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CORNELL / Psychology / PSYCH 1101 / How much of what we believe about the mind is true of all human beings

How much of what we believe about the mind is true of all human beings

How much of what we believe about the mind is true of all human beings

Description

School: Cornell University
Department: Psychology
Course: Introduction to Psychology
Professor: D pizarro
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Cultural and Psychology
Cost: 25
Name: 112116_CulturalPsychology__1_.pdf
Description: Happy Thanksgiving!
Uploaded: 11/22/2016
3 Pages 120 Views 1 Unlocks
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11.21.16- How Different Are We?


How much of what we believe about the mind is true of all human beings?



➔ Big Question: How much of what we believe about the mind is true of all human beings? How different are we across groups, cultures, and subcultures? ◆ Not true in one population, concludes its not universal

◆ Create a claim to falsify through studies

◆ Can the mind using limited population, but then the study can not be brought to broader scale due to the initial limits of the population

➔ W.E.I.R.D culture

◆ Western

◆ Educated

◆ Industrialized

◆ Rich

◆ Democratic

➔ What is Culture?


How different are we across groups, cultures, and subcultures?



◆ Systems of meaning to help interpret the world around us (human made) ◆ Shared set of concepts transmitted socially/ generationally

● Attitude If you want to learn more check out What is the 1st stage of gene expression?

● Values

● Beliefs

● Language

➔ Until you are exposed to another culture do you realize that you are experiencing one specific culture while other experience others unaware to you

◆ Not to be confused with race/ ethnicity

◆ Lots of subcultures

➔ Why Should Culture Make A Difference?

◆ Given what we’re all made of the same “stuff” and evolved similarly why would we have a difference?


Why should culture make a difference?



If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of persuasion in social psychology?

● Our “hardware” is flexible to be shaped by learning (brain and the mental processes)

● But at a group level, cultural influences shape our minds- gives us rules, priorities, goals

◆ Big categorization used to study culture: Collectivist (East Asian) v individualist cultures (America)

➔ Cultural Differences In

◆ Attention/ Perception

◆ Judgement

◆ Emotion

➔ 1. Perception: Muller-Lyer Illusion: Variability of error when separated by cultures

◆ Exposure to a certain kind of info makes you see similar cues a different way than others

◆ Holistic v Analytic Perception in East and West

● Japanese students were more likely to recall background and features of the scene ( not the 3 big fish)

● American students were more likely to attend to the focal parts of the pictures

◆ Holistic: look at the whole scene into account Don't forget about the age old question of What effect do external rewards have on intrinsic motivation?

◆ Analytic: Look at specific things relative to the scene

➔ Collectivist cultures attend to the status of the group rather than the individual (conform to the group)

➔ Individualist cultures attend to the status of the individual and wanting them to be different from everyone else

➔ 2. Judgement: Fundamental attribution error

◆ Dispositional v situational Attributions (Morris & Peng, 1994) ● Newspaper from America and China writes about people who has done similar crimes

◆ Explanations given for these crimes

● Dispositional: Americans were more likely to put the pressure on the individual We also discuss several other topics like What is meant by oxidation process?

● Situational: Chinese were more likely to put the pressure on the situation the person was going into and what led to it

➔ Moral Judgement: 5 Foundations

◆ Jonathan Haidt has proposed that there are 5 basic kinds of things people care about

◆ Harm/Care: people harming other (Western care more about ) ◆ Fairness/ Reciprocity: people getting what they deserve (Western cares more about: broad)

◆ Ingroup Loyalty: showing loyalty to people who are close to you ◆ Authority/Respect: are you disrespecting people you should be respected ◆ Purity/Sanctity: the actions you take to

➔ When you look within Western, you get group differences (liberal v conservative, poor v rich)

◆ Conservative are more likely to be disgusted ( Correlation between conservatism and disgust sensitivity)

➔ 3. Emotions

➔ Anger And the “Culture of Honor”

◆ Subcultural difference- The “culture of Honor”- do not seek kindly to insults and do things personally( revenge) and keeping the honor of your name and family name Don't forget about the age old question of How many joules are needed to change the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1?
Don't forget about the age old question of What do they say about good intentions?

◆ In response, Southerners displayed more anger, were more physiologically aroused, and gave stronger shocks to a confederate

➔ Emotional Display Rules

◆ Compared Japanese v American students who were watching a film depicting a disgusting surgical procedure

◆ With experiment, Japanese had a stoic face and American still made the same face

◆ Without experiment, both Japanese and American showed disgusts on their face

➔ Russians value negative emotions( which one gets repeated in the US; postive have happy ending’ in Russia: the grimm ones were repeated)

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