Chapter 7 Notes
∙ Persuasion: How people communicate in order to influence other people’s attitudes and behaviors.
o After WWII persuasion became a key focus in social psychology. Recently in 2008 the study of why and how people spend their money has also come up as a focus.
o Yale Communication Model: This was founded in the 1950s by researcher Carl Hovland and states that message acceptance, or persuasion of message has 3 factors.
1. The Communicator of the message.
∙ The person or organization who delivers the message is
known as the source. Attractiveness of the individual
has a persuasive impact on people, but so does
similarity. If the source is someone you can relate to you Don't forget about the age old question of What effect do external rewards have on intrinsic motivation?
will be more likely to purchase. The credibility of the
source is an important factor, too. People have to We also discuss several other topics like What happens when calcium increases?
believe the source holds authority. There is something We also discuss several other topics like Is cal state fullerton a community college?
called the sleeper effect which is when an initially non
credible source gains credibility in the individual’s eye
over time. This can be related to the peripheral route of
persuasion in that things about the source that are
persuasive are typically superficial.
2. The Content of the message.
∙ This can be visual or verbal. The first step is to decide
whether to attract or repel an audience. In psychology
this is termed valence (the attraction or aversion a
person has toward an idea). If the message is going to be
negative, it will probably be fear-based appeal. This is
basically giving a threat to modify behavior. Smoking is a
huge example. Commercials depict miserable conditions We also discuss several other topics like What is the kelvin scale named after?
in old age due to cigarettes. This is supposed to stop
younger people from smoking. When using this tactic, it
is best to use mild threats because if the threat is too
extreme people will have the “It won’t happen to me” mentality. It also helps if the fear-based appeal includes not just a threat, but also a solution so people are not overwhelmed.
∙ Messages can also have positive valence that modifies behavior. An example would be an image of a group of friends laughing and having fun getting into a cab, verses a mangled car to promote no drinking and driving. Positive valence techniques have better effect in
western cultures, while fear-based has a better effect in non-western cultures like Japan.
∙ How the message is presented matters, the length of the message matters, and the strength of the message matters. A message that includes both sides of the issue are more successful than a message with just the We also discuss several other topics like Name that longest chain with the appropriate alkane name.
reasons to get the product.
3. The Audience receiving the message. We also discuss several other topics like What controls the respiratory system?
∙ Audiences can be determined by demographic factors such as gender, age, or education. For example, older adults are more perceptible to emotional messages, or women are more likely to be persuaded in face to face contact.
∙ People with a higher need for cognition, who enjoy effortful thinking, are less likely to be persuaded without strong argument. People who do not enjoy pursuing deep thinking are easier and more gullible to persuade. ∙ Self-monitoring also effects the person being
persuaded. If the person is a high self-monitor, meaning that they adjust their behavior to fit the situation, then they are more likely to take the popular and superficial route that is accepted by society so as to fit in.
∙ The audiences focus matters. If the person is distracted, they might not have time to analyze the argument and just accept it, as in watching a short T.V. commercial.
∙ The mood of the person matters. If people are in a good mood, they want to stay in a good mood. This is why
commercials for laundry supplies use sunsets and
beaches to promote their product even though it is not relevant.
∙ Physical movements such as nodding your head up and down can enhance the persuasion of an argument.
∙ Cultural perceptions influence it as well. A thumbs up means a good thing in America, but a bad thing in the
Middle East. Language is another factor.
o The dual process model routes of persuasion:
▪ Central Route: This route is the analytical one that is most likely to last through time. The individual will thoroughly evaluate and listen to the options and the facts before being persuaded, but once they are persuaded it is harder to turn back due to the time spent thinking about the decision. An example would be choosing a hotel to book for a vacation. Using the central route the person will study different options online and use reliable sources to find the best rate and reviews. It is about the strength of the argument and the individual’s motivation to put forth effort to learn.
▪ Peripheral Route: This is the opposite of the central route. The individual will not evaluate the options or find the facts, but rather they will use external cues to decide. Using the same
example above, the individual would not study online reviews but rather just go with the first flashy picture that pops up on their screen regardless of price or review, or choose the cutest
name of hotel. This is persuasion based off of superficial means like what is pleasing to the eye. This is how people get taken advantage of when purchasing cars, or agreeing with the first argument they hear because they are not concerned with the credibility of the source.
o Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM): This proposes that an individual can either take the central or peripheral route to
processing a message. But this is impacted by of the cognitive ability and individual differences of the perceiver of the message. o Outcome Relevant Involvement: The importance of the message to the receiver whether economic or social. It is the relevance to the particular person. For example, a person swimming in debt with have high outcome relevance to debt consolidation, verses someone who doesn’t have the problem. If the outcome relevance is high, the person is more likely to use the central route. If the outcome relevance is low they are more likely to use the peripheral. o Robert Cialdini’s 6 Weapons of Influence:
▪ Reciprocation: Give and take. If someone gives us a favor, we feel indebted until we return the favor later on. In order to restore balance, if we receive a gift, we will then repay it. When animal organizations send you free stickers or returning address labels, it makes you more likely to subscribe to their cause. Example: Spend $20 and get 10% off your purchase.
▪ Commitment and Consistency: We avoid cognitive dissonance, so if we believe we are generous people we will act on it by giving to charities when asked. When people make a verbal commitment, or know someone is expecting them to
participate, they are more likely to do so. An example is having someone RSVP their spot to an occasion.
▪ Social Proof: Other people’s behavior influences our own. If there is a sign that says No Left Turns at an intersection but 3 cars in front of you turned left, you feel it is acceptable to turn left, too. Other people’s behavior can persuade us to think it is correct. “Find out what makes these jeans so popular”. In order to get people to flip off their light switches to conserve energy, simply handing out signs that say “the majority of your neighbors are saving energy” persuaded more households to switch off their light switches.
▪ Liking: The more a person likes you, the easier it will be to persuade them. Helpful and kind employees will sell more. Best Buy employs a greeter at the door to improve customer
impression. Using famous people to act as customers can get you to buy the item because you like the famous person.
▪ Authority: From youth we are taught to respect authority. If someone has a badge, they must then have the right to do
whatever they are doing. If someone is perceived to be in
authority, they are very likely to persuade. Authority figures are not just the obvious ones, but also organizations like Vogue that has esteemed credibility.
▪ Scarcity: If there is a limited amount of a desired item, people want it more because they feel special when they are the ones who have it. “Get them before they are gone!”
o 3 factors to Resist Persuasion:
▪ Forewarning: Being made aware that an attitude of yours might be changed. Knowing that when you pull up to a car lot the salesmen will bombard you is being forewarned against their persuasive tactics. This is to prepare you to say no so that you can foresee what is coming.
▪ Reactance: This is the boomerang effect. When your mom or dad tells you no, you are more likely to want to do it, maybe even more than you did at first. It is when individuals feel that their freedoms are being threatened, they stubbornly want to restore their freedoms. Example: Anti-drug campaigns
backfire, or the warning labels of PG-13 on movies makes kids younger than that want to watch the movie.
▪ Inoculation: This is defined as building up resistance for
unwanted persuasion. The methods begin with attacking the favored position or attitude with weak arguments, weak
enough to not change the attitude. The person then defends the weak arguments and gradually builds up to defending the stronger ones. This is used by lawyers to downplay the
defense, or used to prevent captured soldiers from siding with the enemy.
∙ Persuasion is not always a bad thing. It can definitely be used for things that benefit people like to quit smoking or get vaccinated for various illnesses. It is important to focus and be aware of what you are being persuaded of.