Case Study Houses Outgrowth of modern, inexpensive, and offtheshelf industrial materials (for construction) for middleincome people. No basement, slab on grey, light iron frame. Builds on impossible lots, such as elevated on a hill side. Examples: Stall House and Eames House.
Levittown housed near freeways, shopping centers, and work; and affordable. Suggesting a safe neighborhood communities. Houses in the suburbs that were inexpensive, good for soldiers coming back from the war.
G.I. Bill gives the soldiers the opportunity to go to school, government gives them loans for a mortgage (allows them to buy homes in the suburbs, and the cars have installment plans) New Urbanism an urban design movement that created walkable neighborhoods for a large range of housing in the early 1980s. It focused on creating a sense of community and promoting ecological practices, drawing from historical patterns. Developed from the Seaside project.
Seaside Florida; one of the first cities design according to the principles of New Urbanism. Planned by Duany and PlaterZyberk with the architecture based on local building traditions. They created detailed design guidelines without imposing a specific architectural style. PruittIgoe in St. Louis, designed by Yamasaki. Funds ran out and the parks and outside bathrooms didn’t get build, leaving the space between concrete slabs desolate. Gets demolished because of several design flaws making it hazardous and undesirable to live in. Became known for its failure in urban and public planning.
Bigbox large industrial buildings that maintain the simple geometric form of a box. Logo building a building with a sign on it to explain the purpose of the structure, such as Venturi’s works
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Septic tank an underground tank for sewage to be collected and decomposed before draining into a leaching field.
Geodesic dome A gridlike structure in the form of a dome, composed of only small, linear elements (mostly held in tension). Most of Fuller’s projects were geodesic domes made of light, straight structural members. If you want to learn more check out What are the rules for reaction mechanism?
‘insideout’ building a building where the services (such as ducts and lifts) are on the exterior of the building to maximize the interior space. An example of this would be the Pompidou Center designed by Piano and Rogers.
“Decorated shed” a building with a structure of what the purpose for that building is meant to be (like having a sign “Dinner” in front of a restaurant).
‘Geode’ unassuming exterior and bright interiors. Example: Moore’s New Haven and Connecticut houses.
Saddlebag space small, open spaces between buildings If you want to learn more check out Is cultural variability overrated?
Served/servant spaces Served spaces are main areas such as living rooms and bedrooms, while servant spaces are secondary areas such as kitchens, bathrooms, and stairs. Brasilia Rio de Genaro no place to expand so Brasilia is founded in the middle of nowhere (they cut down the forest surrounding it). Slab buildings (all similar structure), apartment/residential buildings are separated from the government buildings so it takes a while to travel. Over time it changes, with new varieties of buildings and more greenery.
Chandigarh in India, they wanted it to be less colonial. Corbusier focused on the capital complex, city laid on a grid. He does the parliament building. Made of concrete by hand creating a patchwork design. Cross ventilation. Brie solei and directional piers. The modular proportions. Pritzker Prize (Hyatt Foundation) an annual reward of $100,000 to a living architect(s) whose project reflects talent, vision, and commitment that “creates consistent and significant contributions to humanity and the built environment through the art of architecture.” The first architect to win the award was Philip Johnson in 1979; others were Barragan, Stirling, Pei, Meier, Tange, Gehry, Hadid, and many others. We also discuss several other topics like What are the fundamental political concepts?
Corduroy concrete textured concrete
Curtain wall it is an outer covering of a building that are nonstructural and meant mainly to keep the weather out. It can be made from a lightweight material and does not have a dead load weight from the building.
Critical regionalism counters the International Style’s lack of identity and the individualism of Postmodern architecture. It intends to mediate between local and global styles of architecture; using modern tradition along with geographical and cultural context.
Eclectic it is a term that defines the use and influence of multiple different style elements throughout history in a single work.
Paradigm a set of concepts that contributes to a certain field. Utopia / dystopia Utopia is an imagined society with idealized and near perfect qualities while dystopia is the completely opposite.
NY Five part of the “whites”, a group of New York City architects: Eisenman, Graves, Gawathmey, Hejduk, and Meier If you want to learn more check out What causes one side of the water molecule to be more positive or negative than the other side?
“Whites” Presents projects more than constructing. Abstract; not program or site based designs. Focused on the modernist style of architecture. If you want to learn more check out Why do protestants not have saints?
“Greys” a group of architects which involved Giurgola, Greenberg, Moore, Robertson, and Stern; they contrasted the “whites”. 1970’s; barn construction, regional designs. They disliked the modernist style because they saw it as unworkable buildings indifferent to the site and users.
Sun City only for 65+ years old. A community for the elderly and retirees. Built in the 1960s, developed by Webb
Rio Salado Project an environmental land plan in Tempe, Arizona started in 1989. It channeled the river to create a continuous body of water between the north and south shores. In 1995, a mile long bike path was constructed which features public art
Hoover Dam a concrete dam built in 19311936 (during the Great Depression). It is intended to control floods, regulate and store water, and produce hydroelectric power from the Colorado River.
“Duck” a building in the shape of what the purpose of that building it meant to be. Unite d’habitation = Marseille block a modern housing designed by Corbusier; an alternate way of living. Cross ventilation. Concrete frame, slab building. Shopping center on the center floor of the building, but there wasn’t enough residents to be useful. Public housing. Prototype for urban living, surrounded by greenery.
B. Fuller American. Well known for his geodesic domes (like the Expo ’67 US Pavilion) and experiments (such as the Dymaxion car). He also created the Dymaxion House as a lowcost living unit that can be mass produced and an efficient “machine for living.” M. Safdie Israeli/Canadian. Designed the “Habitat” pavilion for the 1967 Montreal World’s Fair. Considers himself a modernist.
R. & C. Eames husband and wife American designers that contributed to the development of modern architecture and furniture. They created the prototype for the fiberglassreinforced plastic airport chairs (familiar to travelers around the world)
E. Saarinen Finnish, while his works varied in style, they all developed from an exploratory, relentless, and inventive attitude toward new materials and technologies. Known for the TWA Terminal and Dulles Airport.
I. M. Pei ChineseAmerican; modernist. His design style combines traditional architectural elements with progressive designs (from simple geometric patterns). Well known for his works: John F. Kennedy Library, National Gallery of Art, and Louvre Pyramid. L. Barragan Mexican, midcentury modern. His works include the Pedregal Estate (built on a lava field), Barragan House, Gilardi House (brightly colored house), Capuchinas, Los Clubes, Las Arboledas, San Cristobal, and Satellite City.
C. Scarpa Venetian, inspired by Venetian and Japanese culture. Known for his works San Marco, Querini, and Brion Vega. European Modernism and Italian Rationalism (in the 1940s). F. Gehry American, deconstructivism. Known for his house in Santa Monica, the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao (Spain), and the Dancing House (Prague)
P. Johnson American. Coauthored The International Style: Architecture Since 1922. Known for his works the Glass House and the Seagram Building. In 1984, he shifted to postmodernism with his design of the AT&T Building.
Ch. Moore American, postmodern. Known for his work on Sea Ranch and his “geode” houses in New Haven and Connecticut. His works have some historical allusions and whimsical elements. He also helped design the Piazza d’Italia in New Orleans.
R. Venturi American; coined the maxim “less is a bore”. Father of postmodernism. Most well known for the Vanna Venturi House he designed for his mother and the Guild House. He is also known for his writing of Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture.
R. Rogers British, hitech (with modernist and functionalist designs). Worked on Pompidou Centre with Piano. He is also known for his work on the Lloyd’s Building (London), Millennium Dome (London), and Senedd (Cardiff, Wales)
R. Piano Italian; he has no set style that he uses consistently. He designed the Pompidou Center with Rogers. He is also known for his work on the New York Times Building and the Art Institute of Chicago’s Modern Wing.
J. Nouvel French; in contrast to historicism and Corbusier’s modernism, he intended to produce buildings of their time through technology and an analysis of contemporary culture. Known for his design of the Arab World Institute (Paris) and Torre Agbar.
N. Foster English, he explored the potential of technology in design while still being consistent in his concern for the environment. Known for his work on the Hong Kong Bank, Reichstag (Berlin), and London City Hall.
Z. Hadid Iraqiborn British, first woman to receive the Pritzker Prize. Her design style involved fluid forms and fragmented geometry. Known for her works MAXII National Museum (Rome, Italy), BMW Central Building (Leipzig, Germany), and the Guangzhou Opera House (China) W. Bruder American; selftrained architect. Known for his work on Burton Barr Central Library.
L. Kahn American; he uses a fusion of different styles in his works and may be considered the most original architect of the 20th century. Known for his work on the Richards Medical Research Building, Salk Institute, Yale British Art Center, and Kimbell Art Museum M. Breuer Hungarian, modernist. Designed the Wassily Chair while at the Bauhaus. Also designed St. John’s Abbey, with concrete (giving it a brutalist style)
“isms” 19402000: (These sequential periodizations are approximate and overlap.) MidCentury Modern (1940’s1950’s): variety of different designs that do not follow any typical style or necessarily fall under the styles before or after (some are a precursor to deconstructivism). Examples Sydney Opera House, Berlin Philharmonic, and Saarinen’s airports. Brutalism (1960’s): heavy, substantial> reenforced concrete in rough forms; emphasizing the materiality; concrete> liquid stone, a gimmick. Examples: Yale School of Art and Architecture, Boston City Hall, Michelucci (Autostrada St. John Baptist> Florence), Yamanashi (Tange), and St. John Abby (Breuer).
Postmodernism (Pomo; 1970’s – 1980’s) challenged the Modernist ideals by bringing back more ornamentation. The shift in thought resulted from the cultural diversity developing in the political and social movements of the period. Examples are: Venturi (Vanna Venturi House), Johnson (Sony Building), Moore (Piazza d’Italia), and Graves (Portland Building). Deconstructivism (Decon; 1980’s – 1990’s) identified by fragmentation and manipulation of the building’s structure making it appear distorted; unpredictable, controlled chaos. Some architects that follow this style are Johnson, Gehry, Hadid, and Eisenman.
HiTech (mid60’s – present) incorporates technology and elements of hightech industry into building designs; an extension of modernism. Notable architects of this style are Foster, Rogers, and Piano.
Montreal 1967: Expo (B. Fuller, US Pavilion; M. Safdie, “Habitat”) Fuller’s US Pavilion was a geodesic dome with an enclosed steel structure and acrylic cells; 250 feet in diameter and 200 feet high, it used a complex system of shade to control its internal temperature. Safdie’s “Habitat” was an urban modular housing complex with 354 identical, prefabricated concrete forms and arranged in various ways to a height of 12 stories, with the intention of integrating the benefits of suburban living (with gardens, fresh air, and privacy) in an apartment building..
AA (Architectural Assoc., London): oldest independent school of architecture in the UK (established in 1847). Motto: “Design with Beauty, Build in Truth.” Provided a platform for the Archigram group.
IIT (Illinois Inst. Technology, Chicago): Meis goes to design some buildings in IIT. Set on a grid and symmetrical. The frame is infilled with bricks that are visible. Crown Hall (a building for architecture students) has an open interior with the roof supported from the outside and not visible from the interior; high maintenance.
AIA (American Inst. of Architects) a professional organization for architects in the United States. They offer support to the architecture profession through education, public outreach, government advocacy, and community redevelopment.
SOM (Skidmore, Owings & Merrill) – an American architectural, engineering, and urban planning firm (founded in 1936, Chicago). They specialize in highend commercial buildings, and they led the way to widespread use of the modern internationalstyle skyscraper. They designed the John Hancock center, Willis Tower, and Burj Khalifa.
Archigram, (magazine) 19611974: contained the Montreal Tower (1963 proposal), walking cities and a precursor to Hitech architecture. The main members were Cook, Chalk, Herron, Crompton, Webb, and Greene.
A. Smithson, Team X Primer, (re: X CIAM), 1968: addressed issues of group and individual identity, and strategies for growth and change. Based on the themes of the meetings of Team 10 (a group of architects that challenged CIAM’s views on urbanism.
R. Venturi, Complexity & Contradiction in Architecture, 1966: he supports a “Non straightforward, multivalued architecture.” Considered a Postmodern architectural manifesto. Provided an understanding of architectural composition and complexity.
“ , Learning from Las Vegas, 1972: it had a significant impact on the emergence of postmodernism. He analyzed various aspects of the city and made a distinction of architecture being a “decorated shed” or “duck”
C. Jencks, The Language of PostModern Architecture, 1977: combines theories of the architectural language with six different stages in PostModern history.
P. Johnson & M. Wigley, Deconstructivist Architecture, 1988: 153 illustrations of works from Gehry, Libeskind, Koolhaas, Eisenman, Hadid, Tschumi, and Himmelblau.