLING OF AIR ✂ COLD (SUCKING UP  AIR PART) o ESSENTIALLY MORE CIRCULATION • STABILITY THEORY • THEORY ABOUT LETTING CO2 TO GO OUT• COLD (SUCKING UP AIR PART) o WHEN THIS HAPPENS WITH CO2 SUN WILL CAUSE IT TO  BREAK DOWN AND THEN IT WONT MATTER • AURORAL /MESOSPHERIC CLOUDS • AUGUST IN ICELAND/GREENLAND ✂ THERMOSPHERE [AND IONOSPHERE] • “NEAR SPACE ENVIRONMENT”, “OUTER SPACE” • BETWEEN 100-KM AND ~900-KM • THERMOSPHERE DEALS WITH THE NEUTRAL “ATMOSPHERE” • INTERACTS WITH PLASMA • IONOSPHERE DEALS WITH THE PLASMA • INTERACTS WITH NEUTRAL • BOTH ARE CONSTANTLY INTERACTING!!! • NOT WELL MIXED… H ALTITUDE PROFILE ≠ HE ALTITUDE PROFILE • HOW OBSERVED? • IN-SITU OBSERVATIONS (ROCKET, SATELLITE) • RADIO FREQUENCIES O IONOSPHERE WELL STUDIED O (SO IS THE TROPOSPHRERE BUT THAT’S BC ITS JUST  “OUTSIDE”) • FOLKS THAT STUDY? • NASA • NSF • HE SAID SOME STUFF HERE • WHY ARE HIGH FREQUENCIES IMPORTANT? • USED IN EMERGENCY TIMES • WIND? • NEUTRAL MOTIONS• SUN REGION ✂ HOTEST REGION… WIND MOVES AWAY FROM IT • CONSEQUENCES OF SPACE WEATHER EVENTS • AURORA o HOW DOES IT GLOW? ✁ EM WAVES ORIGINATING IN THERMOSPHERE ✁ CIRCULAR PATTERN DEPENDING ON SOLAR ACTION  ???? DIFFERENT COLORED LIGHTS  • DIFFERENT SOLAR ACTIVITY IN  THERMOSPHERE o DIFFERENT ATOMS GOALING ✁ DOMINATE RED, PURPLE,  GREEN ???? RED ✂ 630NM O ???? PURPLE ✂ 428NM N2+ ???? GREEN ✂ 557NM O ???? TWO BANDS (PURPLE IS  BETWEEN) o WEAK STORM ✂ RED o MODERATE ✂ PURPLE & GREEN o STRONG ✂ ALL 3 o INTENSE ✂ PURPLE ✁ DIFFERENT COLORS LET YOU  KNOW THE INTENSITY o WHEN AURORA COMES DOWN – CHANGES CIRCULATION  • ATMOSPHERIC/AURORAL EMISSIONS• ELECTRONS OF LOW ENERGY INTERACT WITH OXYGEN AT 630NM  ✂ RED AURORAL  o MORE COMMON BC OF WEAK ENERGY o HAPPENS AT LOW CONCENTRATIONS & LOW DENSITIES ✁ CANT MAKE SUCH ENVT ON EARTH (NEED A VACCUM  OF SORTS) ✁ WIGGLING AND JIGGLING AT 1450C • ELECTRONS OF MORE ENERGY COLLIDE WITH O @ 557NM ✂ GREEN AURORAL • ELECTRONS OF MORE ENERGY COLLIDE WITH N2+ @ 428NM ✂ PURPLE • THERE ARE AURORALS AT OTHER LEVELS BUT WE CANT SEEM  THEM BC OF THE SENSITIVITY OF OUR EYES •• CIRCULATION AT EQUINOX  • FOUNTAIN EFFECT • TYPICAL WITH JUST RED AURORAL BC OF ITS WEAK AURORAL  ACTIVITY • WHEN YOU DEPOSIT MORE ENERGY YOU GET MORE ACTIVITY  (ENHANCED, GETS LARGER) o CHANGING THE ENTIRE GLOBAL CIRCULATION OF THE  THERMOSPHERE o PUTS A LOT OF MTL FROM THE LOWER AND HIGHER  ATOMSPHERE o BIG DEAL FOR GLOBAL CLIMATE ✂ HOW MUCH IS BEING  LOST • WHEN ITS REALLY INTENSE ENERGY o LOTS OF AURORAL o LOTS OF IMPACTS o ALL THE COLORS BEING OBSERVED• WEAK CONSTANTLY OCCURING ACTIVITY --- WEAK WIND BLOWING THE  SPACECRAFTS • CONSTANTLY NEEDS TO BE ADJUSTED • AIR FORCE – CONSTANTLY MAINTAININIG THIS • STRONGER CONSTANTLY OCCURING ACTIVITY --- STARTS TO HAVE AN  EFFECT • BRING PROBLEM ✂ KEEPING TRACK OF EVERYTHING AND MAKE  SURE EVERYTHING ON TRACK • COLA- COLLISION ADVOIDANCE MANEUVER  • WHEN SOLAR STORMS HAPPEN ✂ NEED TO REASSESS EVERYTHING IN  SPACE ???? QUIET SUN • PRETEND ✂ HAS NO MAGNETIC FIELD • NOT ACTIVE • DOESN’T MEAN ITS NOT DOING ANTYHING • COMPOSITION  • 94% HYDROGEN • 5% He • 1% OTHER • SURFACE OF THE SUN • INFERO – BUT NOT REALLY A FLAME OR BURNING • ITS JUST GAS WHOSE ATOMS ARE WIGGLING AND JIGGLING A  LOT THUS ITS “HOT” • THINK “MASSIVE WAVE” STRUCTURE • DIFFERENTIAL ROTATION: 26-27 DAYS AT EQUATOR, 36-37 DAYS AT  POLE • DOESN’T ROTATE LIKE A SOLID BODY BC IT’S A BALL OF GAS  • FASTER AT EQUATOR • STRONG, LOCALIZED (MAGNETIC FIELD) B FIELDS • GIVES THE SUN ITS UNUSUAL CHARACTERISTICS  ✂ SUN HAS DIFFERENT REGIONS• • CORE (INTERIOR) • RADIATION ZONE ✂ “THE EM WAVE ZONE” – ANDY (INTERIOR) • CONVECTION ZONE (INTERIOR) • PHOTOSPHERE == SURFACE OF THE SUN o LIGHT CANT PENERATE EASILY THUS WE CANNOT SEE PAST  IT • CHROMOSPHERE (ATMOSPHERE) • TRANSITION ZONE (ATMOSPHERE) • CORONA (ATMOSPHERE) • THE EARTH IS A DOT ON THIS MAP ✂ SOLAR INTERIOR • CORE: DUE TO VERY HIGH PRESSURES AND TEMPERATURES  (~15,000,000 K) ✂ (THIS IS DUE TO COMPRESSION) • @ THIS WE HAVE: O PROTON-PROTON CHAIN FUSION ✁ THE SQUEEZING OF 4 HYDROGEN ATOMS TO MAKE A  NUCLEAR REACTION TO YIELD HELIUM  ???? TAKE 1 PROTON OF EACH HYDROGEN ✂ TO MAKE  HELIUM???? 2 OTHER PROTONS ESCAPE ???? AND LOTS OF ENERGY RELEASED O 4 H => HE + 2 H + ENERGY • NOTE: FUSION NOT FISSION • DO WE HAVE MAN-MADE FUSION ON EARTH? O YES – NOT CONTROLLED  • WE DO NOT ENCOUTER FUSION IN EVERYDAY LIFE • FISSION PROCESS ✂ SPIT OUT NEUTRON (WHICH IS RADIATION) O CAPTURE THEM WITH CONTROL RODS ✁ BURY THEM LOL BEFORE SOMETHING IS RELEASED O NUCLEAR POWER PLANT • HOW DO WE GET MOST OF OUR ENERGY? O HEATING WATER ✂ STEAM CAUSES CURRENT • FUSION DOES NOT HAVE A DANGEROUS PROCESS INVOLVING  RADIATION O NO DANGER – HELIUM JUST FLOATS AWAY O WE DON’T HAVE CONTROLLED FUSION O HYDROGEN BOMB == FUSION BOMB ✁ USING A FISSION EXPLOSION TO FUSE AND RELEASE  ENERGY ✁ FUSION TO HAVE OOMPH USE FISSION TO START FUSION PROCESS ✁ THUS FUSION CAN HAVE SOME RADIOACTIVITY O NEUTRON BOMB ✁ EXPOLISION WHERE NEUTRONS ARE SENT OUT  EVERYWHERE ✁ KILLS EVERYTHING BIOLOGICAL • RADIATIVE ZONE: [ANDY SHOULD CALL THE EM WAVE ZONE] • ENERGY TRANSPORT VIA EM WAVES DOMINATES... PRESSURES  AND TEMPERATURES TOO HIGH TO ALLOW FOR CONVECTION • DUE TO HIGH PRESSURES AND TEMPERATURES, TAKES 1000’S OF  YEARS FOR “LIGHT” TO MOVE FROM INNER TO OUTER RADIATIVE ZONE • NOT HIGH ENOUGH TEMPERATURES FOR FUSION • CONVECTION ZONE: PRESSURES LOW ENOUGH THAT ENERGY  TRANSPORT VIA CONVECTION DOMINATES ✂ CONVECTION OF PAN LIKE MESOSPHERE• TONS AND TONS OF CONVECTION CELLS • ENERGY GENERATION ✂ LIGHT✂ ENOUGH OF LIGHT PRESSURE  • THE BOILING OF THE WATER TOP IS THE PHOTOSPHERE ✂ SOLAR SURFACE • PHOTOSPHERE: “SURFACE OF THE SUN” (WHAT DOES THAT MEAN?) • TEMPERATURE: ~5800 K • GRANULATION: TOP OF CONVECTIVE CELLS O MTL COMING UP – APPEARS WHITER O THEN SPREADS THEN SINKS AS IT GETS DARKER  O INTERGRANULATE BRIGHT POINTS ✁ PINPOINTS OF BRIGHT WHITE  • HELIOSEISMOLOGY => SOLAR VIBRATIONS OF P-MODES (~5- 15MIN) AND G-MODES (~1 MONTH) O EARTH QUAKES ON THE SUN ✂ HELIOSEISMOLOGY • BRIGHT REGIONS ✂ HOT MTLS COMING UP • DARKER REGIONS ✂ A LOT MORE STAGNATE ✂ SOLAR ATMOSPHERE • ABOVE THE SURFACE OF THE SUN – TEMP DECREASES THEN OUT OF  NOWHERE IT INCREASES THEN IT STEADIES• • PAY ATTENTION TO THE UNITS • CORONA NOT A REGION OF FUSION BC PRESSURE ISNT HIGH  ENOUGH O AS YOU GO UP THE PRESSURE DECREASES ✂ CHROMOSPHERE • “PINKISH COLOR”, 7,000 K-15,000 K • SPICULES (JETS OF GAS THAT SHOOT UPWARDS IN CYLINDRICAL FORM) • ~700 KM ACROSS • ~7000 KM TALL • OCCUR EVERY 5-15 MIN • 1/2 MILLION PRESENT AT ANY GIVE TIME • THEY ARE MATTER EJECTED FROM GRANULES • USE TO THINK IT WAS ITS ONLY ATMOSPHERE/REGION ???? WE KNOW  BETTER (THE GAS JUST ABOVE THE PHOTOSPHERE – BUT SOMETHING  HAPPENS THAT CAUSES THE GASES TO WIGGLE AND JIGGLE EVEN MORE (SOME ENERGIZATION PROCESS) TO THE POINT THAT IT FORMS A  CORONA)) • WHAT CAUSES THIS?O SCIENCE MYSTERY O WHAT HAPPENS DURING THE TRANSITION ZONE? ✁ WHY DOES IT MAKE THE CORONA SO HOT? • HYDROGEN COMING UP AND COMING DOWN • SPICULES • LARGER THAN THE EARTH ✂ CORONA  • CROWN, GHOSTLY WHITE HALO (SEEN DURING ECLIPISE) • VERY HOT (WHAT IS HOT?)... NOBODY REALLY KNOWS WHY • NOT HOT ENOUGH FOR FUSION • “HOT”= FEW PARTICLES WITH VERY HIGH VELOCITIES/ENERGIES • SUPPORTED BY MAGNETIC FIELDS EXTENDING OUT INTO SPACE,  CALLED THE "SOLAR WIND” • STREAMERS, LONG WINDY-LIKE TRAILS OF MATERIAL EXTENDING  OUTWARD O (CAN SEE DUE TO COLLISIONS AND BRIGHTENING) • CORONAL HOLES: REGIONS WHERE NO STREAMERS SEEM TO  EXIST O (FAST MOVING PAR'CLES MOVING QUICKLY OUTWARDS)• MATERIAL FROM THE SUN (ESP HYDROGEN) IS MOVING OUTSIDE THE  SUN • STREAMERS O WHILE CORONAL HOLES IS ABSENCE OF MATERIAL • THIS ORIGINAL OBSERVATION IS WRONG ✂ • SO FINAL OBSERVATION O CORONAL HOLES ✂ LOTS OF MATERIAL FLOWING ✁ MATERIAL (PARTICLES) COMING RIGHT TOWARDS YOU O STREAMERS ✂ ABSENCE OF MATERIAL FLOWING ✁ TRAPPING THE PARTICLES – DOESN’T ALLOW THEM TO  FLOW AWAY INSTEAD THERE IS A BACK UP • SUN LOOKS DIFFERENT ON EARTH AND MOON • BC OF EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE • WHY DO YOU GO BLIND FROM LOOKING AT THE SUN • THE UV LIGHTS CAUSE RADIATION • CAUSES GLAUCOMA O LOTS OF PRESSURE BLUID UP AROUND EYE ????LECTURE 12: THE ACTIVE SUN ✂ THE ACTIVE PERIODS • WHAT IS “ACTIVE?” • THE SUN EMITS INCREASED AMOUNTS OF EM WAVE ENERGY AND  RADIATION • WHAT CAUSES “ACTIVITY?”• EMERGING MAGNETIC FIELD LINE LOOPS, LIKELY SOURCED IN THE  CONVECTIVE REGION, INTERACTNG WITH THE NOMINAL SOLAR  MAGNETIC FIELD. • MASSIVE MAGNETIC LOOPS THAT CAN EXTEND OUT (VERY COMPLEX,  “SOUP OF A MESS”, “SPAGHETTI”, TILTING, TWISTING, [VERY  CHALLENGING TO ACTUALLY COMPUTE FOR THE SUN{WANTED TO SEE  HOW IT WOULD AFFECT WEATHER/EARTH}]) • BEING TWISTED AROUND THE SUN • TEND TO ASSOCIATED WITH STREAMERS O PARTICLES GOING BACK AND FORTH ✁ IF THE LOOP GETS VERY LARGE AND PATHWAYS THEN  CORONAL SINCE THERED BE NO REAL COLLISIONS  AND WOULD HAVE NO BACK UPS • CLOSED MAGNETIC FIELD • BOTH STARTS AND ENDS AT SUN • OPEN MAGNETIC FIELD • STARTS ON SUN, EXTENDS OUT, THEN CAN COME BACK TO SUN • FLUX ROPE • ✂ IMPACT OF THE MAGNETIC LOOPS: SUNSPOTS • KNOWN SINCE GALILEO • “DARK SPOTS” ARE STILL BRIGHT (LESS BRIGHT THEN  SURROUNDING) O (I.E., THE SNOWFLAKE EFFECT) O THE HUMAN BRAIN SEES ✂ BRIGHT AND DARK NOT BRIGHT  AND BRIGHTER ✁ HUMAN EYE SEEING DIFFERENT COLORS OF SAME  SNOWFLAKE BC OF THE BRIGHT SKY AND DARK  GROUND  • USUALLY OCCUR IN PAIRS O 2,4,6,8 ✁ BECAUSE THE IDEA OF MAGNETIC LOOP ???? START AND FINISH • ASSOCIATED WITH THE “STOPAGE” OF CONVECTION • 2 REGIONS • VERY DARK REGION: UMBRA• LESS DARK REGION: PENUMBRA • HOW  • INTENSE MAGNETIC FIELDS OF SUNSPOTS SUPPRESS CONVECTION AND PREVENT SURROUDING PLASMA FROM SLIDING  SIDEWAYS INTO SUNSPOTS • NO NEW FRESH HOT SPOTS COME OUT SO THE AREA COOLS  DOWN O AROUND A 1000K COOLER O RECLASSIFIED INTO LIKE ALPHA, BETA, ETC O DELTA ✂ MOST ACTIVE ✂ SUNSPOT CYCLE • SUNSPOTS COME AND GO • 11 YEAR CYCLE ✂ FOR NEW PEAKS O CHANGE FROM YEAR TO YEAR • CURRENT SITUATION O 2012-2015 ✂ SUNSPOT PEAK O 2016✂ DECLINING • CORRELATED TO MAGNETIC FIELDS O THUS SOLAR CYCLES• BIG STORMS HAPPEN DURING THE DECLINE O BC OF THE MAGNETIC FIELDS • 400 YEARS OF SUNSPOT OBSERVATIONS • SOME DATA COLLECTED FROM ALL OVER • OTHER DATA IS SPECULATED DATA • FEW SUNSPOTS/QUIET ACTIVITY ✂ MAUNDER MINIMUM O ASSOCIATED WITH A COOLING • DALTON MINIMUM ✂ MORE SUNSPOTS • CHANGES IN THIS === CHANGES IN CLIMATE CHANGE • WHAT IS IRRADIANCE? • SOLAR IRRADIANCE IS THE POWER PER UNIT AREA RECEIVED  FROM THE SUN IN THE FORM OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION IN THE WAVELENGTH RANGE OF THE MEASURING INSTRUMENT.  IRRADIANCE MAY BE MEASURED IN SPACE OR AT THE EARTH'S  SURFACE AFTER ATMOSPHERIC ABSORPTION AND SCATTERING. • SOLAR CYCLE VARIATIONS • SIGINIFICANE • IRRADIANCE, SOLAR FLARE INDEX, SUNSPOT OBSERVATION, 10.7  RADIO FLUX O 4 THINGS CORRELATED • WE SEE THE SUNSPOTS/WHATEVER 8 MINS AFTER THAT HAVE  BEEN TAKING MANNNNY YEARS INSIDE THE SUN ✂ IMPACT 2: SOLAR FLARES-CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS • SUDDEN BRIGHTENING OBSERVED ON THE SUN’S SURFACE  ASSOCIATED WITH MASSIVE AMOUNTS OF ENERGY EMISSION • (160,000,000,000 MEGATONS OF TNT EQUIVALENT) • USUALLY FOLLOWED BY A CORONAL MASS EJECTION (CME), BUT  THE LINK AND ANY CAUSALITY IS UNCLEAR! • EM WAVES FROM FLARE HIT EARTH IN ~8-MIN, RADIATION HITS  ~2 DAYS AFTER. • LIGHT IS FASTER THAN SOUND • CLASSIFICATIONS DEPEND ON “LIGHT” LOOKING THRU • X (>10^-4) CLASS FLARE HAS THE MOST IMPACT • ASSOCIATED WITH THE BIGGEST CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS CAUSES? • WE DO NOT KNOW• MAGNETIC RECONNECTION O A CANCELLATION OF MAGNETIC FIELDS GOING IN  DIFFERENT DIRETION ✂GENERATOR OF SPACE WEATHER • IMPACTS TECHNOLOGY • SOLAR FLARES CAN TAKE GSP DOWN • TOO MUCH RADIO EMISSION • WE CANNOT TELL WHERE THE MATERIAL EJECTED IS GOING  ✂ HALLOWEEN STORM OCT 2003 • BIG AURORA • POWER GRIDS DOWN ???? REVIEW FOR TEST: (15%, 20?S – 70% NEW STUFF + 30% OLD STUFF) • LIST THE FOUR MAIN REGIONS OF THE EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE + A  DEFINING CHARACTERISTIC OF EACH • TROPOSPHERE ✂ WEATH OCCURS • STATOSPHERE ✂ OZONE HOLE @ HIGH LATS OCCUR O OZONE ABOSRBS MUCH OF THE UV EM WAVES O GET TOO SPREAD OUT—CAUSES MUTATIONS • MESOSPHERE ✂ CONTROLS CIRCULATION• THERMOSPHERE/IONSPHERE ✂ SPACECRAFT ✂ LEO • SOLAR ATMOSPHERE? • SOLAR INTERIOR? • DURING STRONG AURORA, HOW DOES THE THERMOSPHERE  CIRCULATION CHANGE? • DOES THE COMPLETE OPPOSITE OF WHAT IT WOULD DO IN NO  AURORA O HEATING OF THE AURORA CAUSES THAT FLIP O ICON MISSION ’17 TRYING TO FIGURE OUT • HOW MUCH ENERGY DOES A 1-M (WAVELENGTH) RADIO WAVE HAVE? • E=HF, C=F*WAVELENGTH • KNOW YOURE PREFIXES ✂ WANT TO GET IT METERS • GREEN AURORA?  • MEDIUM ENERGY O HOW? ELECTRONS OF DIFFERENT ENERGIES • SPICULES ✂ FORMS LAYER OF THE CHROMOSPHERE • GRANULATION ✂ TOP OF THE CONVECTION CELLS • HOT MATERIAL (WHITER MTL ON IMAGES) GOES OUT, COOLS  THEN SINKS • SUNSPOTS CAUSE CONVECTION TO SHUT?? • WHAT CAUSES THE COLD TEMP THAT ALLOW PSCS TO FORM? • LACK OF SUNLIGHT✂ GETS COLD ✂ CLOUDS FORM • WHAT ROLE DO PSCS HAVE IN OZONE (O3) DESTRUCTION? O NOX TRAPS O CFCS ✂ CL, F, BR ✂ DESTROY O3 • WHAT ROLE DO PSCS HAVE IN O2 DESTRUCTION? O NOTHING • WHAT CAUSES THE COLD TEMP THAT ALLOW MSCS TO FORM? • GRAVITY WAVES BREAK IN THE MESOSPHERE PULLING/DRAWING  AIR UPWARDS IN THE SUMMER HIGH LATITUDE MESOSPHERE  CAUSING COLD TEMPS • WHATS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN IONOSPHERES AND THERMOSPHERE? • COVER SAME LATITUDE • IONOSPHERE DEALS WITH THE PLASMA  O THINGS WITH CHARGE, H+, E-, HE+, O+✁ DEAL WITH RADIOWAVES (HF, VHF, UHF) • THERMOSPHERE DEALS WITH THE NEUTRALS  O H,O,N2,O2 O SPACECRAFT DRAG ✁ SPACECRAFTS SLOW DOWN BC MORE “MOLASSES”  THUS ITLL FALL ???? IN 50/60S RTG (RADIOACTIVETHERMO??) USED ✂ NUCLEAR PROBZ ???? LEO FOLLOWS PATH • WHAT PARTICLES CAUSE AURORA? • ELECTRONS ✂ 250KM  • H+ ✂ 500-1000KM  • WEINS LAW + BLACKBODY • LEVEL 9-10 ?S – HOW DOES A GREENHOUSE WORK? • CONVECTION O SUPRESSES CONVECTION

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