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UA - PSYCH 101 - PY 101, FINALS STUDY GUIDE - Study Guide

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UA - PSYCH 101 - PY 101, FINALS STUDY GUIDE - Study Guide

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background image Psychology 101 Final Study Guide Developmental Disabilities A diverse group of chronic conditions that cause individuals difficulties in certain areas 
of life 
o Failure to meet developmental expectations Twice as common in males than females Examples:  o Autism spectrum disorder o Cerebral palsy o Down syndrome o Intellectual disabilities  Autism Spectrum Disorder 1 in 68 children Some common deficits include: o Executive functioning (decision making) o Communication (not talking by age of 2) o Social (don’t get social cues) o Obsessive interests (birthdays, train schedules) Does not always indicate intellectual disability Vaccines do not cause autism  Cerebral Palsy Movement disorder related to abnormal development of brain areas associated with 
movement
o Most common childhood movement disorder Poor coordination, weak or stiff muscles, vision or hearing difficulties Possible causes: o Premature birth o Infection during pregnancy o Head trauma early in life o Small number is inherited  Down Syndrome Most common neurodevelopment disorder Occurs in about 1 in 800 live births Most common cause is trisomy 21 Physical characteristics and personality differ General and specific brain abnormalities o Smaller brain size overall o Deficits in the hippocampal region and prefrontal cortex Some people around age 40 develop Alzheimer’s Intellectual Disability Formerly called mental retardation About 2­3% of population
background image Deficits: o Significant limitations in intelligence o Limitations in adaptive behavior, skills that have been learned that people do  daily  o Onset prior to age 18 Characteristics: o Slow to learn/process information o Difficulty understanding concepts o Cognitive rigidity o Rely on social cues from others o Suggestible o Tendency to please others  Anxiety Disorders A psychological disorder characterized by excessive fear and anxiety in the absence of 
true danger
o Unwanted thoughts/rumination o Sweating o Dry mouth o Rapid pulse o Shallow breathing o Increased blood pressure o Increased muscular tension Who Gets Anxiety Everyone When is anxiety characterized as a disorder? o Inappropriate o Severe o Frequent  About 17% of individuals will be diagnosed with an anxiety disorder Rates higher in women Types of Anxiety
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
A diffuse state of constant anxiety not associated with any specific object or event  o Excessive anxiety about various things for at least 6 months o Difficult to control o Associated with three or more of the following: Restlessness/on edge Difficult concentrating Irritability Muscle tension Sleep disturbance o Causes significant impairment in various life areas
background image 6­9% of people in US and others Panic Disorder An anxiety disorder that consists of sudden, overwhelming attacks of terror (called panic 
attacks)
o Recurrent, unexpected panic attacks o Panic attack: abrupt surge of fear/discomfort that lasts a couple minutes o Four or more: Sweat, trembling, heart racing, shortness of breath, chest pain, dizziness, 
light­headedness, numbing in hands and feet, migraines (less common)
o Followed by at least 1 month where they are worried about panic attacks or alter  behavior to avoid one Affects about 3% of population; women twice as likely to be diagnosed as men Specific Phobias Phobias: a strong, irrational fear of something that poses little or no real danger o Affect about 1 in 8 people and involve particular objects and situations  Social Anxiety Disorder Marked fear or anxiety about one or more social situations in which the individual is 
exposed to possible negative evaluation by others
o Fear that they will show anxiety o Social situations almost always provoke anxiety o Avoidance of situation o Fear/anxiety are out of proportion to the actual threat posted o Persistent, typically 6 months or longer o Causes clinically significant distress Common causes: o Public speaking o Speaking up in class o Meeting new people o Eating in front of others Mood Disorders Classified into two categories: o Depressive disorders feature persistent and pervasive feelings of sadness o Bipolar disorders involve radical fluctuations in mood Depressive Disorders Major Depression Two or more weeks Five (or more) of the following symptoms: o Negative moods, most of the day, nearly every day o Feelings of worthlessness o Lack of interest in previously enjoyed activities o Weight loss/gain o Insomnia

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School: University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Department: Psychology
Course: Intro to Psychology
Professor: Tba
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: intro, to, and Psychology
Name: PY 101, FINALS STUDY GUIDE
Description: Study Guide for the final!!
Uploaded: 11/28/2016
9 Pages 33 Views 26 Unlocks
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