Test 3 study guide
Test 3 study guide BIO 160
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This 33 page Study Guide was uploaded by Avi Fox on Tuesday April 7, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 160 at University of Miami taught by Dana Krempels in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 598 views. For similar materials see EVOLUTION & BIODIVRSITY in Biology at University of Miami.
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Know the meaningsignificance of the three domains and what types of organisms are included in each Bacteria prokaryotes no nucleus true bacteria peptidoglycan cell wall Archae archaeabacteria prokaryotes no nucleus Archaebacteria extremophiles backwards glycol cell wall unique to archaenns Euakrya Eukaryotes Know the basic cellular characteristics of organisms in all three Domains Cell walls organelles etc Archae can have no 1 or many unique agella Flagelllumconnected to their outermembrane they are cocci and baciullus Plasmid dna not part of the genome Ribosomal enzyems similar to humans Cytoplasm Cell wall NO chitin Single circular Chromosome Bacteria Unicellular circle DNA aggregate colonial some have division of labor cell wall peptidoglycan nucleoid region agella for taxis cytoplasmic membrane pili endospore plasmids give resistance chromosomes fimbrae similart pili but shorter gell capsule protects them from predators Eukaryotes cytoskeleton micrtublues agella made of 9 pairs of microtubules doublets and 2 central endomembrane system golgi endo reticulum vacuols lysomes peroxisomes nuclear envelope mitochondira enerry mitosis Know the three basic types of Archaeans and the main characteristics that define them 1 methanogens 2 halophiles 3 thermophiles Know the basic structure of a prokaryotic cell and the anatomical structures inside and around it Know what the following bacterial structures are Nucleoid wherer circular DNA is Ribosome gel capsule protet against predators cell wall made of peptidoglycan used for support and to maintain osmotic pressure fimbriae small extension used to create biofilms and stick to substrates pilus sex and conjugation plasma membrane transprt Understand that bacterial ribosomes are different from eukaryotic ribosomes Bacterial are 70s and Eukaryotic arw 805 Know the basic structure of the bacterial agellum and how it differs from a eukaryotic agellum made to spin and eukaryotics ones are made from tubules Know what an endospore is and its purpose stay encapsulated by thick wall and can survive drought and heat Know the meaningsignificance of binary fission 1 turns to 2 and there is no genetic recombination only mutations conjugation stick sex pili into other and replicates plasmid transformation take up plasmids from the environment transduction goes from one to aother through a virus phage horizontal gene transfer goes from one species to another via httpswwwyoutubecomwatchv7sZ5Nz8cfc httpswwwyoutubecomwatchvpXifkkaszA httpswwwyoutubecomwatchvEHTEFdSadXM Understand the importance of photosynthesis in the generation of the oxygen rich atmosphere photosynthetic cyanobacter created the oxygen rich atm we currently breath Understand the various types of symbioses and earth processes eg pathogenesis nitrogen cycle mutualisms etc in which prokaryotes participate Obligate mutalism both need each other to survive Photocooperation don t need each other but both benefit Comptetion both fight for a single resource Neutralism neither is affected Predation one kills and eats the other Parasitism one lives in the host doesn t kill the host immediatley Parasitoidsim lives within host and kills it when it metamorphoses into an adult Commensalism one benefits and the other isn t effected Amensalism one isn t affected but the other one is hurt penicillin inhibits growth and allelopathic trees inhibit growth Nitrogen cycle nitrogen fixing N2 NH4n02no3 denitrifying goes backwards Decomposers turn dead organics to inorganics Detiritovors eat dead organics Know the meaningsignificance of Gram staining used to identify bacteria use a Violet stain to stain the cell wall and its either gram positive Violet purple or gram negative pink Peptidoglycan makes up cell walls in bacteria and the thicker the wall the more color bacterial cell wall petidioglycan different types of taxis chemo photo Know the meaningsignificance of Aerobe 02 anaerobe obligate and facultative obligate needs fermentation Facultative uses whaterver is present photoautotroph use photosytnheis to make energy and 002 as carbon chemoheterotroph uses organics for carbon Sapbrobe breaks down organics for energy parasite uses living organics Understand the nature of bacteria as pathogens Know the meaningsignificance of opportunistic pathogen attacks when immune system is down bacteriostatic drugs inhibits growth of cell wall bacteriocidal drugs kills it straight out plasmid NOTE plasmids are found in bacteria but may also be found in certain eukaryotic organisms yeast some plants where they can be pathogenicIn bacteria they often carry genes for antibiotic resistance toxins etc that actually bene t the bacterium hosting the plasmid iatrogenic infection caused by person trying to treat the infection exotoxin secreted by the bacteria and released outside of the cell endotoxin released when bacteria die made on the inside the main mechanisms of action of antibiotics 1 Inhibit the enzyme involved in making cell walls 2 Interferes with DNA or RNA function and repair 3 Inteferes wth protein synthesis and ribosomal function 4 Disrupts the cell membrane Know the signi cance of the Nitrogen Cycle as well as the different types of bacteria that play roles in the cycle Understand the roles of nitrogen xer Denitri er Leguminous plants nitrogen fixers are in the nodules Decomposer organics to inorganics Detritivore breaks down dead organics Understand Koch39s Postulates what they mean and what they are used to determine How to tell if it causes diseases must be isolated from diseased individual must be grown in a pure sample must cause the disease in a healthy individual must be isolated from newly infected individual EUKARYOTES Recall what is meant by the Cambrian Explosion and adaptive radiation Know the synapomorphies that de ne each Domain as well as the general characteristics of each Recall the Autogenous infoldinginpocketing of external plasma membrane forming complex netowrok of membranes Endosymbiont Models of eukaryote origin englulfed a cell and it took hold inside Know the meaning of primary and first one it took in secondary endosymbiosis a primary product is engulfed which major taxa resulted from Secondary Endosymbiosis Understand the relationship between endosymbiosis and horizontal gene transfer Know the synapomorphies that de ne eukaryotes as a Domain as well as the more derived eukaryote features eg multicellularity hard body parts etc seen in some but not all eukaryotes Know the general characteristicssynapomorphies that de ne each monophyletic group of quotprotistsquot Protists unicellular colonialaggregate photoautotropht chemoheterotrophs or mixotrophs Earlieyest discovered was Architarchs Excavata has groove basal group 0 Giradia eukaryotic agellum reduced mitochondria no DNA 2 haploid nuclei no plastids not etc or enzyme for anerobe simple cytoskeleton pathogenic 0 Trich vaginosis oppurtunistics pathegon most common in industrialized PRIMITIVe sumpleisomorphies mean nothing Euglena mixotrphs what causes green pools 0 KInetoplastids chagas disease leishmonisiss sleeping sickness 0 Euglenozoans spiral or crystalline rods inside protein filamints agella disk shaped cristae Chromalveolata Aleveolata and Stramenopile Aveolata most complex protists Have aveola under plasma membrane used as a harpoon for prey Dino agellates red tide ciguatera Zooeanthealle create food for coral when they die so does the reef indicator species Apicomplexins Parasites that have these apicomplasts that are used to invade a hosthost specific parastire Cilliophoracilliates MOST COMPLEX OF ALL covered in cilia have a small micronucleus for reproduction and a large macronuclues for cell function Most diverse protists STRAMENOPILLA fuzzy agellum Diatoms silica shells glass boxes Golden alage Brown algae multicellular algae has a thallus made up of a hold fast stipe and blade Water molds Haptophytes unicellular algae produce calcium bicarbonate plated shell to protect from predators White cliffs of dover Rhizaria pseudopods facilitate movement buoyancy and prey capture Foraminifera calcium carbonate shells Radiolarria glass shells Archaeplastida Red algae and green plants 0 O O Rhodophyta sunapomorphies pigments Phycoerythrinred Phycocyaninblue Allophycoecyannins blue Found in cynabacteria suggesting symbiotic can live deep lack centriols and aggelum Unikonta animals and fungi 0 Amoebozoans entam0beas are cloesst to us Slime molds Choano aggelates closest protists to us similar to sponges Monophyletic ancestor and all the descendant Polyphyletic different ancestors paraphyletic taxa ancesteral species but not all the descendents Know the meaningsigni cance and types of organisms involved in red tides dinoglagellates ciguatera poisoning dino agellates geological formations such as the White Cliffs of Dover haptyophytes water molds trypanosomiasis African Sleeping Sickness kinetoplastids Malaria appicomplexins coccidiosis and the anatomical features that allow Apicomplexan cells such as coccidial parasites to penetrate host cells Choano agellate closest to animals Entamoeba parasitic ameobea in unikota slime mold amoebozoans Rhodophyta archaeplastids that show the appearance of pigments in plants and red algaea Know the meaningsignificance of unicellular aggregate colonial multicellular sexual vs asexual reproduction Understand the significance of silica glass and calcium carbonate as structural materials used by protists to manufacture tests shells F calcium bicarbonate and Radiolaria glass Which one requires more energy to precipitate Calcium What does this imply about protists that might use each How they can use energu FUNGI Recall the major groups of fungi their generalized life cycles and their evolutionary relationships to one another Chytridiomycota oldest fungi primitive characters are chtin cell walls agellated gamete free living saprobes or parasitic cytrids don t have chitin cell wall but a cellulose one Zygomycota not a thing anymore Ascomycota sac fungi named for sac like zygote fromed in meiosis 75 of all known Basidiomycota club fungi most recognized named for basdidium where inderfo meloses Glomeromycota Vital to the ecostym VAM has arbuscular and penetrates the plant and makes tree like glomercyota and a plant Ectomycrrrhizae doesn t penetrate using harting net quotDeuteromycotaquot we don t know where to put things Understand the generalized fungus life cycle and the ploidy of the various stages Know the meaningsigni cance of Mycelium body of funhi Thallus body of the fungo Hyphae threadlike structures that make it up fruiting body where sporangium and gametophyte are Dikaryotic has a nucli from both parents heterokaryotic unfused nuclei from different parents plasmogamy parents fuse together without fusing nuclei karyogamy nuceli fuse together and undergo mitosis Recall that the fungal cell wall like the arthropod exoskeleton and structures of other invertebrates but unlike plant cells contains chitin Review and understand the various types of symbiotic relationships in which fungi engage Haustorium fungal nutrient pathway for parasitic fungi Coenocytic many nuclei Septate different compartments Store glycogen Understand the role of fungi in the nitrogen cycle and nutrient cyclingKnow the basic anatomy and structure of endomycorhizzae VAM penetrate ectomycorrhizae sac or club and owering plants don t penetrate their associations with plants do for ecosystems What does each partner get out of the symbiosis What is a lichen Is it symbiotic In what way What does each partner get out of the relationship Lichens they are ANIMALIA FORM AND FUNCTIONUse the workshops on Animal Body Plans and Animal Form and Function to help with this Know the meaningsigni cance of true tissues 3 ectoderm endoderm mesoderm embryonic germ layers ectoderm outside layer epidermis endoderm inner layer epithelium and gi tract mesoderm separate the 2 muscles ingestive heterotroph ingests others to get food glycogen stores food organ systems know the basic characteristics of the animal organ systems in the notes integumentary circulartoy respiratory exrectory digestive muscular skeletal endocrine reproductive nervous immune lymphatic blastomere embryonic cells blastula hallow balls of cells gastrula has the 3 separate tissues is the start of tissue development blastopore blastocoel uid filled part archenteron primitive gut gastrulation invagination fo the blastula morphogenesis becoming a form diploblasty endo and ectoderm triploblast have all 3 Know the basic types of nitrogenous waste and the properties of each toxicity vs solubility energy expense to produce etc relative to the others Which types of animals produce which types of waste reptiles uric acid Mammals urea Fish ammonium Know the meaningsignificance of Metazoa all animals profierans radially symmetric x3 bilaterally symmteric Eumetazoa have at least 2 of the true tissues planes of symmetry radial vs bilateral symmetry pie cut vs mirror image asymmetry no symmetry cephalic vs caudal cephalic is head caudal is back oral vs aboral oral is front aboral is tail Longitudinal transverse side ways Sagittal median plane midsagittal etc Know the basic tissue types found in animals and their basic composition and function Know what characteristics make an animal an animal and which are unique to animals What is a Hox gene What does it do Know the meaningsignificance of Acoelomate has no internal body cabity completely filled by mesoderm Pseucocoelomate only the pariatel side is filled with mesoderm Coelom lined with mesoderm on both sides schizocoely vs enterocoely schizo forms enterocoley buds off the gut spiral vs radial cleavage offset by 45 degrees radial lined up determinate vs indeterminate cleavage and in which animals you39d find each of these Determinate all cells specialized by the beginning indeterminate it is totipotent longer Know the difference between protostomes DV deuterostomes VD and which major animal phyla belong to each lineage Check the phylogenetic tree if you39re not sure Know the meaningsignificance of Metamerism segmentation Tagmatization fusion of segmentation Somite body segment choano agellate ancestor chonaycytes collar cells gastrea living gastrula possible animal common ancestoer bauplan body plan ANIMALIA PROGRESSION OF COMPLEXITY Use the workshop on Animal Form and Function to help with this The items related to the workshop will appear on the exam Know the major planes of animal body symmetry and the types of animal body symmetry Know the major types of animal cells organs organ systems and their basic functions Know the common names and important characteristics organ systems natural history etc of each of the following taxa quotPoriferaquot polyphyletic 3 body forms Asconoid syconoid leuconoid 4 types of cells no true symmetry Chonanocytescollar cells move water pinacocytes surface covering porocytes barrel shapes ameobocytes scavenges for food and skeletal elements called spicules Inner layers separated by mesophyll gelatinous matrix Calcareacalcium carbonate Hexactinellida glass sponges deomspongia bath spongs coolagen fibers called sponging Opening called ostia water moves out osculum Placazo simplest of all helly like substance Cnidaria hydrozoa polyp and medua altemate man owars obelia hydra schyphozoa jelly fish medusa is the dominant anthozoa sea anemones corals polyps win Ctenophora Radiata comb jellies radially symmetrical no cnidocytes supensiton feeder Acoelomorpha Platyhelminthes at worms acoels could be most primitive bilateralians mesenchyme primitive gut syncytium pharen no C R or E systems ocellus light sensor no nerve ganglia or brain slight cephalization hermaphrodite have I D no ass Nsense organs chemoreciptors called auricles statocysts gravity sensors Turbellaria also known as planarians free living 0 Trematoda ukes complex reduced organ systems 0 Cestoda tapeworms consisting of a scolex head and proglottids segments with eggs and ovaries covered by a protective tegument reduced everything 0 Flame cells excretory system ANIMAL DIVERSITY Use the workshops on Animal Body Plans and Animal Form and Function to help with this The items related to the workshop will appear on the exam Know the major types of animal cells Organs organ systems and their basic functions Know the common names and important characteristics organ systems natural history etc of each of the following taxa Lophotrochozoans molluscs annalids segmented TRUE mesoderm Lophophorates what s a lophophore and what does it do feeding apparatus Annelida segmented womrs Hydrostatic skeleton nervous system dorsal closed circulatory system with several hearts larva has trochophore lBe able to tell the difference between a marine segmented worm polychaetes free swimming distinct cephalization parapodia paddle appendages an earthworm free living Forrosial burrow reduced cephalization small setae detrivores a leech have anticoagulant Hirudin species specficm coelm reduced 0 Mollusca HAM Have gonocoel surronds reproductive organ HAemocoel primary body cabity open circulatory system Visceral mass mantle secretes the shell muscular foot radula feeding Trochophore larva or veliger DDDPolyplacophora most similar to ham CHITONS marine benthic ocean oor 8 separate dorsal plates instead of one very muscular foot Bivalvia clams muscles oysters suspension feeders gill used for both respiration and feeding marine and freshwater Gastropoda slugs and snails torsion free living high defree of cephalization single shell spiral or conicall Cephalopoda octopus swuids and nautilus marine fast swimming predators camera very smart D HAM Ecdysozoans do ecdysis molt chitin cuticle o Nematoda round worm sinusoidal swimming extremely diverse parastitic or harmless elephatnisis trichinosis unsegmented Mollusks Know the meaningsigni cance of Headfoot Mantle makes the shell shell visceral mass guts and viscera haemocoel body cavity gonocoel surrounds gonocoel pericardium derived from coelom surronds the heart Be able to recognize examples from the main classes of mollusks above Nematoda Know the major body plan and characteristics of these ubiquitious worms that are the most numerous animals on the planet It will help if you practice locating the appearance of new characteristics on a phylogenetic tree as you did for the two workshops on animals you ve done so far If you understand where apomorphies appear on the tree you will be better able to identify them as synapomorphies that link taxonomic groups to a common ancestor Test 3 Lecture 11 First organisms Prokaryote before the nut no nucleus Eukaryote true nut has a nucleus Prokaryotes are in 2 Domains Domain Archaea the archaebacteria our closer relative thought to have come from the extremophiles Domain Bacteria true bacteria Eukarya and archae share a more common ancestor Earliest known fossils are closely related to archaebacteria Have no membrane bound organelles no nucleus But have internal membrane systems Domain Archae Nature s extremophiles Domain includes organisms that can withstand the most extreme environments of any living thing known Not based on common descent but placed into form taxa lump together because they have a similarity that re ects their metabolic strategies Doesn t represent physiological homologies Methanogens create methane releases the green house gas Thermophiles living in extremely hot environment like deepsea thermal vents sulfur hot springs Ribosomal RNA shows we are most related to the deepsea thermophiles Halophiles Achaeans living in extremely salty environment Archaeane Morphology DNA is single circular chromosome with single copy of genes haploid Genome size ranges from 500000 6million base pairs Some are shaped similar to bacteria spherical and rode shaped Cell wall is made of material unique to archaeas Flagella are composed of multiple proteins Flagellins Encoded by several genes unique to archaens tRNA s are unique Arechaen ribosomes are more similar to those of eukaryotes than to those of bacteria Cell membrane structure and composition unique to Archaeans Domain Bacteria true bacteria Beta taxonomy taxonomy concerned with arranging species into higher and lower taxa may never know true evolutionary relationships Structure and Function may be unicellular aggregateclumped together or colonialcooperation haploid 1000 genes more derived species amy form colonies with fivision of labor among cells May be categorized on the basis of shape shapes don t necessarily re ect phlyognetic relationships there can be convergence and adiversity of shapes in closely related bacteria Cocci round Bacilli Rod shaped Spirillae and spirochaetes helix Prefix staphyl clusters and strept bent Bacteria range in size from 15 micrometers consists of a single circular chromosome of double stranded DNA organized in the nucleoid region of the cell Plasmids small circular pieces of autonomously replicating DNA A plasmid usually contains only a few genes and isn t considered part of the bacterium s genome But it may give phenotypic traits like antibiotic resistance or the ability to produce toxins Salmonella and clostridium Gram Staining to identify bacteria use this diagnostic character the nature of the cell wall made of peptidoglycan that is present in most bacteria This is what determines if its gram positivedark positive have a very think external layer of peptidoglycan or negative pink because they don t stain have a thin layer of peptidoglycan sandwiched between 2 plasma membranes Pilus surface extension from a bacterial cell that may act asa bridge between bacteria for horizontal gene transfer or a means of attachment to a substrate or host cell many bacteria are motile using agellum made up of afellin protein unique to bacteria In prokaryotes move circularly Eukarya wave they glide taxis movement away from or towards stimuli gel capsule protective against predators Bacterial Reproduction Asexually through binary ssion Or sexually through conjugation through the pilus transformation uptake of bacterial genes from the environment or transduction insertion of bacterial genes by virus Antibiotics competition at the microscopic level that inhibit the growth of prokaryotic cells that are manufactured by plants fungi and by some bacteria Metabolic Diversity of prokaryotes Obligate anaerobe Obligate aerobe Facultative anaerobe can do either aerobic respiration or fermentation depending on the environmental conditions Photoautotrophs photosynthetic use C02 as carbon source use light as energy source Cyanobacteria Chemoautotrophs use C02 as carbon source use inorganic compound oxidation for energy H2 ammonia or irons ions Archaebacteria Photoheterotrophs photosynthetic use organic molecules as acarbon source use light as energy source Chemoheterotrophs get energy by breaking down organic compounds that have been made by some other organism Saprobe breaks down decaying organic matter for energy some fungi bacteria Parastie uses organic molecules from living tissue for energy How did it all begin Early hypotheses about the origin of bacterial metabolism suggested that the earliest cells used ATP from the quotprimordial soupquot Problem it39s not likely there was enough ATP out there to fuel those newly made cells ATP is highly unstable and won39t remain in solution for long More plausible is the idea that C02 was the first Carbon source and that early cells had plasma membrane anchored enzymes that could oxidize inorganic compounds to make the energy needed to drive synthesis of carbon compounds Ecological Importance of Prokaryotes Main decomposers in the biosphere take organic matter and breaks them back down to inorganic material Nitrogen cycle Nitrogenfixing bacteria living in nodules of legumes Pathogen diseasecausing agent Opportunistic pathogens go after imunocomprimised organisms Koch s Postulates to find out if bacteria is or is not pathogenic or beneficial 1 Must be isolated from a diseased individual 2 Must be grown in pure culture from that sample 3 It must cause the disease in a healthy individual when introduced from that culture 4 It must be isolated from the newly infected individual Some are opportunistic invade your tissues have exotoxins secreted into the medium where the bacteria lives endotoxins part of the plasma membrane Iatrogenic infection caused by the one treating Bacteriostatic drug that inhibits growth of bacterial culture Bacteriocidal drug that kills bacteria outright Lecture 12 Eukarya Unifying features Cytoskeleton consists of tubulin based microtubules and actin based microfilaments Flagella shortened version Cilia constructed of an axoneme of 9 peripheral microtubular doublets and 2 central microtubules Endomembrane system endoplasmic reticulum golgi bodies cauoles lysosomes peroxisomes and the nuclear envelope Primary genome of each cell consists of multiple linear chromosomes contained Within a membrane bound nucleus Chromosomes segregate during somatic grown mitosis Mitochondria energytransducing organelles bounded by 2 membranes Unique SOS ribosomes Each consists of 4 molecules of RNA 408 small and 608 large Protists Most are unicellular can aggregate be colonial or colonial With a cellular division of labormost complex Live in both terrestrial and aquatic habitats Photoautrophs chemoheterotrophs mixotrophs Sexually or asexually Detritovorous feed on dead organic matter and turn it into smaller organic molecules Earliest Eukaryotes were protists Excavta no electon transport chain mitochondria are reduced and have no DNA in anaerobic environments has typical agella simple cytoskeleton contains 2 haploid nuclei suggest incomplete mitosis pathogenic Cause chaga s disease leishmaniasis sleeping sickness Chromalveolate Alveolata and Stramenopila Most complex Alveolata have Alveoli under plasma membrane that is highly complex in function and anatomy uses it to harpoon prey Dino agellates red tide take up oxygen and produce neurotoxins Ciguatera Toxicity smaller fish contaminated are eaten by bigger and so on until it reaches the top level Where it can really hurt Zooxanthellae provide food for corals When they die the corals die soon after Apicomplexans parasites that have a modified golgi apparatus Which facilitates invasion of a host cell Ciliates among the most complex of all protists all have cilli Stramenopila diatoms golden algae Brown algae kelp water molds Haptophytes cercozoa Foraminifra Calcium carbonate shell warm water Radiolaria glass shell Archaeplastida red algae and green plants Unikonta this clade includes several groups of protists fungi and animalia Amoebas closely related to them Slime molds Choanoflagellates Lecture 13 Fungi Most important Decomposers in the biosphere eukaryotic decomposers Mycelium entire body of the fungus Hyphae threadlike structure of which the mycelium is composed Thallus body mycelium Spore haploid prpagule produced by meiosis Sporangium structure Within which spores are produces either sexually or asexually Only place Where its diploid not male and female but 2 different types and Heterotrophs secrete digestive enzymes onto their nutrient source and absorb the product Spores J Hagplloid n Heteroka ryurtic unfLJEEdl nuclei from different Invariants Diiplloiri 2n Key 39 r 11mm f39quot irt9 iasml 39 EATFIYQGAMY 39 fifu i nuclei r 7 Emma GE SEXUAL U ASEKUAL HEPHDDUCTIDM HEPHouuchoN 39 quot M Ellioswg and D Spore5 II in I nl39 ki 39 l a 39 Ii Iquot 39iliu m quot 39 I39u 39u main structural support in the cell wall is chitin Chytrids have cellulose only group no true tissues just mass composed of hyphae use Haustorium to penetrate the plant Coenocytic shared cytoplasm along all the nuceli Septate Store their main carb as glycogen like animals Mold fast growing fungal hypahe Yeast unicellular in a liquid or moist environment Earlist taxa based off how they reproduced Myc fungus Chytridiomycota oldest fungi mostly aquatic suggesting they started in water some are free living others are parasites have chitin in cell walls and are the only ones with cellulose Only one that has agella in any of ther stages Zoospores Ascomycota Sac Fungi Edible group ASC sac Named for reproductive structures called ascus 75 of all know fungi fused hyphae and then the nuclei fuse to undergo meiosis and produce haploid spores Ascus microscopic pouch where zygotes undergo meiosis to become spores Basidio clubmyctoa The Club Fungi Most recognized fungi and most commonly eaten by us Named for the microscopic structure where zygotes unger meiosis to becomes spores basidio the basidium homologous to ascus 4 spores are formed on the end GLomermycota vital to ecosystems Without which we wouldn t exist Mycorrhizaeform fungus roots Symbiotic relationship between a fungus and a plant root Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizae VAM association between a glomeromycete and a plant Hyphae go into the roots of plant creating a nutrional bridge between the two look like little trees Vesicles are Ectomycorrhizae association between asco or basidiomycete and a conifer or owering plant Grow into cortex of cells and wrap around them Doesn t penetrate Obligate mutualism plants cant live without them Truf es Symbiotic Fungi Deuteromycota place the fungi where we don t know where they fit Predatory fungi Arthrobotrys nabs nematodes and other small prey Prey Fungi yeast fungus in cheese beer Parasitic fungi Ascomycete parasitoids infect arthropods Dermatophytes infect humans Aspergillis black red mold Histoplasma capsulatum a respiratory pathogen causing histoplasmosis found in bird or bad droppings Dutch Elm Disease sac fungi spread by a bark beetle that attacks American Elms that cant develop resistance to it Mycotoxins fungal toxins effect everyone ergot resting stage of fungus some produce very toxic alkaloids that can cause nervous system damage muscle contraction necrosis hallucination Chytrid fungus bactrachochytrium dendrobatidid implicated in global extinction of amphibians MUTUALISTIC FUNGI Lichens symbiotic association between a fungus and a photoautotroph Can be everywhere but most notably in harsh climates Fungus provides habitat for the autotroph absorb nutrients directly from the atmosphere SO if they are living then they are a good indicator of good air quality Vital primary producers in the tundra Used to make litmus paper LECTURE 14 ANIMALS Multicellular with true tissues No cells walls Ingestive heterotroph Energy storage long term as fat short term as glycogen quotanimal starchquot Unlike plants and fungi cells lack walls external to plasma membrane Unique to animals The Nervous System Unique to animals The Muscular System Unique to animals HOX Genes plants have analogous types of genes Primitively all animals reproduce sexually though a few are secondarily parthenogenic Few reproduce asexually Animals have a characteristic embryonic development sequence the zygote undergoes a series of cell divisions known as CLEAVAGES 1 Multiple cleavages result in a primitively hollow ball of cells known as a blastula In more derived animals the blastula may not be hollow or ball shaped 2 The blastula undergoes a process known as invagination to produce a gastrula 3 The gastrula undergoes morphogenesis literally quotorigin of formquot to become a larva 4 The larva undergoes a process known as metamorphosis to become an adult In more primitive animals this process is external to a parent organism In more derived species this process may take place within an egg or within the body of the female parent Develop more and more complex go from radial to bilateral Tissues simple and complex Body symmetry radial bilateral Internal body cavity in humans its all the space in between the skin and the intestines where all the organs are Embryonic development and morphogenesis Organs and organ systems Integumentary systemskin protects afainst mechanical injury infection desiccation Digestive system food processing including the mouth pharynx esophagus stomachcrop intestine anus Nervous system rapid coordination of body activities response to environmental stimuli Muscular system movement Reproductive system Excretory system removal of nitrogenous waste from the body Fish usually discrete waste as ammonia because they have water to use Terrestrial animals have to be more conservative of water and repackage ammonia as Urea Reptikes that have even less package nitrogenous waste as uric acid it takes more energy but needs less water to ush it out Skeletal system structural support muscle attachment in later animals Circulatory system internal distribution of materials Respiratory system gas exchange Immune and lymphatic systems body defense against pathogens and cancer Endocrine system slower coordination of body activites response to environmental stimuli releases hormones Metzoa All animals are metazoans Pro erans sponges Radially symmetrical animals cnidarian ctenophore placozoa Bilaterally symmetrical animals The second 2 groups are the Eumetazoatrue tissues that originate from at least 2 embryonic germ layers Endoderm Ectoderm Mesoderm came later creating different organ systems Porifera Sponges Form taxon don t necessarily have an evolutionary relationship but class them there for now until we figure it out ASC sac 3 levels of folding Asconoid Syconoid Leuconoid most complex Water comes in the Ostia and leaves through the Osculum Sponge Characteristics no true tissues no true plane of symmetry made up pf 4 types of cooperative cells Chpanocytes collar cells set up the water current via agellum Porocytes barrel shaped cells from the incurrent pores Pinacocytes form the surface covering not a true skin or epithelium Amoebocytes roving scavenger cells that participate in feeding and in secreting the skeletal elements called spicules can be made of calcium carbonate silica protein Mesophyll gelatinous protein matrix that separate outer pinacoderm and inner choanoderm Most cells remain totipotentcan become any type of cells 3 main groups of sponges Calcarea make spicules of calcium carbonate Hexactinellida glass sponges make spicules of silicon dioxide glass Demospongiae bath sponges make spicules of silicon dioxide and also have skeletal framework of collagen fibers arranged in a network Spongin 95 of sponges Eumetazoa true animals Cells are specialized and interdependent Cells are coordinated I function and exhibit strong division of labor There is true body symmetry Radial symmetry no true head have an oral end and aboral end Bilateral symmetry have a head end anterior cephalic End codol or posterior tissues develop through gestation and eventually give rise to the organs and organ system cells of an animal embryo are called Blastomeres Diplobastic only have ectoderm and endoderm radially symmetric Triploblastic endoderm ectoderm mesoderm all embryonic germtissue Develop into adult tissues Epithelial tissue sheet of cells that cover an internal or external surface Simple or stratified T311135 mi Epitheium 2 mini 7 E a mung r Q 1 3 r 7 s w TrauEIlluual ampLE 3 r equamue Elma Ila cubmid an Connective tissue diverse tissues that serve various binding and structural functions made up of cells connective fibers and a matriX uid or gel in which its imbedded Loose connective tissue forms the matrix of organs and soft tissue dense connective tissue tendons ligaments bone cartilage Muscle tissue Skeletal striated muscle under voluntary control Cardiac striated muscle primarily involuntary control Smooth muscle involuntary control Peristalsis the contraction of your smooth organs Nervous tissue Neuronscells that conduct electricalnervous impulses Glial cells insulation and support of neurons Archenteron is the primitive gut need to know the blastopore 3 basic body plans based off of Body cavity is between he ectoderm and endoderm Acoelomates no body cavity Pseudocoelomate internal body cavity lined with mesoderm only on parietal surface known as a pseuodoelom pseudocoel Parietal wall on the outside that gets surrounded by mesoderm Buds off of blastocoel Coelomate internal body cavity lined with mesoderm on both visceral and parietal surfaces and is known as a coelom Protostomes Blastopore becomes the mouth Second opening becomes the anus Coelom surrounded by mesoderm and formed by Schizocoely mesoderm Spiral determinate cleavage at the 4 8cell divisions Offsets by 45 degrees Determinate cleavageEach cell is set from very early and taking one away Circulatory system primarily dorsal nervous system ventral Deuterostomes Blastopore becomes the anus Coelom formed via a pinching off of the gutEnterocoely gut pinches off buds of mesoderm and form around it Radial indeterminate cleavage stay totipotent much later so cells can be taken away and it at 4l8 cell division Cicrulatorys system ventral nervous system dorsal Metamerism segmented We have remnants from segmentation blocks of segmented muscles6packs vertebrae More derived animal lineages show segmentation each segment called metamere or somite Tagmatization the developmental fusion of body segments into functionally distinct regions known as Tagmata EX Division of an arthropod body into the head thorax and abdomen each is developed via fusion of embryonic metameres As evolution preceded some animals that had segmented ancestors lost it Cephalization Bilaterally symmetrical animals have an advantageous anatomical feature Cephalization the presence of a cephalon head at the front of the body where the sense organs are concentrated Head enters environment first and responds to environmental stimuli and reacts to it Mouth is located on the head makes food gathering more efficient Polarization along the anteroposterior head to tail axis is shown as a gradient of various activities along the length of the body Sensing at the head and reproduction happening closer to the tail end Animals are believed to share most recent common ancestor with the primitive protists known as choano agellates A colonial choano agellate might have developed into a protoanimal that resembled a gastrula gastrea Mutticellularity cilia agella radial symmetry simple gut diploblasty A more derived organism probably ancestral to bilaterians was a attened wormlike creature only slightly more complex than the gastrea Acoela simplest of all eumetazoans and are considered basal oldest one most ancestral to them Bauplan structural plan Lecture 15 Animal diversity I rst 4 billion years earth was populated initially only by prokaryotic organisms and later by simple metazoan life forms known as the Precambrian period The Cambrian explosion 540 million yrs ago diversity of marine animals suddenly expanded dramatically Not a mystery but amazing Adaptive radiation rapid diversification of life forms from a single acestor most species from them are now extinct molecular clock suggests that the last common ancestor of anamalia and fungi existed about a billion years ago the last common ancestor of all aniamls existed 800675 million years ago Fossil evidence only goes back 550 million year Eumetazoan diversity I Radially symmetrical animals diploblastic organisms the simplest of modern animals True plane of symmetry True tissues Ectoderm becomes the epidermis in the adult Endoderm becomes the gastrodermis in the adult lining the gut Mesogloea gelatinous layer between the 2 layers When it has cellular components its known as Mesenchyme Placozoa simplest of all animals They are jelly like plate of interdependent cells exhibiting the beginnings of radial symmetry Cnidaria 4 major clades early jelly sh Diploblastic endoderm and ectoderm Radial symmetry nonmobile No coelom or other body cavity only have a simple gut Primary body axis is oral aboral nor head or tail Dimorphic alternating forms of polyp asexually reproducing feeding form and the Medusa sexually reproductive form Have Cnidoblasts contain stinging capsule Nematocyst Larva is a ciliated gastrula called planula simplest of animal embryo just settles on a substrate and develops into polyps 1 Hydrozoans polyp and medusa phases alternate Hydra obelia physalia portugese man 0 war colony of organisms tentacles can be 30 ft long 2 Scyphozoans medusa is the dominant phase polyp is reduced True jelly fish 3 Anthozoans ower animal seas anemones corals sea pens Polyp is dominant stage medusa is reduced or absent Ctenophora comb jellies Radially symmetrical Diploblastic Mouth no anus No cnidocytes The comb jellies are so named because of paired rows of cilia along the axis of their bodies that beat in waves to propel the animal through the water Suspension feeders pair of long sticky tentacles that they drape out into the water to capture microscopic plankton and detritus Tissues are colorless and translucent with the same refractive index as water 11 Bilateral The bilaterally symmetrical animals are a vast assemblage of animals that exhibit in longitudinal section Acoela primitive bilaterians we see origin of true bilateral symmetry and cephalization more complex true tissue ectoderm mesenchyme Primordial gut precursor true intestine must be lined with epithelial cells Synctium ingestive structure that creates vacuoles around ingested food Short pharynx leading to the syncytium No circulatory respiratory or excretory systems No nerve ganglia or brain like structure Cephalization vague slightly more nervous tissue at one end Only sense organs are Satocysts gravity detectors and sometime light dectecting Ocellus Hermaphroditic but no gonads produce both eggs and sperm from mesenchymal cells Platyhelimith atworms Turbellaria most primitive free living non parasitic triploblastic atworms can regenerate if cut correctly planarians Most complex and most primitive Trematoda ukes all species are parasitic more derived than turbellaria reduced sensory organs Definitive host hosts the adult Intermediate host has the juveniles Cestoda tapeworms no eyes or brain Very derived hermaphroditic Each segment is a reproductive organ filled with eggs Platyheliminth Bauplanbody plan Integumentary system have an epidermis and a external tegument a protective covering formed by nonciliated cytoplasmic extensions of mesenchymal cells Digestive system simple gut Without an anus reduced in trematoda and completely lost in Cestodes Nervous system the turbellarians are very well developed Trematodes are reduced lost in cestodes Sense organs 0 Chemoreceptorsz aplike extensions of the head called auricles 0 Photoreceptors are ocelli O Statocysts gravity sensing cells near the cerebral ganglion Muscular system well developed in turbellarians and ukes vestigial in cestodes have enough muscle to have segments move around Reproductive systems all are hermaphroditic Excretory system simple tubular protonephridial system composed of anucleate ame cells look like a ame when they move attached to collecting tubules concentrate nitrogenous waste No skeletal circulatory respiratory immune lymphatic or endocrine systems Turbellaria Planarians freeliving atworms Gastrauascular 7 vc vity quot Gaing Iia VIE ntrall E r39ds Trematodathe ukes Entirely parasitic and often have complex life cycles Their sensory systems and other organ systems are reduced as compared to the free living planarians Parasitology Definitive host organism in which the adult parasite resides Intermediate host organism in which various larvaldevelopmental stages of the parasite exists until they are passed to the definitive host and metamorphose into the adult Transmission Horizontal from one individual to another via contact Vertical from parent to child at or before birth From generation to generation Cestoda The Tapeworms The tapeworms are entirely parasitic and have the most reduced organ systems of all the atworms Nervous system is vestigial and digestive system is secondarily lost Transport of nutrients oxygen and waste takes place across the integument The head of the animal is the scolex from which sprout segments called proglottids Each early proglottid contains both ovaries and testes tapeworms are hermaphroditic and older proglottids contain hundreds of eggs which are shed with the host39s feces v with gland smile g Sucker WEBER immature proglottid anus Herriam Wb eg LAST one test 3 Lecture 16 Bilateria monophyletic groups Lophotrochozoa Ecdysozoa Deuterostomia I Lophotrochozoa spiral cleavage and active locomotion Molluscs and annelids earth worms Lophotrochozoan Bauplan Bilateral symmetry TRUE triploblasty 1 Ectoderm 2 Endoderm 3 Mesoderm True organs and organ systems 1 Integumentary system Digestive system Nervous system Muscular system Reproductive system Excretory system 7 Circulatory system Respiratory system most phyla GUIBUJN Lophophore is a characteristic feeding organ that can be best described as a ring of tentacles but it is often horseshoeshaped or coiled They are hollow cavities that are the second of the three divisions of the coelom in the entire body Phoronida horseshoe worms Bryozoa moss animals Brachiopoda the lamp shells A typicalquot Trachonhore Larva Apic al tuft Apia al org n NE we Eye5 pot Stamens h P rusth rot h Mouth lfirjod gm ue M eta I ran h l Fte Eti he 7 P rotaneg h n 1 la Anal vesicle 39NEUFDIFDG h An us Tellot FD Glh Mollusca mollusks Annelida the segmented worms Nemertea the ribbon worms Sipuncula Peanut worms Entoprocta many weird and wormlike creatures Pogonophora deepsea tube worms A Annelids each segment has a set of organs Typical protostome coelomate developmental characters Metamerism re ected in external and internal anatomy Coelom serving as large uidfilled hydrostatic skeleton consists of closed or partly closed uid filled chambers with exible muscular walls Internal pressures generated by muscle contractions allow movement with the muscles working against the uid pressure as vertebrate muscles work against bone The uid filled chambers also maintain the shape of the animal Welldeveloped nervous system with a cephalic ganglion and ventral ganglionated nerve cord in each segment Dorsal closed circulatory system have the blood closed at all times within vessels of different size and wall thickness with several hearts Appendages present on each body segment even if simply bristles Metanephridia or protonephridia serves as excretory system multicellular not kidney yet Larva a characteristic from called a trochopore Diversity of Annelids used to have been just 3 groups the taxon has since been diVided regrouped and rediVided many times Polychaetes Marine segmented worms that can either be free swimming or sedentary have distinct cephalization with complex sense organs paddle like appendages parapodia Oligochaetes earthworms and their allies free living freshwater or terrestrial usually fossorialburrowing reduced cephalization with reduced sense organs small setae bristles on each segment aid in locomotion through substrate important detritivores Hirudinealeeches free living predatorsectoparasites coelom very reduced body wall muscular salivary secretion hirudin used as anticoagulant many leeches are species specific and many wont feed on a human form a clade with the earthworms Protostome is the primitive condition Most primitive Cnidarians only have gut and mouth so no anus blastopore becomes mouth Next derived is blastopore becoming anus radially symmetrical group as outgroup for all bilaterally symmetrical B Mollusks ancestor HAM hypothetical ancestral mollusk Cuel nm y Gerunds Nephrld hum 1 Heart 5 39 aquot 9 ETEI I IEHfjh Shell 39 If Hadu39la 3 a g rquot Esophagus New Inmmine Have a mantle secretes the shell Foot Visceral mass in the shell organs All living Mollusks have 0 Typical protostome coelomate characters 0 Coelom reduced to a vestigial gonocoel surrounding reproductive organs amp a few other structures 0 A haemocoelblood cavity not a ceolem as the primary body cavity 0 An open circulatory system oxygen comes through gills and then follows through to the haemocoel but not very inefficient 0 Viscera guts all organs concentrated in a visceral mass location of haemocoel 0 a thick epidermalcuticular layer of skin called the mantle which secretes the shell 0 Mantle secretes the sheel 0 large welldefined muscular foot 0 buccal mouth opening with a rasplike radula feeding structure 0 large complex metanephridia serving as excretory system 0 Primitive forms have a terminal trochophore larva 0 derived forms the trochophore develops into a more complex veliger larva before metamorphosing into the adult form Polyplacophora Chitons have 8 plates that are like the plated shell most similar to ham all are marine Benthic living on the bottom substrate such as rocks coral Have an extremely muscular foot that keeps them anchored in spite of wave actlon Gastropoda slugs and snails Gastropod Free living not parasitic Marine freshwater and terrestrial species High degree of cephalization very distinct head are with highly developed sense organs Torsion the body twists around so the anus dumps over the head Detorision body twists forward and then back again Single shell often spiral or conical Cone shell really venomous harpoon radula with neurotoxin that will kill you Bivalvia clams oysters and mussels bivalves enclose whole body and its composed of 2 with a hinge Both marine and freshwater species Characterized by hinged shell enclosing the body entirely Gill used for both respiration and feeding Suspension filter feeders Brachiopods NOT BIVALVIA superficial convergent evolution have lophophore and don t look like clams when they are open Cephalopoda the chambered nautilus squids and octopus Exclusively marine Fast swimming predators Camera eye is analogous to the vertebrate eye and forms complex color images like our own rods and cones are backwards Comparatively intelligent octopus are able to solve problems Both annelids and Mollusks share the trochophore larva at some stage of development In mollusks the trochophore goes one step further and becomes a veliger II Ecdysozoasecretes enzyme that melts the connection to the chitin and then they go out Edcysis shedding and replacing the external cuticle as the animal grows The cuticle contains chitin polysaccharide that protects the animal and can be used as structural support Priapulida the penis worms priapus the state of an erect penis using molecular techniques found that these develop like deuterostomes which shows that the early animals might not have been the only way and might not be a good monophyletic group Nematomorpha the horsehair worms all are arthropod parasitoids Nematoda round worms Onychorphora velvet worms Tarigrada the water bears Arthropoda joint legged animals Nematode roundworms 984 cells at adulthood model for the invertebrate Unsegmented Pseudocoelomate Simple excretory system to remove nitrogenous waste No circulatory or respiratory system all goes through skin Only Longitudinal muscles has sinusoidal swimming motion Most abundant on earth and extremely diverse Parasites Pinworms Trichinosis causing cysts in connective tissues elephantiasis canine heartworms Most are not only harmless they are beneficial members of soil communities
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