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SOUTHERN / Engineering / BIOL 102 / What are the characteristics of mammary gland?

What are the characteristics of mammary gland?

What are the characteristics of mammary gland?

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∙ what term refers to the small nonviable daughter cell that results from meisosi I?




∙ what hormones decrease the release of FSH from the anterior pituitary in males?




∙ what two body systems are responsible for normal reproduction function?



Chapter 28 Connect Questions ∙ identify functions of the reproduction system  development of offspring  gamete production  hormone production  ∙ The ovaries, uterine tubes, the vagina are all considered female ____. internIf you want to learn more check out What is the common name of ethers?
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al genitalia  ∙ Male gametes are called ____ whereas female gametes are called ___  sperm, oocytes  ∙ indicate the correct order of the uterine wall layers from the inner most to the outer most.  endometrium  myometrium  perimeterium  ∙ which of the following are part of the male reproductive anatomy? seminal vesicles  prostate gland  testes  epididymis  ∙ match the hormone to its main target tissue  LH- Ovaries, stimulates release of testosterone  Prolactin- Mammary Glands, stimulates milk production Oxytocin- Uterus, causes uterine contractions Testosterone- Testes GnRH- stimulates release of Anterior Pituitary Gland hormones FSH- stimulates sperm and oocyte development Estrogen- has feedback effects on LH and FSH that effect ovulation  ∙ Menarche and secondary sex characteristic development occurs during ___. puberty ∙ any precursor cell destined to become a gamete is known as a ___ cell. germ ∙ what two body systems are responsible for normal reproduction  function? nervous, endocrine ∙ the term ____ describes a class of pituitary hormone that stimulates the gonads. This class includes FSH and LH  gonadotropin ∙ egg and sperm are also known as ____ gametes  ∙ match the male reproduction structure with its function  prostate gland – secretes portion of semen  testis – secretes reproductive hormone  ductus deferens – contracts to propel sperm towards ejaculatory duct urethra- passage for a semen to outside of body ∙ describe the dartos muscle  the layer of smooth muscle under the superficial fascia of the scrotum ∙ a typical ejaculation results in the discharge of 2 to 5ml. of the fluid  called ____. semen ∙ the sequence of structure through which sperm will travel.  testis epididymis ductus deferens  ampulla  ejaculatory duct  prostatic urethra  membranous urethra  spongy urethra  ∙ correct characteristics of mammary glands they are located within breasts  they are organs of milk production  they are modified sweat glands.  ∙ the maturation and transformation of an ovarian follicle  primordial follicle  primary follicle  secondary follicle  mature follicle  corpus luteum  corpus albicans  ∙ The erectile organ that serves to deposit semen in the vagina is the ___penis  ∙ describe the hymen  a membrane that stretches across the vaginal orifice  ∙ what hormones decrease the release of FSH from the anterior pituitary  in males? testosterone  inhibin ∙ describe the cervix  the inferior cylindrical end of the uterus  ∙ which of the following are part of the external female reproductive  anatomy? clitoris  labia majora  bulb of the vestibule ∙ the two-large prominent rounded skin folds that usually come together  to conceal the structures of the vestibule are called the ___ ___  labia majora ∙ sexual excitement and plateau often culminate in the intense sensation referred to as  orgasm  ∙ rank the components of semen in order of highest percentage first to  lowerst percentage last seminal vesicle fluid  prostatic fluid  sperm and spermatic duct secretions  bulbourethral gland secretions  ∙ in males the ____ is part of the reproductive and urinary tract  urethra ∙ the innermost layer of the uterus is the ___  endometrium  ∙ The phase of the ovarian cycle that extends from ovulation to the start  of menstruation is the __ phase luteal ∙ which of the following structures release hormones to control the  ovarin cycle? hypothalamus  pituitary  ∙ what term refers to the small nonviable daughter cell that results from  meisosi I? first polar body  ∙ the testicles are combines endocrine and exocrine glands that produce: sperm  testosterone  ∙ the colored circular zone surrounding the nipple of the breast is called  the ___  areola  ∙ starting with hypothalamus place the organs in the hierarchy of  hormonal control involved in the sexual cycle in order  hypothalamus  pituitary gland  ovaries  uterus  ∙ order the phases of the menstrual cycle with day 1 and ending with  day 28 menses  secretory phase  proliferative phase  ∙ the ductus deferens is also called the  vas deferens  ∙ what is the function of the placenta? it removes fetal wastes  it provides nutrients for the fetus  it secretes hormones  ∙ the division of a germ cell into four functional genetically unique  gamets is called ____  spermatogenesis  ∙ the columns of erectile tissue in the penis include the  corpora cavernosa  corpora spongiosum∙ identify the events that occur during the ovarian cycle  follicular phase ovulation  luteal phase  ∙ the egg cell between meiosis I and fertilization is the __  secondary oocyte ∙ the corpus luteum primarily secretes ___ and ___  progesterone, estrogen  ∙ the loos layer of skin covering the glans penis in an uncircumcised  males is called the __ prepuce ∙ order the layers of the uterine tube wall from superficial to deep  serosa  muscular layer  mucosa  ∙ the distal expansion of the penis is called the __ __ glans penis  ∙ the cells forming the stratified layers around a secondary follicle are  called ___ cells granulosa Lab 9 Notes YELLOW ∙ Metabolism includes all chemical reactions in the body ∙ Mole- number of molecules of a substance  ∙ Dozen-12 ∙ Score-20  ∙ 1 Mole of ATP- 7 Kcals of energy (7,000 cal) ∙ 1 calorie of heat raises – 1 gram of water (1 degree C)  ∙ 1 Kilocalorie of heat raises- 1 gram of water (1,000 degrees C) ∙ Beta Oxidation- a process that breaks down fatty acid chains into two  two-carbon used in cellular respiration.  ∙ To break down fatty acid bonds- 1 ATP is required- energy released  makes 5 ATP ∙ 4 net (overall what left with) ATP but 5 ATP per was made per broken  bond ∙ Two carbons is processed into Acetyl-CoA, then to the Citric Acid cycle,  then to the Electron Transport Chain. ∙ Proteins yield 4 Kcal per gram  ∙ Carbs yield 4 Kcal per gram  ∙ Lipids (fats) 9 Kcal per gram  ∙ NADH gets converted to (3 ATP inside mitochondria) & (2 ATP outside  mitochondria) ∙ FADH2 get converted to (2 ATP inside mitochondria)  6 O2 + C6H12O6  6CO2 + 6H20 (oxygen) (glucose)  (carbon dioxide) (water) You’re looking for 3 things in Aerobic Respiration  1. What’s happening to the carbons  2. How many ATP are formed 3. What Coenzymes are form and then the NET ATP Steps of Aerobic Respiration  1.Glycolisis – 2ATP, 2 NADH  2a. Acetyl Co-A formation- 2 NADH 2b. Citric Acid Cycle or Krebs – 2 ATP, 6 NADH, 2FADH2 3.Electron Transport Chain- 32 ATP TOTALS: 36 ATP, 10 NADH, 2 FADH2Lab 10 ∙ The concentration and volume of urine excreted by our  kidneys will change depending on what our body needs for  homeostasis.  ∙ Aldosterone is a hormone produced by the adrenal cortex  under the control of the body’s renin-angiotensin system.  ∙ A decrease in BP triggers release of renin.  ∙ An electrolyte shift coupled with the addition of antidiuretic  hormone (ADH) also caused more water to be reabsorbed  into the blood, resulting in increased BP C. CORTICAL  RADIATE  A. ARTERY  D. CORTICAL  RADIATE VEIN  E.  AFFERENT ARTERIOLE  B. EFFERENT ARTERIOLE  ARCUATE ARTERY  F. ARCUATE VEIN G. INTERLOBAR ARTERY  H. INTERLOBAR VEIN  I. COLLECTING DUCT  J. LOOP OF HENLE  K. PERITUBULAR  CAPILLARIES  L. DISTAL CONVOLUTED  TUBULE  M. PROXIMAL  CONVOLUTED TUBULE  N. GLOMERULUS  O. GLOMERULAR CAPSULEExercise 9: Renal System Physiology: Activity 6: The Effect of Hormones on Urine Formation Lab Report Pre-lab Quiz Results 1. Which of the following has a role in altering the urine volume and  concentration? You correctly answered: d. all of these 2. The total solute concentration surrounding the tubule lumen refers to the solutes in You correctly answered: b. the interstitial space. 3. Aldosterone is produced in the You correctly answered: c. adrenal cortex. 4. ADH promotes the renal reabsorption of You correctly answered: a. water. 5. Aldosterone promotes renal reabsorption of __________ and secretion of  __________. You correctly answered: c. NaCl, potassium Predict Question: Predict Question 1: What will happen to the urine volume (compared with  baseline) when aldosterone is added to the distal tubule? The urine volume  will decrease.  Predict Question 2: What will happen to the urine volume (compared with  baseline) when ADH is added to the collecting duct? The urine volume will  decrease.  Predict Question 3: What will happen to the urine volume and the urine  concentration (compared with baseline) in the presence of both aldosterone  and ADH? The urine volume will decrease and the urine concentration will  increase.  Stop & Think Questions: Why is the concentration in the urinary bladder 100 mOsm? No ADH has  been added to this nephron. In the presence of aldosterone, what component of the tubule fluid moves  out of the distal tubule and into the interstitial space? NaCl In the presence of ADH, why did the urinary potassium concentration  increase? The water volume in the urinary bladder is decreased, increasing the  concentration of solutessuch as potassium. In the presence of both ADH and aldosterone, why did the urinary potassium  concentration increase? There was more potassium secretion into the distal  tubule and more water reabsorption in the collecting duct Post-lab Quiz Results 1. If there has been a significant loss of fluid from the body, the kidneys will  generate __________ urine. You correctly answered: d. hyperosmotic 2. If you drink a large volume of water, the kidneys will generate __________  urine. You correctly answered: b. hypo-osmotic 3. In response to dehydration, ADH will be released from the You correctly answered: c. posterior pituitary gland. 4. In response to abnormally low plasma osmolality, aldosterone will  increase You correctly answered: a. sodium reabsorption along the distal tubule and  the collecting ductLab 11Lab 11Chapter 26 Connect Questions 1. The structure indicated in the figure is the opening of the ____. Urethra  2. Match the tissues surrounding the kidneys with the correct description.  Renal capsule – a layer of fibrous connective tissue directly surrounding the kidneys  Adipose tissue – surrounds the renal capsule and cushions the kidneys Renal fascla – layer of connective tissue that attaches the kidney to the abdominal wall 3. Molecules less than __ nm can be freely filtered from the blood through the filtration membrane.  7 4. The kidneys, urinary bladder, _____ and ______ are organs of the urinary system.  urethra, ureters  5. Describe the location of the kidneys the kidneys are near the lateral psoas major muscles.  the kidneys are located behind the peritoneal membrane  6. Match the label with the correct structure kidney  ureter urethra  urinary bladder 7. other than excretion, the major functions of the kidneys include: regulation of red blood cell production  regulation of blood volume  regulation of blood solutes  8. The major excretory organ of the body is the _____. kidneys 9. What hollow muscular organ is located in the pelvic cavity posterior to  the symphysis pubis and is part of the urinary system? urinary bladder 10. match the substance in the blood with its ability to pass through  a healthy filtration membrane.  positivity charged ion – pass freely into to filtrate most blood cells- cannot pass into the filtrate proteins less than 7 nm – small amount may enter the filtrate but will  ultimately be reabsorbed 11. which of the following structures are involved in the renin angiotensin-aldosterone mechanism? distal convoluted tubules  adrenal cortex  cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus  12. the _____ urinary sphincter controls the flow of urine through the  urethra. external 13. the filtration membrane prevents blood cells and proteins from  entering the Bowman capsule of the basis of: size  charge  14. what is the name of the portion of the nephron tubule indicated  in the figure? descending limb of the loop of Henie  ascending limb of the loop of Henie proximal convoluted tubule  distal convoluted tubule  15. Identify the effects of increased secretion of ADH  an increase in number of aquaporin’s  an decrease in blood osmolality  an increase in kidney reabsorption of water  16. Which blood vessel is indicated by the arrow in the illustration? renal artery  interlobar artery  renal vein  segmental artery  17. the process in which the nephron returns water and some filtered molecules to the blood is ______ _____.  tubular reabsorption  18. Without renal autoregulation, if mean arterial pressure increases  what would happen to GFR? GFR would increase  19. The fibrous connective tissue that encloses the kidney is the  renal ____.capsule 20. match the three types of filtration pressures in the renal  corpuscle to their correct values.  50 mm Hg outward- Glomerular capillary pressure  10 mm Hg inward – capsular hydrostatic pressure 30 mm Hg inward- blood colloid osmotic pressure  21. identity the layers of the filtration membrane  basement membrane  visceral layer of glomerular capsule  endothelium of glomerular capillaries  22. the movement of nonfiltered substances from the blood into  filtrate is called tubular ____ secretion  23. identify the organs that are capable of eliminating waste from  the body.  intestines  lungs skin 24. within the renal corpuscle, the colloid pressure (COP) is a  pressure drawing fluid into what? glomerular capillaries  25. identify substances that are impermeable to the filtration to the  filtration barrier.  proteins  blood cells  26. The black arrow in this illustration is indicating which structure? collecting duct  descending limb of the loop of Henie proximal convoluted tubule  distal convoluted tubule  27. A renal corpuscle, a proximal convoluted tubule, a loop of Henie  and a distal convoluted tubule are the four major components of a ____. nephron  28. Within the renal corpuscle, several layers from the ____ through  which fluid is filtered.  filtration membrane 29. The external urinary sphincter surrounds the _____ and extends  through the pelvic floor.  urethra 30. Kidneys filter ____, produce filtrate and ultimately excrete urine.  blood 31. Which of the following substances would pass freely through the  filtration membrane to become part of the filtrate? glucose  water  32. autoregulation is achieved though  tubuloglomerular feedback  the myogenic mechanism  33. the filtration pressure in the glomerulus is determined by the  balance of which two pressures?  blood hydrostatic  colloid osmotic  34. the ____ ____ and the podocytes repel negatively charged  glycoproteins and prevent them from exiting the blood.  basement membrane  35. What is filtration pressure? the pressure gradient in the renal corpuscle that is responsible for the  formation of filtrate  36. the ____ nephrons are located close to the kidney surface and  have relatively short nephron loops.  cortical  37. the tissue layer of the Bowman capsule pictured in the figure is  the ____ layer  visceral  38. effects of aging on the kidneys include the following  loss of glomeruli function  gradual decrease in size of the kidneys  gradual decrease in blood flow through the kidneys  decline in absorption and secretion  39. Identify the structures of the nephron that maintain the high  solute concentration in the medullary region of the kidney  loop of Henie  Vasa recta40. Net filtration pressure (NFP) takes into account both ___ pressure  and colloid osmotic pressure of the capsular fluid and capillary blood.  hydrostatic  41. The bowman capsule is composed of: inner layer called the visceral layer  outer layer called the parietal layer  42. Explain why the kidneys typically produce 180 L of filtrate each  day but only 1-2 L of urine each day. the majority of the filtrate is: reabsorbed into the blood 43. the small artery that carries blood leaving the glomerulus is the  ____ arteriole. efferent 44. the distal convoluted tubules of several nephrons merge to form  what structure?  collecting duct  45. the blood vessel that supplies blood to the kidney is called the  ____ ____  renal artery  46. The kidneys can alter their excretion of ____ ions, thus regulating  extracellular fluid pH.  hydrogen 47. normal filtrate that eventually forms urine is composed of: excessive ions  metabolic waste  toxic molecules  48. identify the components of the juxtaglomerular apparatus  macula densa  juxtaglomerular cells  49. the urethra is lined with what type of tissue cells? stratified or pseudostratified columnar epithelium  50. fenestrae and podocytes both contribute to the ___ filtration membrane  51. filtration is a process where blood components and molecules are separated by size  chargeChapter 26 PowerPoint Questions Chapter 27 Connect Questions 1. hydrogen ions are released into a solution by ____ whereas hydrogen  ions are removed from a solution by ____. acids, bases 2. in regards to the daily volume of water intake and loss: intake should equal loss  3. name the two major fluid compartments of the body. intracellular fluid compartment, extracellular fluid compartment  4. put the following mechanisms for acid balance in order of their speed  of action (fastest to slowest) buffer system  respiratory system  renal system  5. water loss varies ____ depending on physical activity level and  environmental conditions.  greatly  6. a substance that resists changes in pH by binding to excess hydrogen  ions or releasing hydrogen ions is a _____.  buffer  7. slight deviations from the normal concentration of ____ ions can shut  down metabolic pathways as well as alter the structure and function of  other macromolecules.  hydrogen  8. list three mechanisms used to regulate the pH levels in body fluids.  renal changes  chemical buffer systems  respiratory changes  9. insensible perspiration – water lost through evaporation from the skin  sensible perspiration – sweat secreted from sweat glands in the skin  10. what major variables are affected by improper regulation of  water balance? interstitial fluid pressure  blood pressure  blood osmolality 11. the bicarbonate ion (HCO2-) is considered a ____ base because it  binds less of the available H+ and has less effect on pH.  weak  12. hydrochloric acid (HCL) is an example of a ____ acid because it  completely dissociates in solution.  strong 13. what substance can move across plasma membranes and alter  the composition of intracellular fluid?  water, electrolytes  14. place the statements in the correct order to illustrate the role of  ADH in regulating extracellular volume.  15. 16. the pH of a solution is determined solely by its ____ ion  concentration.  H+ 17. a ____ acid such as carbonic acid (h2co3) ionizes only slightly and keeps most hydrogen in a chemically bound form that does not affect  pH. weak 18. a container is divided in half by a semipermeable membrane. a  solution of 300 milliosmole glucose is poured into the compartment  labeled A. Compartment B contains 60 milliosmole glucose. What will  happen? water will diffuse from B to A  19. the primary mechanisms that regulate Na+ levels in the ECF  directly monitor what two variables? blood pressure  blood osmolality  20. the “salt-retaining hormone,” _____ plays the primary role in  adjustment of sodium excretion.  aldosterone 21. name the major anion electrolyte  chloride (negatively charged ion)  22. which of the following structures are involved in the renin angiotensin-aldosterone mechanism?  cells of the juxtaglomerular apparatus  adrenal cortex distal convoluted tubules  23. a decrease in blood osmolality inhibits the secretion of ____ and  therefore results in _____ (dilute/concentrated) urine.  ADH, dilute  24. name the most important buffering system in the blood.  bicarbonate/carbonic acid system  25. what reactions correct the homeostatic imbalance in the  depicted scenario?  carbonic acid is dissociated into bicarbonate into bicarbonate and H+ less bicarbonate is reabsorbed in the kidney  26. intracellular pH is maintained primarily through the action of the  ___ buffer system.  phosphate 27. if blood pH decreases the rate of H+ secretion ____  increases if blood pH decreases, that means that more H+ ions are  accumulating this is unhealthy so the body secretes more H+ to get rid of them in urine.  28. what affects the composition of intracellular fluid? electrical charge differences across plasma membranes  trapped organic molecules  osmotic movements of water  active ion transport  29. the cell membrane is ____ ____ meaning that some substances  can cross into or out of the cell while other substances cannot.  selectively permeable 30. what organ serves as the main route for sodium excretion? kidney  31. indicate which of the following explain why electrolytes are  physiologically important  they are chemically reactive and participate in metabolism  they strongly affect the osmolality of the body fluids and the body’s  water content and distribution  they determine the electrical potential (charge differences) across cell  membranes.  32. along with sodium _____ produces the resting membrane  potentials and action potentials of nerve and skeletal muscle cells. potassium 33. if the blood pH level ___ the rate of bicarbonate ion reabsorption  increases.  decreases  34. mechanisms used to regulate extracellular blood volume include. antidiuretic hormone mechanism  sympathetic neuron inputs  renin-angiotensin-aldosterone mechanism  atrial natriuretic hormone mechanism  35. rank men, women and infant from greats to least amount of body water.  infant, men, women  36. the _____ are the main organs that can regulate the volume and  concentration fot eh blood by controlling water loss.  kidneys 37. all of the fluid found within the body cells is part of the ____  compartment.  intracellular  38. identify how the body will respond to an increase in osmolality of  the extracellular fluid.  thirst increases  ADH secretion increases 39. most water intake 90% comes from _____.  ingestion  40. the addition of CO2 to the body fluids raises H+ concentration  and lowers pH while the removal of CO2 has the opposite effect. this is  the basis for the strong buffering capacity of the _____ system.  respiratory  41. place the statements in the correct order to illustrate the role of  ADH in regulating extracellular volume.  42. vitamin _____ is required for the intestinal absorption of ____  which is required for the formation of healthy bones.  D, Ca+ 43. name the fluid compartment that includes all of the fluid found  outside of the bodys cells.  extracellular 44. if co2 levels in the blood increases, how do the organs seen in  this figure respond to correct the imbalance? more co2 is expelled from the lungs the respiratory center increases the breathing rate in the lungs.  45. what is hyperkalemia? an excessive amount of potassium ions in the blood 46. the three major chemical buffer system of the body are the  carbonic acid/bicarbonate buffer system, the protein buffer system and the _____ buffer system.  phosphate 47. the carbonic acid/bicarbonate buffer system is important for  regulating the pH of fluid in the ___ compartment.  extracellular  48. what hormones are released to regulate sodium levels when a  decrease in blood pressure is detected? renin  ADH 49. sodium homeostasis leads to the homeostasis of the anion: chloride  50. the most abundant anion in extracellular fluid is  chloride 51. blood calcium concentration increases when ____ hormone  stimulates bone resorption by osteoclasts, promotes intestinal  absorption of calcium, and inhibits urinary excretion of calcium  parathyroidChapter 27 PowerPoint Questions

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