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MINNESOTA STATE UNIVERSITY, MANKATO / Communications / CMST 100 / What is the meaning of initiation according to the stage model of rela

What is the meaning of initiation according to the stage model of rela

What is the meaning of initiation according to the stage model of rela

Description

School: Minnesota State University - Mankato
Department: Communications
Course: Fundamentals of Communication
Professor: Laura jacobi
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: relational dialectics, Nonverbal Communication, Listening, self-disclosure, relational, development, and maintenance
Cost: 50
Name: CMST 100 Large Lecture Study Guide 2
Description: Here are things that will be covered on our final exam
Uploaded: 11/29/2016
12 Pages 50 Views 1 Unlocks
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Large Lecture Study Guide 2


What is the meaning of initiation according to the stage model of relationship development?



Stage Model of Relationship Development (Knapp & Vangelisti, 2005-2014)

1. Initiation

a. Make first impression

b. Follow prescribed behaviors (talk about specific topics)

c. Formal and ritualistic

2. Experimenting

a. Find common ground using small talk

b. Pleasant, relaxed

c. Most relationships do not pass this point

3. Intensifying

a. Longer stage with greater commitment

b. Relationship is defined as “we” not “I”

c. Increased self-disclosure and physical contact begins

d. Social support to one another

4. Integrating


What is the meaning of experimenting according to the stage model of relationship development?



a. Turn into single social identity/other recognized you as a couple

b. Adopt partners behaviors, manners, and beliefs; adopt common property c. Intimacy

5. Bonding

a. Public commitment

Turning Point Approach (Baxter & Bullis, 1986)

• No norms to follow, everything is individualized

• Maps a relationship using significant relational events/turning points, such as first kiss or  first big fight, to determine the relationships development If you want to learn more check out How many core vocabulary words are there?

Stages of Interracial Relationship Development (Foeman & Nance, 1999)

1. Racial Awareness

a. Attraction and sensitivity

b. Figure out how to navigate with others feelings about them as a couple 2. Coping with Social Definitions of race


What is the meaning of intensifying according to the stage model of relationship development?



a. Develop strategies both proactive and reactive

3. Identify Emergence

a. Self-sustaining behaviors such as reframing experience for the culture at large 4. Maintenance

a. Could need to revisit all or some of the other stages

Factors Influencing Self-Disclosure

• Disclosures of others

o Example: when others share you will share

• Audience size

o Example: people are more likely to share in small groups

• Topic

o Example: salary is usually not shared but politics are

• Valence

o Example: when someone shares too much negatives we consider them to be  annoying or needy and we give them a negative vibe

• Gender

o Example: women disclose more than men, but both disclose negative things  equally We also discuss several other topics like What was happening in russia in 1900?

• Receiver relationship

o Example: you share more with a close friend than with a stranger

Impact of Technology upon Self-Disclosure

• Facebook users make status updates an average of 9x/month, primarily as an emotional  disclosure

• Many older generations feel that many younger generations share things that are way  to personal

• Social support on Facebook is associated with general well-being and illness  management Don't forget about the age old question of Who is the founder of the ming dynasty?

• SNS usage is associated with higher stress and decreased life quality

Social Penetration Theory (Altman & Taylor, 1973)

• Explains how relationships become more intimate through increase self-disclosure • Breadth – the number of topics discussed

o Increases in variety and the amount but once you know your partner, the  amount of topics decrease

o Usually socially appropriate things

• Depth – degree to which the inner core is penetrated

o The more intimate you get the more comfortable you get, but it still is hard to  share things

o The more you share the deeper you discuss topics Don't forget about the age old question of What is the difference between mala in se crime and malum prohibitum crime?

Listening vs. Hearing

• Listening – make meaning from someone’s message

o Voluntary and intentional

• Hearing – physiological response to sound that automatically happens

o Accidental and natural

Barriers to Effective Listening

• Barrier 1: Distractions

o Noise

▪ Physical

• Examples: emails, texts, wearing headphones while walking or  

biking, and hearing noise outside classroom

▪ Psychological

• Example: Daydreaming

o Information Overload Don't forget about the age old question of What are the general characteristics of signal transduction systems?

▪ Overwhelming feeling from all the information we take in everyday

• Barrier 2: Lack of Motivation

o Pseudolistening – pretend to listen to be polite

▪ Do this due to boredom or not understanding information

o Selective Attention – only listening to what you want to hear

• Barrier 3: Defensiveness

o Rebuttal Tendency – debate a speaker’s point and formulate a reply while the  other person is still speaking

▪ Interrupting saying “yes, but….”

o Closed-mindedness – not listening to anything we disagree with

• Barrier 4: Competitiveness

o Competitive Interrupting – interrupt to take control of the conversation ▪ People want their ideas heard or think they know what the other person  is going to say Don't forget about the age old question of How deviance can be a source of social change?

▪ Example: Doctors interrupting patients

4 Types of Listeners

• People-oriented – relationships are in mind, and concerned about the other persons  feelings

o We see them as a really good friend

o Perceived as empathic, outgoing, sociable but could miss important task  information

• Time-oriented – get to the point

o Not recommended for listeners

o Perceived as socially callous but efficient

• Action-oriented – prefers organization and is focused on the task

o Logical arguments

o Keep on track but doesn’t focus on feelings

• Content-oriented – evaluates everything someone says

o Similar to critical response audience

o Views things well from other perspectives but scrutinizes everything • 40% of people score high in 2 or more styles

3 Components of Listening

• Affective – motivation

• Cognitive – selecting a message, attending to it, and understanding it • Behavioral – responding to a message

Percentage of Communication that is Nonverbal

• 65-93% is nonverbal

3 Functions of Nonverbal Communication

• Accent, reinforce, and contradict verbal communication

o Actions speak louder than words

o Movement

▪ Example: moving away from a person = dissatisfaction

o Gesture

▪ Example: wave = greeting

o Facial expression

▪ Example: smiling = happy

o Eyes

▪ Example: mom look

o Paralanguage

▪ Example: I got the job!

o Touch/haptics

▪ Example: hug = reinforces verbal intimacy

• Expresses Identity

o How we carry ourselves and choices we make

▪ Examples: artifacts, appearances, dress

o Kinesics

▪ Example: standing tall = confident

o Paralanguage

▪ Example: apologizing when needed

o Time orientation

▪ Example: keeping people waiting = power/status

• Clarifies relationship

o Content + relationship = communication

▪ Every message has content and relational messages

o Eyes can show attraction or dominance

o Facial expressions convey emotions

Significance of Touch

• We cannot survive without touch

• Affection conveys intimacy, aggression conveys dominance

Relational Dialectics Theory (Baxter & Montgomery 1988 – 1996, Baxter, 2011)

• 2 poles of dialectics constantly pull against each other so balance is needed • Relational Maintenance – negotiating process in relationships involving contradictory  tensions

• Affiliation – extent you want to spend time together

• Predictability – extent you want things to be stable and routine

• Intimacy – extent you want to be open with one another

• Internal

o Tension within the pairs

o Affiliation: connection vs. autonomy

o Predictability: predictability vs. novelty

o Intimacy: openness vs. closedness

• External

o Tension pairs experience with people in social networks and larger communities o Affiliation: inclusion vs. seclusion

▪ Example: spending an anniversary alone or with others

o Predictability: conventionality vs. uniqueness

▪ Example: following social norms

o Intimacy: revelation vs. concealment

▪ Example: being open and honest about the relationship with others Dialectical Responses

• Selection/Denial

o Responding only to one pole of dialectic and ignoring the other

▪ Example: Always being open and honest

• Neutralization/Balance

o Aiming for a midpoint

▪ Examples: moderately close, predictable, open

• Cyclic Oscillation/Spiraling Alternation

o Taking turns

▪ Example: meeting the need when the need needs to be met

• Segmentation

o Negotiating the tensions for each relational topic

• Reaffirmation

o Accepting tensions normal and celebrating differences

• Recalibration

o Reframe so that it doesn’t seem like a contradiction

• Integration

o Satisfying both needs simultaneously

▪ Example: sharing the same space in a room, but doing different things Routine vs. Strategic Maintenance

• Strategic Behaviors are done intentionally for the purpose of maintaining the  relationship

o Example: folding laundry when they normally don’t

• Routine Behaviors are done non-deliberately for the purpose to help maintain the  relationship

Large Lecture Study Guide 2

Stage Model of Relationship Development (Knapp & Vangelisti, 2005-2014)

1. Initiation

a. Make first impression

b. Follow prescribed behaviors (talk about specific topics)

c. Formal and ritualistic

2. Experimenting

a. Find common ground using small talk

b. Pleasant, relaxed

c. Most relationships do not pass this point

3. Intensifying

a. Longer stage with greater commitment

b. Relationship is defined as “we” not “I”

c. Increased self-disclosure and physical contact begins

d. Social support to one another

4. Integrating

a. Turn into single social identity/other recognized you as a couple

b. Adopt partners behaviors, manners, and beliefs; adopt common property c. Intimacy

5. Bonding

a. Public commitment

Turning Point Approach (Baxter & Bullis, 1986)

• No norms to follow, everything is individualized

• Maps a relationship using significant relational events/turning points, such as first kiss or  first big fight, to determine the relationships development

Stages of Interracial Relationship Development (Foeman & Nance, 1999)

1. Racial Awareness

a. Attraction and sensitivity

b. Figure out how to navigate with others feelings about them as a couple 2. Coping with Social Definitions of race

a. Develop strategies both proactive and reactive

3. Identify Emergence

a. Self-sustaining behaviors such as reframing experience for the culture at large 4. Maintenance

a. Could need to revisit all or some of the other stages

Factors Influencing Self-Disclosure

• Disclosures of others

o Example: when others share you will share

• Audience size

o Example: people are more likely to share in small groups

• Topic

o Example: salary is usually not shared but politics are

• Valence

o Example: when someone shares too much negatives we consider them to be  annoying or needy and we give them a negative vibe

• Gender

o Example: women disclose more than men, but both disclose negative things  equally

• Receiver relationship

o Example: you share more with a close friend than with a stranger

Impact of Technology upon Self-Disclosure

• Facebook users make status updates an average of 9x/month, primarily as an emotional  disclosure

• Many older generations feel that many younger generations share things that are way  to personal

• Social support on Facebook is associated with general well-being and illness  management

• SNS usage is associated with higher stress and decreased life quality

Social Penetration Theory (Altman & Taylor, 1973)

• Explains how relationships become more intimate through increase self-disclosure • Breadth – the number of topics discussed

o Increases in variety and the amount but once you know your partner, the  amount of topics decrease

o Usually socially appropriate things

• Depth – degree to which the inner core is penetrated

o The more intimate you get the more comfortable you get, but it still is hard to  share things

o The more you share the deeper you discuss topics

Listening vs. Hearing

• Listening – make meaning from someone’s message

o Voluntary and intentional

• Hearing – physiological response to sound that automatically happens

o Accidental and natural

Barriers to Effective Listening

• Barrier 1: Distractions

o Noise

▪ Physical

• Examples: emails, texts, wearing headphones while walking or  

biking, and hearing noise outside classroom

▪ Psychological

• Example: Daydreaming

o Information Overload

▪ Overwhelming feeling from all the information we take in everyday

• Barrier 2: Lack of Motivation

o Pseudolistening – pretend to listen to be polite

▪ Do this due to boredom or not understanding information

o Selective Attention – only listening to what you want to hear

• Barrier 3: Defensiveness

o Rebuttal Tendency – debate a speaker’s point and formulate a reply while the  other person is still speaking

▪ Interrupting saying “yes, but….”

o Closed-mindedness – not listening to anything we disagree with

• Barrier 4: Competitiveness

o Competitive Interrupting – interrupt to take control of the conversation ▪ People want their ideas heard or think they know what the other person  is going to say

▪ Example: Doctors interrupting patients

4 Types of Listeners

• People-oriented – relationships are in mind, and concerned about the other persons  feelings

o We see them as a really good friend

o Perceived as empathic, outgoing, sociable but could miss important task  information

• Time-oriented – get to the point

o Not recommended for listeners

o Perceived as socially callous but efficient

• Action-oriented – prefers organization and is focused on the task

o Logical arguments

o Keep on track but doesn’t focus on feelings

• Content-oriented – evaluates everything someone says

o Similar to critical response audience

o Views things well from other perspectives but scrutinizes everything • 40% of people score high in 2 or more styles

3 Components of Listening

• Affective – motivation

• Cognitive – selecting a message, attending to it, and understanding it • Behavioral – responding to a message

Percentage of Communication that is Nonverbal

• 65-93% is nonverbal

3 Functions of Nonverbal Communication

• Accent, reinforce, and contradict verbal communication

o Actions speak louder than words

o Movement

▪ Example: moving away from a person = dissatisfaction

o Gesture

▪ Example: wave = greeting

o Facial expression

▪ Example: smiling = happy

o Eyes

▪ Example: mom look

o Paralanguage

▪ Example: I got the job!

o Touch/haptics

▪ Example: hug = reinforces verbal intimacy

• Expresses Identity

o How we carry ourselves and choices we make

▪ Examples: artifacts, appearances, dress

o Kinesics

▪ Example: standing tall = confident

o Paralanguage

▪ Example: apologizing when needed

o Time orientation

▪ Example: keeping people waiting = power/status

• Clarifies relationship

o Content + relationship = communication

▪ Every message has content and relational messages

o Eyes can show attraction or dominance

o Facial expressions convey emotions

Significance of Touch

• We cannot survive without touch

• Affection conveys intimacy, aggression conveys dominance

Relational Dialectics Theory (Baxter & Montgomery 1988 – 1996, Baxter, 2011)

• 2 poles of dialectics constantly pull against each other so balance is needed • Relational Maintenance – negotiating process in relationships involving contradictory  tensions

• Affiliation – extent you want to spend time together

• Predictability – extent you want things to be stable and routine

• Intimacy – extent you want to be open with one another

• Internal

o Tension within the pairs

o Affiliation: connection vs. autonomy

o Predictability: predictability vs. novelty

o Intimacy: openness vs. closedness

• External

o Tension pairs experience with people in social networks and larger communities o Affiliation: inclusion vs. seclusion

▪ Example: spending an anniversary alone or with others

o Predictability: conventionality vs. uniqueness

▪ Example: following social norms

o Intimacy: revelation vs. concealment

▪ Example: being open and honest about the relationship with others Dialectical Responses

• Selection/Denial

o Responding only to one pole of dialectic and ignoring the other

▪ Example: Always being open and honest

• Neutralization/Balance

o Aiming for a midpoint

▪ Examples: moderately close, predictable, open

• Cyclic Oscillation/Spiraling Alternation

o Taking turns

▪ Example: meeting the need when the need needs to be met

• Segmentation

o Negotiating the tensions for each relational topic

• Reaffirmation

o Accepting tensions normal and celebrating differences

• Recalibration

o Reframe so that it doesn’t seem like a contradiction

• Integration

o Satisfying both needs simultaneously

▪ Example: sharing the same space in a room, but doing different things Routine vs. Strategic Maintenance

• Strategic Behaviors are done intentionally for the purpose of maintaining the  relationship

o Example: folding laundry when they normally don’t

• Routine Behaviors are done non-deliberately for the purpose to help maintain the  relationship

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