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UTC / Psychology / PSY 3310 / What is the meaning of persuasion in social psychology?

What is the meaning of persuasion in social psychology?

What is the meaning of persuasion in social psychology?


School: University of Tennessee - Chattanooga
Department: Psychology
Course: Social Psychology
Professor: David ross
Term: Fall 2016
Cost: 25
Name: Social Psychology Chapter 7 Notes
Description: These notes are just on chapter 7 from the book.
Uploaded: 11/23/2016
5 Pages 14 Views 2 Unlocks

Social Psychology

What is the meaning of persuasion in social psychology?

Chapter 7 Notes

∙ Persuasion: How people communicate in order to influence other people’s  attitudes and behaviors.  

o After WWII persuasion became a key focus in social psychology. Recently in 2008 the study of why and how people spend their  money has also come up as a focus.

o Yale Communication Model: This was founded in the 1950s by  researcher Carl Hovland and states that message acceptance, or  persuasion of message has 3 factors.

1. The Communicator of the message.

∙ The person or organization who delivers the message is  

known as the source. Attractiveness of the individual  

When does the yale communication model founded?

has a persuasive impact on people, but so does  

similarity. If the source is someone you can relate to you  Don't forget about the age old question of What effect do external rewards have on intrinsic motivation?

will be more likely to purchase. The credibility of the  

source is an important factor, too. People have to  We also discuss several other topics like What happens when calcium increases?

believe the source holds authority. There is something  We also discuss several other topics like Is cal state fullerton a community college?

called the sleeper effect which is when an initially non

credible source gains credibility in the individual’s eye  

over time. This can be related to the peripheral route of  

persuasion in that things about the source that are  

persuasive are typically superficial.

2. The Content of the message.

When is the content of the message?

∙ This can be visual or verbal. The first step is to decide  

whether to attract or repel an audience. In psychology  

this is termed valence (the attraction or aversion a  

person has toward an idea). If the message is going to be  

negative, it will probably be fear-based appeal. This is  

basically giving a threat to modify behavior. Smoking is a  

huge example. Commercials depict miserable conditions  We also discuss several other topics like What is the kelvin scale named after?

in old age due to cigarettes. This is supposed to stop  

younger people from smoking. When using this tactic, it  

is best to use mild threats because if the threat is too

extreme people will have the “It won’t happen to me” mentality. It also helps if the fear-based appeal includes  not just a threat, but also a solution so people are not  overwhelmed.

∙ Messages can also have positive valence that modifies behavior. An example would be an image of a group of  friends laughing and having fun getting into a cab, verses  a mangled car to promote no drinking and driving.  Positive valence techniques have better effect in  

western cultures, while fear-based has a better effect in  non-western cultures like Japan.

∙ How the message is presented matters, the length of the  message matters, and the strength of the message  matters. A message that includes both sides of the issue are more successful than a message with just the  We also discuss several other topics like Name that longest chain with the appropriate alkane name.

reasons to get the product.  

3. The Audience receiving the message.  We also discuss several other topics like What controls the respiratory system?

∙ Audiences can be determined by demographic factors  such as gender, age, or education. For example, older  adults are more perceptible to emotional messages, or  women are more likely to be persuaded in face to face  contact.

∙ People with a higher need for cognition, who enjoy  effortful thinking, are less likely to be persuaded without strong argument. People who do not enjoy pursuing deep thinking are easier and more gullible to persuade. ∙ Self-monitoring also effects the person being  

persuaded. If the person is a high self-monitor, meaning  that they adjust their behavior to fit the situation, then  they are more likely to take the popular and superficial  route that is accepted by society so as to fit in.

∙ The audiences focus matters. If the person is distracted,  they might not have time to analyze the argument and  just accept it, as in watching a short T.V. commercial.

∙ The mood of the person matters. If people are in a good  mood, they want to stay in a good mood. This is why  

commercials for laundry supplies use sunsets and  

beaches to promote their product even though it is not  relevant.

∙ Physical movements such as nodding your head up and  down can enhance the persuasion of an argument.

∙ Cultural perceptions influence it as well. A thumbs up  means a good thing in America, but a bad thing in the  

Middle East. Language is another factor.

o The dual process model routes of persuasion:

▪ Central Route: This route is the analytical one that is most  likely to last through time. The individual will thoroughly  evaluate and listen to the options and the facts before being  persuaded, but once they are persuaded it is harder to turn  back due to the time spent thinking about the decision. An  example would be choosing a hotel to book for a vacation.  Using the central route the person will study different options  online and use reliable sources to find the best rate and  reviews. It is about the strength of the argument and the  individual’s motivation to put forth effort to learn.

▪ Peripheral Route: This is the opposite of the central route. The  individual will not evaluate the options or find the facts, but  rather they will use external cues to decide. Using the same  

example above, the individual would not study online reviews  but rather just go with the first flashy picture that pops up on  their screen regardless of price or review, or choose the cutest  

name of hotel. This is persuasion based off of superficial  means like what is pleasing to the eye. This is how people get  taken advantage of when purchasing cars, or agreeing with the  first argument they hear because they are not concerned with  the credibility of the source.

o Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM): This proposes that an  individual can either take the central or peripheral route to

processing a message. But this is impacted by of the cognitive ability  and individual differences of the perceiver of the message. o Outcome Relevant Involvement: The importance of the message to  the receiver whether economic or social. It is the relevance to the  particular person. For example, a person swimming in debt with have  high outcome relevance to debt consolidation, verses someone who  doesn’t have the problem. If the outcome relevance is high, the  person is more likely to use the central route. If the outcome  relevance is low they are more likely to use the peripheral. o Robert Cialdini’s 6 Weapons of Influence:

▪ Reciprocation: Give and take. If someone gives us a favor, we  feel indebted until we return the favor later on. In order to  restore balance, if we receive a gift, we will then repay it.  When animal organizations send you free stickers or returning  address labels, it makes you more likely to subscribe to their  cause. Example: Spend $20 and get 10% off your purchase.

▪ Commitment and Consistency: We avoid cognitive dissonance, so if we believe we are generous people we will act on it by  giving to charities when asked. When people make a verbal  commitment, or know someone is expecting them to  

participate, they are more likely to do so. An example is having  someone RSVP their spot to an occasion.

▪ Social Proof: Other people’s behavior influences our own. If  there is a sign that says No Left Turns at an intersection but 3  cars in front of you turned left, you feel it is acceptable to turn  left, too. Other people’s behavior can persuade us to think it is  correct. “Find out what makes these jeans so popular”. In  order to get people to flip off their light switches to conserve  energy, simply handing out signs that say “the majority of your  neighbors are saving energy” persuaded more households to  switch off their light switches.

▪ Liking: The more a person likes you, the easier it will be to  persuade them. Helpful and kind employees will sell more.  Best Buy employs a greeter at the door to improve customer

impression. Using famous people to act as customers can get  you to buy the item because you like the famous person.

▪ Authority: From youth we are taught to respect authority. If  someone has a badge, they must then have the right to do  

whatever they are doing. If someone is perceived to be in  

authority, they are very likely to persuade. Authority figures  are not just the obvious ones, but also organizations like Vogue  that has esteemed credibility.

▪ Scarcity: If there is a limited amount of a desired item, people want it more because they feel special when they are the ones who have it. “Get them before they are gone!”

o 3 factors to Resist Persuasion:

▪ Forewarning: Being made aware that an attitude of yours  might be changed. Knowing that when you pull up to a car lot  the salesmen will bombard you is being forewarned against  their persuasive tactics. This is to prepare you to say no so that  you can foresee what is coming.

▪ Reactance: This is the boomerang effect. When your mom or  dad tells you no, you are more likely to want to do it, maybe  even more than you did at first. It is when individuals feel that  their freedoms are being threatened, they stubbornly want to  restore their freedoms. Example: Anti-drug campaigns  

backfire, or the warning labels of PG-13 on movies makes kids  younger than that want to watch the movie.

▪ Inoculation: This is defined as building up resistance for  

unwanted persuasion. The methods begin with attacking the  favored position or attitude with weak arguments, weak  

enough to not change the attitude. The person then defends  the weak arguments and gradually builds up to defending the  stronger ones. This is used by lawyers to downplay the  

defense, or used to prevent captured soldiers from siding with  the enemy.

∙ Persuasion is not always a bad thing. It can definitely be used for things that  benefit people like to quit smoking or get vaccinated for various illnesses. It  is important to focus and be aware of what you are being persuaded of.

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