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rant’s Introduction to Men Speak Out: Views on Gender, Sex, and Power, Derrais Carter and Byron Hurt reference the “male gaze.” Summarize how the male gaze operates and evaluate the extent to which it is problematic. Byron Hurt references in Men Speak Out: Views on Gender, Sex, and Power, the male gaze as a sexist and onesided view of women through the eyes of men who only see women in a sexual and misinterpreted way. “The men behind their cameras (and it is mostly men with video cameras) shoot black female bodies at camera angles intended for the male gaze,” (Hurt, 346). Derrais Carter is a black male feminist and advocate for women’s rights. He references the male gaze as the “Hottentot gaze” which is referring to black men and the term can often be used offensively. Carter writes, “Discussing the position of women in hip hop beyond the camera’s ‘Hottentot gaze’ helps me understand a lot about black male identity. Selfishly, I am drawn to feminism because of this very thing,” (pg. 359). Both Hurt and Carter use the term male gaze in a negative connotation and describe it as a sexist or bigot viewpoint regarding women. Question 1 A – Part 1: Using Shira Tarrant’s Introduction to Men Speak Out: Views on Gender, Sex, and Power, discuss how conventional masculinity can be harmful. Shira Tarrant describes conventional masculinity by writing, “Conventional manhood – and its close cousin, hegemonic masculinity – can be summed up in three short words: no sissy stuff. This imperative for masculine leadership dominates our collective imagination by invoking unrealistic expectations that men are by nature stoic, unemotional, aggressive, and interpersonally detached…Conventional masculinity is a style of manhood that many men are complicit in upholding, although few actually embody. There is nothing traditional, universal, or eternal about our current conventions of masculine gender,” (pg. 334). The current view of conventional masculinity, through the perspective of women, is very hypocritical in the sense that if females do not want to be characterized or lumped together as one simple thing, then the same longed respect should apply to men. Unrealistic expectations for women regarding body image, sexual appeal, women’s perceived duties, etc., have been a tall obstacle women have continuously fought to overcome. Therefore, conventional masculinity is harmful because it not only places those same unrealistic expectations on men, it could potentially hinder women’s hopes in conquering those expectations because of their hypocritical tendencies. A – Part 2: Using Patricia Collins’s “The Past is Ever Present: Recognizing the New Racism” from Black Sexual Politics AND/OR your lectures notes, discuss how Black women’s bodies were exploited during slavery. Gender oppression quickly became a large aspect of Chattel slavery. Objectification, commodification, and exploitation shined through in several different forms when it came to male and female slaves. Men were used primarily for manual labor, however, women, because of their obvious disadvantages when it came to physical labor, were sexually exploited. “…Black women’s sexuality and reproductive capacity presented opportunities for forms of sexual exploitation and sexual slavery (ultimate submission of the master/slave relationship),” (Collins, 5556). This type of submission and exploitation dwindled the black women’s being to simply a commodity for the white master and justified their objectification since men were performing manual labor, then women could be worked as if they were animals as well. “Sexuality and fertility were neither designed for Black women’s pleasure nor subject to their control. The system was designed to stamp out agency and annex Black women’s bodies to a system of profit,” (Collins, 56). B – Part 1: Using course readings AND/OR your lecture notes, detail the accomplishments of TWO of the following individuals (Harriet Beecher Stowe, Madam CJ Walker, AND/OR Phillis Wheatley). Include at least one specific example for each individual. Madam CJ Walker She created her own line of hair care products for women because she was losing her hair due to the lack of products available at the time. Since people didn’t bathe often, skin care and hair care were not a major thought in people’s minds so Walker’s creation was pretty revolutionary. She trained thousands of other women who began to buy and sell her products. By the time she moved to Harlem in 1916, she was one of the wealthiest and most successful AfricanAmerican entrepreneurs in the country. Phillis Wheatley In 1773, she completed her set of poems on various subjects. What many people do not know is that America’s great literary tradition traces back to a black woman, Phillis Wheatley. She completed these poems all while living as a slave in Boston. The white family who owned her began to realize that she might be a special kind of child when they noticed her writing with charcoal. Four years after she arrived in Boston at 11 years old, she had already mastered English and the classics in Greek and Latin. At 13, inspired by the British poet Alexander Pope, she wrote her first volume of poems, titled “Poems on Various Subjects, Religious and Moral.” Wheatley founded three distinct intellectual movements; the American poetic tradition, the black literary tradition, and the Women’s literary tradition, all in her second language, English. Because of her academic achievements, Wheatley was granted her freedom in 1774. She continued to write until her death, at 31 years old. B – Part 2: In what ways, per Patricia Collins’s “Work, Family, and Black Women’s Oppression” from Black Feminist Thought, are racism and motherhood intertwined? Due to the stereotypical view of how women should generally participate, or rather lead, their families and households, men have succumbed to believing women should be doing everything when it comes to motherhood or household duties, which can be related back to unpaid and unfair treatment, or slavery. “…Black women see the unpaid work that they do for their families more as a form of resistance to oppression than as a form of exploitation by men. Despite these views, investigating how Black women’s unpaid labor is exploited within AfricanAmerican family networks, for example, by boyfriends, relatives, and even governmentsupported social policies, remains a neglected topic… how hard Black women work is often overlooked,” (Collins, 46). Black women have come to accept this role because they realize no one else will perform these duties. These expectations have become a reality and most people overlook it because of the women’s tendencies to be openly accepting of these roles, even if they don’t necessarily believe in it. Question 4 A – Part 1: What, according to Martin Luther King Jr’s “Letter from Birmingham Jail,” is the difference between just and unjust laws? King states several different points in his letter, strongly questioning how he is currently sitting in jail for peacefully protesting. King explains just and unjust laws saying, “One may well ask, ‘How can you advocate breaking some laws and obeying others?’ The answer is found in the fact that there are two types of laws: there are just laws, and there are unjust laws. I would agree with St. Augustine that ‘An unjust law is no law at all,’” (3). He further goes on to explain that, “A just law is a manmade code that squares with the moral law, or the law of God. An unjust law is a code that is out of harmony with the moral law. To put it in the terms of St. Thomas Aquinas, an unjust law is a human law that is not rooted in eternal and natural law. Any law that uplifts human personality is just. Any law that degrades human personality is unjust. All segregation statutes are unjust because segregation distorts the soul and damages the personality. It gives the segregator a false sense of superiority and the segregated a false sense of inferiority,” (3). A – Part 2: Using Maulana Karenga’s “Revisiting Brown, Reaffirming Black: Reflections on Race, Law, and Struggle” from Handbook of Black Studies, discuss how segregation and self determination/ separation differed for Malcolm X. In 1963, Malcolm X noted that the civil rights struggle was in dire need of new interpretation for black nationalists. “[Malcolm X] argued that there is a difference between segregation and self determination, which at times he called separation. Therefore, he said, ‘My understandingof a segregated school system or segregated community or segregated school is a school is controlled by people other than those who go there. But if a black school has the facilities, teachers and materials it needs, it isn’t segregated. It’s only segregated when it is controlled by someone outside. (Malcolm X, 1970, pp. 1617),’” (Karenga 178). Malcolm X is stating that this ideology differs for him because others succumb to the normal view of segregation and separation, while he strives to find innovative ways in diminishing it. He is defining segregation as a relationship between a “socalled inferior by a socalled superior, whereas selfdetermination is a selfconscious choice to build and develop one’s own community,” (Karenga, 178). B – Part 1: Using course readings, your lecture notes, AND/OR the film entitled The Black Panthers: Vanguard of the Revolution, discuss the role that the Black Panther Party for Self Defense played in the Civil Rights movement. The Black Panther Party for SelfDefense was created in 1966 and was one of the biggest aspects of militant activism. It was created by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale in Oakland, CA. The party’s main purpose was to fashion a revolutionary vanguard dedicated to patrolling AfricanAmerican neighborhoods to protect residents from acts of police brutality. The police were alarmed when encountering the Black Panthers because of their attire and their armor for selfdefense. The panthers combined black nationalism ideology with Marxist Leninist doctrines. The years between 19671975, witnessed some of the most intense political and cultural discussions in the history of the black freedom struggle. (Lecture 9). B – Part 2: Using course readings AND/OR your lecture notes, discuss the role that prejudice played in ONE of the following events (Scottsboro Case, Tuskegee Study, AND/OR the lynching of Emmett Till). The lynching of Emmett Till After Brown v. Board of Education ruled segregation in schools unconstitutional, the white South organized groups to preserve white supremacy. Groups like the KKK committed terrorism against blacks, murdering them in public spaces and going unpunished. In the previous 70 years (prior to 1955) there had been more than 500 documented lynching’s in Mississippi alone. Emmett Till and his cousin Curtis Jones took a train from Chicago to Mississippi and had little knowledge of the world they were about to enter. Emmett Till was 14 years old. Till, when he arrived in Mississippi, was dared by friends to go in a candy store and say something to a white woman who was in there. He left and said “bye, baby” to her and an older man talking to Jones told him they better get out of sight before someone finds out about it. Later that night at his uncle’s house, a white man showed up with a pistol asking to speakto both Till and his uncle. The man forcefully put Till in his car and drove away. Four days later, his body was found in the river. His uncle said that his body was damaged so badly that they could barely tell who it was. Time magazine pictured Till beaten, mutilated, and shot through the head so that everyone could witness the horrors that happen every day, going unnoticed. The husband of the woman in the store and her brotherinlaw were arrested for the murder of Emmett Till. Groups like the NCAAP and the black press worked especially hard during their trial to keep it in the news and known throughout America, while making an example of Southern racism for the world. Jones says Till’s uncle was exceptionally brave for testifying in court against the white man who came to his house that night to kidnap Till. The defense argued that the boy’s body was too disfigured for it to possibly be evidence. The white jury found the two men not guilty. Prejudice evidently plays a role in this event because of the white supremacist south that the boys had just entered, unknowingly. The jury was white and the court room was segregated, giving whites the obvious upperhand throughout the case. On top of that, the white lawyer supporting the two accused white men was much more educated and knew how to speak towards the jury. Hard evidence was not enough for the men to be convicted in a white court room. Question 5 A – Part 1: Using Milton Sernett’s “Down in Egyptland” from Introduction to Africana Studies, detail how W.E.B. Du Bois’s ideology differed from Booker T. Washington’s. (2.5 points) WEB Dubois and Booker T. Washington had their respective, but completely opposite viewpoints regarding black social and economic progress within the 19th and 20th centuries. Washington’s work was based on the philosophy of selfhelp and social harmony including that if blacks could prove themselves to be valuable, productive members of society, then they deserved fair treatment. Washington’s goal was to diminish white oppression, however he wasn’t for immediate action, but rather, slow and steady advancement. “Washington had asserted, ‘In the rural districts, the Negro, all things considered, is at his best in body, mind, and soul. In the city he is usually at his worst. Plainly one of the duties of the church is to help keep the Negro where he has the best chance,” (Sernett, 137). Du Bois believed in educating black people so that they would be able to immediately advance and get anywhere in life. Du Bois was devoted to mentoring collegeeducated black people to become leaders of their race. Dubois believed in the idea of the talented tenth of the black population who would rise up to lead the black masses through their intellectual accomplishments, and groomed them to the point that they were exceptionally more educated than the black southerners. Du Bois and Washington became ideological rivals because of their separate views. In Du Bois’ book The Souls of Black Folk, he criticizes the “’industrial’ educational philosophy of the Tuskegee Machine and Washington’s accommodationist politics,” (Sernett, 138). Due to Du Bois criticism, Washington’s strategy of developing separate black institutions in the South without challenging the dominant power structure (white oppression) became less viable as the nineteenth century gave way to the twentieth and people were drawn to Du Bois’ more progressive views, (paraphrase – 138). A – Part 2: Using Maulana Karenga’s “Revisiting Brown, Reaffirming Black: Reflections on Race, Law, and Struggle” from Handbook of Black Studies, discuss the factors that propelled the Haitian Revolution. The Haitian revolution was deeply rooted in hopes of being freed, to live without fear or domination, to carry themselves with dignity, and to secure a decent and free future for future generations. “And with this commitment and indomitable spirit, the Haitian people defeated the four major armies arrayed against them, and did what no other enslaved people had done before or have ever done since – defeated their oppressor and established and sustained a republic,” (Karenga, 167). “In doing this, they in fact left an inerasable model of human possibility and expanded the realm of human freedom in the world (Geggus, 2001),” (Karenga 168). B – Part 1: Using course readings AND/OR your lecture notes, detail the accomplishments of TWO of the following individuals (Anthony Benezet, Shirley Chisholm, W.E.B. Du Bois, AND/OR Booker T. Washington). Include at least one specific example for each individual. (3.5 points) Booker T. Washington Washington was the singlemost, wellknown AfricanAmerican of his time and one of the most celebrated black people in the entire world. Washington was allowed to attend school while working as a servant, and that’s how he learned to read and write. Washington taught at the Hampton institute before being appointed by General Samuel Armstrong to head the newlyformed institute in Tuskegee in 1881. Washington was asked to address a predominately white audience at the 1895 Atlanta expo. The speech turned Washington into a national figure. He believed that blacks should separate themselves from whites and not involve themselves in white society. In 1900, he formed the National Negro Business League to promote the economic development of African Americans. In 1901, he chronicled his life in the autobiography, “Up from Slavery.” This was one of the most influential books by an African American at the turn of the century. He went on to publish a total of 14 books. WEB Du Bois Received a BA from Fisk University, later becoming the first African American to earn a PhD from Harvard in 1895. He produced a number of academic works, including The Philadelphia Negro in 1899, which was the first case study of a black community in the US. As an alternative to Washington’s book “Up from Slavery,” Du Bois published “The Souls of Black Folk,” contesting Washington’s points. In 1905, Du Bois founded the Niagara Movement, opposing Washington’s racial accommodation theory. This organization became the forerunner of the NAACP. Years later, Du Bois was appointed editor of the NAACP magazine, The Crisis. Du Bois’ published his first novel, “The Quest of the Silver Fleece,” in 1911. He then published “The Negro,” the first general history of black Africans. He also went on the publish three autobiographies, which gave everyone a sense of what it was like to be black white society. He made a losing bid for New York state senate at the age of 82. In 1961, he joined the communist party and moved to Ghana, where he passed two years later. (All from Lecture 8). B – Part 2: Using course readings AND/OR your lecture notes, discuss the impact of the Great Depression on the African American population. The economic collapse of the Great Depression hit AfricanAmericans particularly hard. The fall of the economy pushed many AfricanAmericans to the verge of starvation. AfricanAmericans’ misfortunes were made worse due to continuous racism in America. The national income fell from $81 billion in 1929 to $40 billion in 1932. During the 1930’s, African men and women initiated their own agenda, determined to use every resource at their disposal, to destroy the obstacles to racial injustice and barriers to equal opportunity. (Lecture 9). Throughout the 1930’s, the NAACP became a more effective advocate for African American civil rights. The 30’s held a decade of recession and economic instability. Only 35% of AfricanAmerican families owned their homes in 1950. By 2005, 46.8% of African Americans owned their own homes (compared to 70.7% for white ownership).