SOC EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE
SOC EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE SOC 1300 - DORSEY
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SOC 1300 - DORSEY
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Chloe Lall on Tuesday April 7, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SOC 1300 - DORSEY at University of Houston taught by Patricia Dorsey in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 519 views. For similar materials see SOC 1300 in Sociology at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 04/07/15
Key Terms Absolute poverty one that attempts to de ne the minimum amount of income necessary to meet basic needs but one that does not adjust for changes in living standards Af rmative action a practice that involves considering individuals39 race when making decisions that are likely to have an impact on existing patterns of racial inequality Assimilation process by which immigrants come to be incorporated into their new society by taking on the cultural tastes and practices of the new society Caste society the advantages or disadvantages of birth determine your social pog on Class identify groups of people in similar social and economic positions who have similar opportunities in life and who would bene t or hurt by same kind of gov policies Class analysis study of how when and where classes exist along those 4 class dimensions 0 Important class distinction was between business owners bourgeoisie Marx and Engels and the workers who do jobs for pay proletariat Cohabitation act of living together as an unmarried couple Constructivist argument that racial categories are social creations not biological facts Consumption what individuals and families households are actually able to buy and consume 0 For poor and middle class families consumption exceeds reported income 0 Since 19805 middle class families were able to consume more than they earned by taking out loans 0 Were spending more than their income allowed The debt has increased over the years Correlation relationship between two variables that change together Content analysis looks for patterns in presence and meaning in order to study how racial groups appear in the media Discrimination differs from prejudice in that it involves actions rather than beliefs 0 Includes any behavior that harms individuals or puts them at a disadvantage on the basis of their group membership Double standard of sexuality tendency to judge women more harshly than men for having casual sex Economic restructuring refers to changes in the way the economy rms and employment relations are organized Egalitarian where disparities between the poor and the rich are small Essentialism presumes that an individual39s racial identity depends on fundamental and innate characteristics that are deep seated inherited and unchangeable Traits are thought to be of someone39s quotessencequot Ethnicity system for classifying people believed to share common descent based on perceived cultural similarities Federalism a social order in which those who own land are entitled to receive the products of the products of the serfs Felon disenfranchisement refers to the loss of voting rights following felony conviction Feminist movement encouraged laws and enforcement and gave some women a sense of entitlement to have a career and a family Gender result of how society shapes differences and inequalities between men and women Genocide deliberate and systematic killing of a category of people Ghettos poor isolated neighborhoods Globalization involves the growing permeability of national borders and the increase in flows of goods services and even people across national borders Heteronomativity situation where the culture and institutions send the message that everyone is heterosexual or at least that this is the only normal way to be Heterosexism homophobia terms for any of these kinds of bias directed at a person because of their sexual orientation Hookup where there is no expectation that either party expects a relationship to ensue Homelessness lack of permanent shelter to live in Income refers to receipt of money or goods over a particular accounting period hourly weekly monthly yearly 0 Sources of income Earned income from job 0 Received from investments or ownership of income generating properties Businesses 0 Received from family or friends 0 Illegal earnings Individual discrimination intentional action carried out by an individual or small group that is meant to harm members of a certain group Inequality unequal distribution of valued goods and opportunities Institutional structural discrimination occurs when the actions or policies of organizations or social institutions exclude disadvantage or harm members of particular groups 0 Jim Crow laws 0 United States 1790 naturalization law only white immigrants could become citizens Labor markets the way workers are hired and promoted policies that govs adopt Life chances members of the same class are likely to have similar incomes and opportunities as they get older Meritocracy a system where rewards and positions are distributed by ability not social background or personal connections 0 Education systems can be used to maintain and preserve privileged access to scarce positions if families with more resources are able to invest in more or better education for their children 0 Education systems produce credentials gt can separate those with privilege from those without Middle class enjoys some of the bene ts and trappings of wealth 0 People work for a wide range of businesses in mostly professional or managerial jobs 0 Small business owners 0 Manual jobs gt skilled factory workers Minimum wage minimum wage you can make it39s 725 now Net nancial assets NFA include the total value of savings investments and other convertible assets Occupational sex segregation what sociologists measure that has an index that ranges from 1 for complete segregation to O for complete integration Onedrop rule someone with one black grandparent and three white grandparents is a black person because their quotdrop of black bloodquot Outsourcing contracting of parts of the production process to another party often abroad Patriarchy extent that men have more power than women in politics the economy and the family Poverty line the minimum income necessary to afford basic necessities Prejudice negative beliefs or attitudes held about entire groups 0 Based on subjective and often inaccurate information Involve prejudgments of individuals based on stereotypes Probability samples drawing a sample to survey from the US population ensures that everyone has an equal probability of being in the sample gt so we can be sure that it is representative of the population Productivity measure of the output per worker per hour Progressive tax system tax rates are higher on the richer people than poorer people gt idea that it is fairer to ask those who can afford to pay more to do so Race system for classifying people believed to share common descent based on perceived innate physical similarities Racism includes two phenomena prejudice and discrimination Relative poverty attempts to capture changes in living standards 0 De ned as those families with incomes below 50 of the median income Serfs legally obligated to work for the landowner Sex biological matter Sexual minority refers to anyone who is not heterosexual or who is transgendered having changed their sex or gender from what was assigned to them at birth Sexual orientation refers to whether individuals are attracted to members of the other sex the same sex or both Skillbiased technological change SBTC simply means that technological advancements are creating jobs that require high skill Slavery one of the rst ways that systematic inequalities began to appear Socialization the means by which members of a society are inculcated into or taught its norms and practices Social background families community people live and grow up in Social construct social phenomenon that was invented by human beings and is shaped by the social forces present in the time and place of it39s creation Social construction of gender system of social processes that create and sustain gender differences and gender inequality Social mobility pattern of intergenerational inheritance in a society Social strati cation examines inequalities among individuals and groups 0 Systematic study of inequality Socioeconomic status SES by combining a number of different attributes of any individual we can place him or her in relation to others and assign himher to a class Stereotypes simpli ed generalizations about a group Structural environment political arrangements economic organization and legal institutions Transgendered those who were assigned one sex category at birth but feel strongly they belong in the other sex category Wealth net value of the assets owned by individuals or family 0 Real estate 0 70 of Americans own the primary residence in which they live Wellbeing captures a number of different dimensions of life that are essential to our everyday lives but that are distributed unequally 0 Important aspects Health 0 Exposure to crime and violence 0 Exposure to environmental risks air or water pollution General level of happiness Working poor people who cannot make enough income to be free from poverty even if they work full time 0 Many jobs don39t pay enough to raise them above the poverty line Unstable jobs Not secure enough to build economic security save money and rely on them to plan for the future Key People to Know Richard Alba 0 Foresees a smooth transfer of opportunities for a comfortable middle class life from whites to nonwhites without competitive con ict Cornell and Hartman o In any given place the notions of race and ethnicity may not be equally important for people Erikson and Goldthorpe 0 Made a scheme that makes distinctions between those individuals who own their own businesses and those who work for someone else Charles A Gallagher 0 Argues that whites believe Socio economic playing eld is level Discrimination is illegal does not happen Race based privilege has ended Racially coded styles and products 0 Media images suggest racial barriers have been dismantled Elliot Liebow 0 Found that black street corner men39s behaviors were not due to any intrinsic characteristics or to xed cultural preferences gt rather to concrete obstacles To turn down work gt re ected a rational calculation concerning the marginal gains and physical stress brought by day labor Lightdale and Colleagues o Random assignment experiment participants in one group were led to believe that their actions during the game would be monitored by the researcher The other group got the impression that no one would be watching 0 In second group men did not drop any more bombs than women 0 In rst group men dropped more bombs than women Suggests how women and men act results from trying to live up to what they think others expect from someone of their sex Devah Pager Tested the in uence of a criminal record on the resumes of black and white job applicants 0 Students pretended to apply for entry level jobs Deirdre Royster Study of 25 black ad 25 white working class men w comparable levels of intelligence education and dispositions toward work debunked the idea that the job market is a meritocratic and fair arena where the most quali ed candidates are the rst to be hired Found that employment was determined by social networks Max Weber One of the lst sociologists to de ne ethnicity and race Described ethnic groups as quotthose human groups that entertain a subjective belief in their common descent gt quotit does not matter whether or not an objective blood relationship exists Ethnic membership gt belief in shared descent Felt that races came from quotcommon inherited and inheritable traits that actually derive from common descentquot Essentialism presumes that an individual39s racial identity depends on fundamental and innate characteristics that are deep seated inherited and unchangeable Traits are thought to be of someone39s quotessencequot Different characteristics or experiences could indicate who belonged to which ethnic group 0 Physical resemblance Historical memories 0 Common cultural practices Says physical makeup determines and individual39s race Ethnicity is based on people39s cultural practices and race on biological traits Bruce Western Cohort of young disadvantages men the quotmass imprisonment generationquot Key Points to Know Chapter 9 0 Class identify groups of people in similar social and economic positions who have similar opportunities in life and who would bene t or hurt by same kind of gov policies Are groups not individuals Classes are made up of people who 1 Have con icting economic interests with other classes 2 Share similar life chances 3 Have similar attitudes and behaviors 4 Have the potential to engage in collective action when workers organize a union quotWhat is middle about the middle classesquot 1 Distinguish classes based on income 0 There are no clear cut boundaries between classes 0 More important that the amount of income is the source of income 0 How people earn gives a better view of predicting how people will behave who their friends are and what kind of opinions they may hold Move in the opposite direction from a simple income measure and utilize a much broader de nition of class based on components such as education income and current occupation Socioeconomic status SES by combining a number of different attributes of any individual we can place him or her in relation to others and assign himher to a class 0 Measures income to distinguish among people for research purposes Focus solely on each person39s occupation in adulthood Views the place of each individual in the economic system as crucial Members of the same class should have some context for acting together to try to improve their lives in some way 0 2 basic justi cations of inequality in most places of the world 1 Inequality ensures that those with quottalentquot are given proper encouragement to develop their talents and pursue excellence for the bene t of all Inequality leads to greater economic ef ciency by encouraging people to take risks and invest in businesses in hopes of getting higher returns rather than them working for someone else Talent justi cation Holds that talent is unevenly distributed bc all individuals are born w different biological traits Having the opportunity to develop a talent is often a privilege that comes with having enough resources to afford great teachers mentors coaches trainers and the ability to travel Ef ciencyjusti cation Argues that inequality enables everyone to live better bc the possibilities of disproportionate rewards motivates indiv To take risks and create things of value Rewarding talent and making society more ef cient by encouraging people to invest in new businesses provides a rm foundation for inequality 0 The changing relationship between technological Expansion and Education Technology complements some jobs while it replaces others gt makes them obsolete Complements jobs that require higher levels of education Replaces jobs w middle and lower levels of education 0 If technology advances too fast then educational expansion does not match the expansion of technology in the workplace and the college premium increases Deindustrialization and Restructuring Manufacturing jobs were once 40 and are now 20 in the US Manufacturing is being done elsewhere where workers will accept lower wages and less bene ts 0 Unions tend to raise average wages and reduce the amount of pro ts that employers are able to keep for themselves The decline in unions leaves America with the weakest unions of all the rich countries and reduces collective power of workers to push for a greater share of pro ts Occupy Wall Street Highlighted disparity between the 1 indiv And families in the 1 of incomewealth and everyone else 99 The new rich reliant on the use of money to buy their way into the best schools and clubs rather than taking the time to master the social graces that go along with the upper class status The old money said to be snotty pampered lazy Measuring Inequality of Opportunity and Social Mobility Argue that if poor children have no chance to succeed in life their talent will be wasted We can measure other kinds of inequalities wealth income consumption well being Solution social mobility pattern of intergenerational inheritance in a society Measure of the extent to which parents and their children have similar or different social and economic positions in adulthood High mobility where there is little connection between parents39 and children39s place in life 0 Approx idea of equality of opportunity 0 Where child ends up in life is determined through his her achievements Low mobility relatively close connection between parents and their children39s positions 0 Can become caste society 0 Success would be determined by parental resources 0 Measure mobility through strength of correlation relationship between two variables that change together Correlation of O gt no connection Correlation of 1 gt parent39s income fully determines children39s income Situation of perfect immobility Measuring the social mobility through the earnings correlation between parents and their adult children in the developing world is more challenging bc high quality data is scarce The amount of mobility will depend on how families work how indiv Are slotted into jobs within labor markets The overall level of inequality of conditions in a country is typically related to the level of intergenerational mobility Higher inequality is associated with lower mobility Cant jump to conclusion that high inequality causes low mobility May be other factors that produce both inequality of conditions and low intergenerational mobility Poverty line De ned in 19605 as part of gov effort to reduce amount of poverty in the US 0 Updated each year to take in ation into account 0 Varies by family size 0 Does not take into account changing standards of living Use measure of relative poverty De ned as those families with incomes below 50 of the median income 0 Is a measure of inequality bc wider economic disparities will result in a larger proportion of families living far below the median income Poverty in the United States Who are the poor 0 Poverty is affected by the business cycle changes in economic performance 0 Factors that increase likelihood that someone will be poor Education Employment status Minority status Age Family structure 0 Single family with female single parent has been called feminization of poverty 0 About 23 of families living below poverty line have at least one working family member Poverty and Children 0 Childhood poverty creates a vicious cycle that reproduces disadvantage across generations 0 Living in poverty Is a great deal of stress 0 Poverty is usually associated with exposure to environmental toxins neighborhood violence and insecurity Poverty in International Comparative Perspective 0 The US spends less to alleviate poverty through welfare programs than any other wealthy country 0 Comparing poverty levels across countries requires Common measure of income Common poverty line Way to make currency similar across nations Chapter 10 Sociologists today believe that racial identi cation is as subjective a process as ethnic classi cation The difference lies in the basis on which group boundaries are drawn Our racial classi cations are based on our beliefs and socially in uenced perceptions of which kinds of people are similar and different in biological aspects Until 1952 only white immigrants could become US citizens 1967 nonwhites were allowed to marry whites throughout the nation Distinguishing Racial and Ethnic Labels Ethnic groups tend to be smaller in size and associated with local national or regional geography rather than with the continents Power Relations Race as a Tool of Domination Color coded hierarchy of race did not exist in Western imagination during times of barbaric people 15th century When European explorers armies clergy and settlers sought to dominate peoples across the globe that they race idea formed Came to believe that the differences they observed in appearance and behavior between themselves and others could be explained by intrinsic racial characteristics Beliefs about racial difference grew out of context of conquest exploitation and enslavement gt were further cultivated to justify power inequalities Races tend to be conceived as forming a hierarchy gt ethnic groups not typically viewed this way Racial categories tend to be imposed on individuals or groups by others while ethnic labels are more likely to be chosen for themselves by the individuals or groups concerned 0 External vs internal classi cation There is no of cial list of ethnic groups Races are real but they are not biological Race is a classi cation system that is invented created by human beings gt man made rather than natural The perspective that it is socially created Social foundation of race implies that as societies change so do their ideas about race Societal factors such as economic conditions and organization shifts in cultural values or political upheavals in uence beliefs about race Benjamin Franklin view only the English and some Germans could be counted as white unlike the Swedes Italians and Russians 1924 Immigration Act 0 Limited the numbers of people who were allowed to emigrate to the United States from Southern and Eastern Europe 0 Under went assimilation The ways in which we assign people to racial groups is purely a matter of socialization 2 reasons for variations in race thinking 1 The Western race concept spread across the globe in the wake of imperial conquest gt blended with local traditional beliefs and prejudices to create new versions of race 2 Local variants of race tends to focus on demographic economic and political factors Prejudice Whites often try to avoid openly discussing race and that they frequently use quotcolor blindquot rhetoric that downplays the possibility of racism still playing a role in American life Racial prejudice has been taken from mass media portrayals of racial groups 0 Based on stereotypes gt minority groups are presented in roles that are de ned by negative or demanding characteristics 0 Newspapers television programming and movies use a method called content analysis looks for patterns in presence and meaning in order to study how racial groups appear in the media Social scientists try to observe behavior through 2 principal stages 0 Experiments and ethnographies quotReverse Racismquot White workers were often unwilling to make recommendations or referrals for black workers gt blacks got blue collarjobs bc of affirmative action policies Black and Latino families are more likely than white families to fall below the poverty line Household income gures may be misleading bc they do not take into account the number of people in a household whose incoe contributes to the total African Americans have been able to move into middle and upper middle class occupations from which they had previously been excluded Concentrated in the gov sector primary and secondary education social work and public administration Anti discriminatory laws were more easily enforced in public bureaucracies Unemployment rate for blacks has been double that of whites Asian Americans have highest rates of educational attainment in the country African American men account for 40 of prison population About 30 of Hispanics and 20 of African Americans lack a regular source of healthcare A century ago scholars would have attributed non whites pooere health outcomes to their natural physical inferiority Or to intellectual capacity Today sociologists dismiss biological explanations for rasons Do not consider races to be biologically determined groupings but rather socially invented ones 0 Intelligence would probably not be distributed across the human species following the same pattern that racial traits like skin color are Attempts to measure and distinguish racial Cultural Explanations Cultural model attributing distinct and unchanging beliefs norms and values to separate racial groups and hypothesizing that these xed cultures drove their members to certain behaviors Sundown towns prohibited the settlement or even the presence overnight of blacks Asians Jews US is a multicultural society 0 Something new linked to the contemporary era in which individuals have had new freedom to enter voluntarily into interracial relationships 0 Figures on interracial marriages do no include people who live together or have other intimate relationships 3 major waves of immigration 0 The frontier expansion 0 Ellis Island 0 Immigration and Nationality Act Chapter 11 Occupational sex segregation measures 0 Sex segregation decreased since 19705 0 Since 19805 sex segregation has declined more slowly Many people believe sex differences in behavior and preferences are quotnaturalquot caused by biological differences Hormones Anatomy 0 Brain structure Gender Socialization Gender is socially constructed through socialization Parents are important in socialization 0 Give children different aspirations dress them different give different clothes Peer groups are also important in socialization Mass media 0 Model looking women are typically played in romantic movies 0 Men are seen in powerful roles in the economy politics and athletics Re ects the social reality Affected by major institutions such as religion and government 0 Gender Differences Vary by Setting and Time 0 2 reasons why differences between men and women are socially constructed 1 Gender differences vary between different cultures and even between different situations within one society 2 Gender arrangements have changed over time o What people hear from others about whether their sex is better at something affects their con dence and even their actual performance 0 Gender differences uctuate depending on the social situation 0 Gender revolution Consist of ways in which girls and women have taken on activities and roles previously limited mostly to men Rising Women39s Employment and Education 0 Biggest change is the increase of women in the paid workforce 2 main reasons that women39s employment increased were economic 1 As wages increased during the 19605 and 1970s so did incentive for women a Many families that include a husband and wife are now dual earner families 2 Feminist movement encouraged laws and enforcement and gave some women a sense of entitlement to have a career and a fa Why do women get paid less than men Employers pay people more when they have more years of experience and women are more likely than men to have dropped out for a time to take care of children Women are concentrated in lower paying occupations Some employers discriminate against women when hiring in higher paying jobs leaving women no choice but to seek lower paying jobs 0 The impact on Men Norms of masculinity seem relatively unchanged in insisting hat married men are supposed to have a job When men aren39t employed couples more often divorce Men39s housework has increased a small amount Men didn39t enter female dominated occupations in large numbers for 2 reasons a The occupations pay less than male dominated occupations even when you compare the jobs requiring the same amount of education b Men don39t want to be ridiculed as being quotfemininequot when they take on a female dominated occupation Some men do take on the career for a sense of calling in a caring profession or if some life circumstance led them to that nontraditional role Men are still judged by their earnings 0 Changes in the US economy made it more dif cult for men to do as well as they did before 0 They face increasing competition from women who have the same education as them Often same sex siblings of homosexual individuals were also homosexual when they were identical twins Double standard is in play when women are called more harsh names than men like quotslutquot and quotwhorequot as apposed to men who are called quotplayerquot or quotman whore Gay rights movement started in the 1960s in New York City and San Francisco Dominated by white men A group called Queer Nation was formed in 1990 Highlighted the concerns of nonheterosexual persons of color lesbians bisexuals transgendered persons Defense of Marriage Act DOMA adopted by Congress in 1996 Said that for purposes of any federal bene ts that hinge on marriage marriage refers only to the legal union of one man with one women Under this right Gay people do not have the same right to pass property from one other upon death wo paying a federal estate tax Massachusetts was the rst state to legalize gay marriage Birth control pill allowed women to have sex delay marriage go to college and not fear pregnancy
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