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MINNESOTA STATE UNIVERSITY, MANKATO / Biology / BIOL 106 / What are the characteristics of the phylum porifera?

What are the characteristics of the phylum porifera?

What are the characteristics of the phylum porifera?

Description

School: Minnesota State University - Mankato
Department: Biology
Course: General Biology II
Professor: Matthew kaproth
Term: Fall 2016
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: Exam 4 Study Guide
Description: Exam 4 study guide that includes detailed characteristics of all the phylums discussed in lecture on kingdom animalia
Uploaded: 11/28/2016
7 Pages 200 Views 3 Unlocks
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Exam 4 Study Guide


What are the characteristics of the phylum porifera?



Characteristics of Phyla:

Phylum Porifera (Sponges)

− Parazoa: lack specialized tissues

− Mostly marine, few fresh water

− Body plan:

o Cylindrical shape with a large central cavity (the spongocoel) o Water moves through a porous ring and comes out the top of the  sponge

o All cells can function independently

o Aysemmetric

− Digestion:

o Food is trapped when water passes through the ostia and out  through the osculum

− Reproduction:

o Asexual reproduction by either fragmentation or budding o Sexual reproduction when gametes are produced

 Amoebocytes develop into an egg


How does phylum porifera reproduce?



 Choanocyte can develop into sperm and can then move  towards an egg for fertilization

− Locomotion:

o Sessile If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of experimenting according to the stage model of relationship development?

Phylum Cnidaria (Cnidarians)

− Marine environments

− Radial symmetry

− 2 body plans:

o Polyp

 Epidermal layer, mesoglea, gastrovascular cavity

 Do not move

o Medusa

 Epidermis, gastrodermis, mesoglea

 Motile

− Specialized stinging cells (cnidocytes that contain nematocysts) − Nutrition/Digestion:

o Incomplete digestive system

o Extracellular digestion: food is taken in the gastrovascular cavity, enzymes are secreted into the cavity, and cells lining the cavity  absorb nutrients


What is the locomotion of phylum porifera?



We also discuss several other topics like What is a pronoun and what are some of its examples?

− Reproduction:

o Sexual reproduction with both polyp and medusa stages − Five classes

Phylum Platyhelminthes (flatworms)

− Body Plan:

o Bilateral symmetry

o Acoelomate

o Flat

o No circulatory or respiratory system

 Contributes to their flatness

o Share structure of their jaws and pharynx

− Mode of nutrition:

o Have a gastrovascular cavity rather than a complete digestive  system

o Diffusion of nutrients

− Excretion:

o Have an anal opening and excretory system

− Nervous system and sensory organs:

o Nervous system consists of a pair of nerve cords running the  length of the body

− Reproduction:

o Sexual reproduction—hermaphroditic (male & female gametes in  one individual)

o Asexual reproduction by fission

− Class Turbellaria (tubellarians):

o Acoelomate—organs fixed

o Uses diffusion to obtain oxygen

o Ventral epidermis that is ciliated to facilitate movement − Subphylum Neodermata—parasitic worms

o Class Trematoda (flukes) If you want to learn more check out What was happening in russia in 1900?

 Complex life cycle (look at diagram)

 Sexual reproduction—must be in a primary host

 Asexual reproduction—must be in an intermediate host  (snail and a fish)

o Class Cestoda (tapeworms)

 Long chains of proglottids

 Have hooks to embed in wall of intestine, sucker to feed on blood

 No digestive system

 Reproduction occurs when the proglottid detaches and is  released in the feces of the host where eggs are ingested  

by a new host

Phylum Rotifera (rotifers)

− Pseudocoelomate animals with ciliated crowns

− Aquatic environment

− Fast-moving but can also be sessile and filter feed

− Sexually dimorphic (females larger than males)

− Sexual or parthenogenitical (internal budding—asexual) reproduction

Phylum Mollusca (mollusks)

− Major characteristics:

o Have an outershell

o Hermaphroditic

o Coelomate—body cavity

o A foot for movement

− Mantle: fold in the body wall that lines the shell; may or may not  secrete a shell made of calcium carbonate

− Internal organs: visceral mass that contains digestive, nervous,  excretory, reproductive, and respiratory systems If you want to learn more check out What is consumer revolution?

− Shells: can be internal or external

− Nutrition: consume plants, also flesh; complete digestive system − Waste removal: waste sent from anus to mantle to be released outside − Circulatory system: open; blood circulates between gills and heart via  blood-filled space hemocoel

− Reproduction: sexual—sexes separate, fertilization external; some are  hermaphroditic

− Class Polyplacophora:

o Armor-like 8-plated shell

o Broad, ventral foot for suction to rocks

− Class Gastropoda:

o Snails, slugs

o Marine environment

o Shell is coiled

o Foot modified for crawling

o Most bear a head with tentacles, eyes, and a style

− Class Bivalvia:

o 2 shells attached by a hinge

o Have kidney, heart, stomach, gonads (male & female)

o Have inhalant siphon that take in water and filter it, then release  it  If you want to learn more check out What are the goals of the criminal justice system?

o Include clams, oysters, mussels, scallops

− Class Cephlopoda:

o Squids, octopi, cuttlefish, nautilus

o Internal shell

o Well-developed head and brain

o Free-floating

o Consume other animals

o Locomotion facilitated by propulsion

o Sexual dimorphism

o Tentacles with nerve endings, developed from foot

Phylum Annelida (annelids)

− Body plan: segmented worms; each segment contain same internal  and external organs; bilateral symmetry

− Motion: setae (small hairs that help movement in soil); anterior end is  pushed forward when circular muscles contract, and posterior end is  pulled forward when circular muscles relax If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of autocrine in signal transduction systems?

− Nutrition: organic matter in soil; predators, parasites, filter-feeders − Waste removal: muscle contraction pushes waste through a fecal tube  near the posterior tip

− Circulatory System: closed; ventral and dorsal blood vessel as well as  capillaries

− Reproduction: hermaphroditic; clitellum for mating

− Class Polychaeta (polychaetes):

o Segmented, each one bears setae ( bristles)

o Dimorphic (sexes separate)

− Earthworms:  

o Segmented

o Distinguished by presence of clitellum

− Leeches:

o Freshwater ectoparasites

o Not segmented

o Anterior and posterior sucker

o Hermaphroditic—sexual reproduction

o Can consume 5 to 10x their body weight in blood

Phylum Nematoda (roundworms)

− Free-living and parasitic

− Cleavage not spiral

− Mostly pseudocoelomate

− Move by muscular contractions

− Body structure: bilateral symmetry, tubular morphology; unsegmented; complete digestive system with distinct mouth and anus

− Motion: muscular contractions (hydrostatic motion)

− Reproduction and development: grow by molting a cuticle; monoecious —both male and female reproductive structures; can also be dioecious —separate sexes

− Lifestyles: 4 molting cycles; occupy almost any environment − Diseases in humans: parasitic infections

Phylum Arthropoda

− Exoskeleton: made of chitin

− Segmented bodies: segments fused into functional units (tagmata)— head, thorax, abdomen; efficient for moving on land

− Paired, jointed appendages: varying amounts of appendages for  different species; two kinds—two-branched (lobsters) and unbranched  (insects)

− Circulatory system: open—one-way valves; disadvantage: cycles same  nutrients, or oxygenates parts that are already oxygenated, inefficient − Sensory organs and nervous system: compound eyes; antennae— covered in sensory hairs

− Respiratory system: gas exchange through spiracles, trachea, and  tracheoles; doesn’t need to expel energy

− Excretory system: Malpighian tubules filter out hemolymph (blood) and excrete wast

− Class Chelicerata:

o 8 appendages

o cephalothorax—head and thorax together

o Order Araneae: spiders

 Chelicera—front claw for tearing, biting, injecting

 Pedipalp—second set of appendages

o Order Acari: mites and ticks

 Hexapod larval stage

 Inhabit almost any environment

 Transmit diseases to humans

− Class Crustacea:

o 10 appendages

o omnivores—plant and animals

o exoskeleton

o tagmata

 may be in form of a head, thorax, and abdomen

o Appendages

 Antennae—two pairs

 Double-branched  

 Mouth parts: mandibles, maxillae, maxillipeds

o Reproduction:  

 Dioecious—sexes separate

 Fertilized eggs may be held w/in the female or released in  the water

 Nauplius larva—have one eye; unsegmented

Subphylum Hexapoda (insects)

− 6 legs

− segmented bodies

− jointed exoskeletons

− distinct head and trunk

− compound eyes

− some have wings

− antennae

− metamorphosis—animal goes through a series of molts (morphological  changes)

o incomplete metamorphosis: repeated structures that are similar  to the nymph stage; multiple stages to reach adult form

o complete metamorphosis: larva stage is different from adult  form; multiple molting stages in the larva; larva to pupa to adult  form

− mouth parts: mandible for cutting, ripping (similar to crustaceans) − Class Myriapoda:

o Wingless

o Segmented bodies, legs off each segment

o Subclass Chilipoda (centipedes)

 One set of legs per segment

 Larger mouthparts, predators

o Subclass Diplopoda (millipedes)

 2 sets of legs per segment

 very small mouthparts, detrivores

Phylum Echinodermata

− 5 classes including sea stars, brittle stars, sea urchins, sand dollars − Have a true coelom

− Symmetry: bilateral symmetry in larva stage; secondary radial  symmetry as adult

− Endoskeleton: developed by epidermal cells and may possess pigment  cells

− Water-vascular system: to move nutrients and appendages around;  tubular feet that stick out from an arm are regulated by water-vascular  system; circulate nutrients, also for locomotion

− Regeneration and reproduction: sexually dimorphic (sexes exhibit  different forms); fertilization is external; have ability to regenerate  even if 75% of their body mass is lost

Phylum Chordata

− All chordates possess 4 key characteristics during life:

o Notochord: a dorsal supportive rod extending the length of the  body; replaced during development by a vertebral column in the  vertebrates

o Dorsal tubular nerve cord: hollow nerve cord, often called spinal  cord, is protected by vertebrae

o Pharyngeal slits: become functioning gills in the invertebrate  chordates, the fishes, and amphibian larvae; in terrestrial  animals, the pouches are modified for various other functions

o Post anal tail: as an embryo if not as an adult—a tail that extends beyond the anus

− Nonvertebrate Chordates:

o Subphylum Urochordata—tunicates

 Tunicate—hard exoskeleton

 2 siphons

 filter-feeders

 have notochord, dorsal nerve cord, gill slits, and tail in  

larva stages

o subphylum Cephalochordata (lancelets)

 fish-like but not a fish

 filter-feeders

 oral hood with tentacles and an eyespot

 pharyngeal slits filter water and capture food

 notochord, hollow nerve cord, gill slits, and tail

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