CSR 215 Final Exam Study Guide (Textiles)
CSR 215 Final Exam Study Guide (Textiles) CSR 215 (Textiles)
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Krysta Gates on Tuesday April 7, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CSR 215 (Textiles) at Purdue University taught by Sally Harmon in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 286 views.
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Date Created: 04/07/15
CSR 215 Final Study Guide Final Tuesday May 6th 700 900 pm Beering 2290 Chapter 1 Introduction to Textiles Fiber any substance natural or manufactured w high length to width ratio w suitable characteristics for processing into fabric smallest component hair like in nature that can be removed from a fabric Consumers often describe textile products by their fiber names cotton tshirt wool sweater etc Fabric flexible planar substance constructed from solutions fibers yarns fabrics or any combination also known as PIECE GOODS Yarn grouping of fibers twisted or laid together to form continuous strand that can be made into textile fabric Influence product performance Greige Goods fabric that has not been finished muslin Smart Textiles sense and react to environment or some sort of stimuli electrical chemical thermal mechanical magnetic Can control delivery of medication monitor pulse body temp etc Soft Goods products constructed of textiles apparel interiors technical textiles Generic Fiber family of fibers with similar chemical nature Must be identified at point of purchase Defined by the Federal Trade Commission Trade Name Trademark distinguish one textile from another and often include quality control programs Flammable Fabrics Act requires that some textile products meet specified levels of safety for flammability Prohibits marketing of dangerously flammable apparel and interior textiles children s sleepwear interiors rugs carpets mattresses Textile Fiber Products Identification Act protects consumers and producers from unfair competition resulting from unrevealed presence of substitute materials in textile products Covers all fibers not covered in Wool Products Labeling Act Labeling Requirements Federal Trade Commission FTC is responsible for preventing unfair trade practices primarily the marketing of deliberately unlabeled or mislabeled textile products Laws and regulations require that consumers are informed of fiber content care instructions and are protected against unsafe textiles Chapter 2 Textile Serviceability and Sustainability Property categoriesPerformance Terms Aesthetic attractiveness of appearance of textile Cover ability of fiber to conceal or protect o Luster way light is reflected from fiber 0 Drape way fabric falls over 3D form 0 Hand way textile feels net to skin stiff flexible soft harsh 0 Texture nature of textile surface both visual and tactile perspectives Durability how textile withstands everyday use how long it lasts 0 Abrasion resistance ability of textile to withstand rubbing o Flexibility ability to repeatedly bend without breaking o Pilling formation of balls of fiber on fabric surfaces 0 Strength ability of textile to withstand pulling force 0 Elongation amount a fiber can stretch without breaking Comfort and Safety textile s interaction with body how it transfers heat air and moisture Absorbencv ability of a fiber to take up moisture from body or environment Hydrophilic fibers that absorb moisture Hvdroohobic fabrics that have little or no absorbancy Oleophobic fibers that are attracted to oil Electrical Conductivitv ability of fiber to transfer electrical charges static cling attract lint and dust Wicking ability of fiber to transfer moisture along its surface Heat retentionConductivitv Heat sensitivitv fiber s reaction to heat some fibers nylon and polyester soften melt and shrink when exposed to high temps o Flammabilitv how a fabric reacts to heat and burns Density measure of fiber weight relative to an equal volume of water Appearance Retention textile s ability to retain original appearance throughout use and care Has to do with resistance to wrinkling shrinking abrasion stretching pilling etc Resiliency ability of fiber to return to its original shape after bending crushing and twisting Resilient fibers produce wrinkle resistant fabrics Loft ability to spring back to original thickness after being compressed or crushed Dimensional stabilitv ability of a fabric to retain its original size and shape through use and care Shrinkaoe resistance ability of fabric to retain its original dimensions during cleaning Elastic recoverv ability of fabric to return to its original dimension or shape during elongation Aoino resistance resistance to harmful changes over time spandex can be come stiff rigid and brittle Mildew resistance resistance to growth of mildew fungus or mold Insect resistance Chemical reactivitv describes the affect that acids alkalis solvents etc have on textiles Lioht resistance Care the treatment that maintains a textile s original appearance and condition washing drying etc Sustainability practices and policies that reduce environmental pollution and do not exploit people or natural resources Life Cycle Assessment Cradle to Cradle Staple short fibers measured in inches or centimeters Range from less than 2cm to 46 cm Except for silk natural fibers are only staple length Filament Long fibers measured in miles or kilometerssik crepe de chine polyester satin nylon taffeta Monofilament Multifilament Smooth filament straight used to produce smooth silky fabrics Textured filament have been crimped used to produce bulky cotton or wool like fabrics Filament Tow untwisted bundle of continuous filaments refers to manmade fibers Crimp fiber or fabric crimp refers to waves bends twists coils curls along a fiber Increases fiber resiliency abrasion resistance stretch bulk and warmth Makes it easier to spin fibers into staple yarns Denier weight in grams for 9000 meters of fiber or yarn Life cycle assessment examines way the production use care and disposal of a product affects people and the environment Considers production of raw materials through the treatment of waste produced during production Cradle to cradle Environmentally intelligent design framework that examines overall impact of production care use disposal and recycle potential of products from economic social and industrial perspectives Fiber terms and characteristics staple filament filament tow crimp Chapter 3 Natural Fibers Natural Plant Fibers major component is cellulose cotton ramie flax hemp 3 types 0 Seed like cotton grows within pod or boil from developing seeds 0 Bast like flax grows from stem and root of a plant 0 Leaf like sisal removed from veins or ribs of a leaf Natural Animal Protein Fibers produced by animals or insects and are made up of natural chemicals keratin for wool and fibroin for silk Wool produced by sheep only fibers with scales that felt or interlock Felting causes wool items to shrink in wash Natural bio component fiber Good abrasion resistance Good flexibility Strength and elastic recovery decrease when wet Absorbent Virgin Wool wool that has never been processed Lamb s Wool softer and finer from animals less than 7 months old Silk sericulture production of cultivated silk Comes from the larvae of the silk moth The larvae hatch into caterpillars and eat mulberry leaves Then spin cocoons from silk secreted by glands in its head Chapter 4 Manufactured regenerated and synthetic fibers Benefits of Manufactured Fibers Made from chemical compounds produced in manufacturing facilities They have more options in terms of performance make it wrinkle resistant more elastic water resistant etc o 2 types regenerated and synthetic produced from naturally occurring chemicals but do not occur naturally as fibers processing is needed to turn them into fibers 0 Rayon regenerated cellulose sometimes bamboo began in US as artificial silk Viscose Rayon is popular in the US Highly absorbent soft comfortable poor durability and appearance retention Not easy care Lyocell composed of solvent spun cellulose Similar to cotton more sustainable than rayon Good durability and moderate appearance retention 0 Acetate manufactured from cellulose acetate a modification of cellulose Originally used for airplane wings very heat sensitive Lowest absorbency of any cellulosic fiber low strength abrasion and wrinkle resistance Good drape and hand low cost synthesized or made from small simple materials Can be heat set often heat sensitive resistant to chemicals Drone to billing and static Nylon made of long chain synthetic polyamide Frequently engineered to enhance performance Color scavenger prone to static and oily soils 0 Polyester Most widely used manufactured fiber Fiberfill Strong resilient durable versatile Can be heat set prone to pills static and oleophilllic 0 Olefin melt spun manufactured fiber Made of simple organic compounds High moisture vapor transport rate MVTR good for active wear Acrylic low density high bulk mostly used in apparel Minor in global market Usually for coat linings Uses more energy and water than polyester Elastomeric Fibers Natural or synthetic compounds that can be stretched repeatedly to at least twice their original length and immediatelyforcibly return to size 0 Rubber oldest elastomer Made from coagulated latex from rubber tree Manufactured fiber of natural or synthetic rubber 0 Spandex first manufactured elastic fiber good strength and durability Monofilament or fused multifilament yarns Wet spun superior to rubber in durability Heat Sensitive Melts and shrinks when exposed to high temps acetate Heat Set heat process that stabilizes shape and size of yarnsfabrics made of heat sensitive fibers Creates permanent pleats creases and designs Wrinkles from washing and ironing are hard to remove Microfibers fibers with deniers of less than 10 split from larger fibers Chapter 5 Yarns Yarn Continuous strand of fibersmaterials in a form suitable for knitting weaving or manipulating into fabric Filament Yarn made from filament fibers typically manufactured fibers silk are the only natural ones have no protruding fiber ends and do not pill or lint o 2 types of filament yarns SMOOTH and TEXTURED o Smooth made with smooth straight fibers uniform in size low twist lustrous slick o Textured bulk crimped filament fibers have aesthetic and comfort of spun yarn more comfortable absorbent and permeable Slightly weaker than smooth filament but do not shed pill or lint o Monofilament made from single fiber Used for technical products sewing thread fishing line fruitveggie bags have no twist to them Spun STAPLE Yarns made with short staple fibers held together by twist Usually have fuzzy surface Duller and less uniform Warmer and more comfortable than filament yarns More involved than production of filament yarns Must me cleaned straightened and aligned 0 Combed process that removes very short fibers from spun yarns and makes remaining longer fibers more parallel This process is used to make higher quality cottons Carded cottons that are NOT combed less regular and parallel o Worsted wools and wool blends that are combed so that short remaining fibers are more parallel and uniform o Woolen woolwool blends that are not combed less regular and parallel Ply combines 2 simple single yarns each strand is called a ply combined into 1 single yarn Increases yarn size strength and uniformity NoveltyFancy Yarns have unlike parts and irregular elements that occur at intervals Can be regular or random Produce fancy fabrics smaller the novelty effect the more durable it is Often made of plied yarns Can have 3 plies 0 Ground Ply 0 Effect Ply o Binder Ply o Tweed single spun fancy yarn w short colored fibers to add interest 0 Slub spun think and thin made by varying amounts of twist at regular intervals drapery upholstery 0 Chenille two binder plies hold short fibers in place to create a fringed look looks like a caterpillar Yarn Size finersmaller yarns softer more drapeable fabric higher quality Described by a units differ btwn filament and spun 0 70s yarns fine 20s yarns coarse letter S indicates single strand sewing thread typically 50 160 denier fabric softer 330 denier fabric heavier luggage Yarn Twist TPI Turns per inch spiral arrangement of fibers binds them together contributes to strength and performance Twist can either be S or 2 formation 0 As twist increases strength increases to a point 0 Lower twist yarns more comfortable harrier pilllint more and cost less Satin taffetas fleece flannel 2 3 TPl 0 Higher twist yarns higher quality twist is evenly distributed Voile Chiffon Crepe 4080 TPl Mixture different fabrics in different parts of the shirt like cotton and wool stripes in different parts of the fabric Blend actual threads are made up of different types of fibers and spun together Combination a plied yarn containing two or more yarns that vary in fiber composition content andor twist level or a plied yarn composed of both filament yarn and spun yarn usually blended or mixed to combine desirable properties or reduce cost Chapter 6 Woven Fabrics Woven Fabric 2 sets of yarns interlaced at right angles 2 components Vary by interlacing patterns yarns per inch and ratio of warp to filling yarns Angle between warp and filling gives fabric grain and is a measure of fabric quality Warp Yarns Lengthwise 0 Parallel to selvage at right angle 0 Produce firmer more rigid fabrics o Held taught in loom filling yarns inserted and pushed into place with reed to make fabric 0 Stronger more uniform higher twist usually higher count contain stripes if present Filling Weft Yarns crosswise yarns 0 Less uniform lower twist more crimp 0 May be special function yarns stretch metallic etc Bias thread line at 45degree angle to warp and weft yarns Most stretch Grain describes position of warp relative to filling yarns 0 On Grain warp yarns parallel to each other filling yarns perpendicular that move across at 90 degrees 0 Off Grain lower quality create production and use problems Do not drapehang properly printed designs not straight Selvage Parallel to warp direction forms lengthwise edge of fabric Float yarn crosses over more than one yarn at a time Balanced Ratio of warp yarns to filling yarns Fabrics have warp and filling yarns same size and equal count Most common plain weaves o Lightweight sheer o Voile georgette chiffon o Lightweight opaque o Batiste china silk 0 Medium Weight fabrics most widely used 0 Flannelette chambray ripstop nylon gingham o Heavyweight Fabrics o Burlap flannel tweed o Unbalanced Plain Weaves many more yarns in one direction than the other 21 31 12 When warp and filling yarns differ in color the one showing on the surface is the one with the higher count 0 Rib when of warp yarns increase to about 2X filling rib develops warp yarns cover filling yarns o Basket Weave made with 2 adjacent warps in the same position and 2 fillings inserted at the same time Most common are 2X2 2X1 and 2X4 more flexible and wrinkle resistant Lightweight 0 Medium Weight 0 Heavy Weight Twill Weaves each weftfilling floats across 2 warp yarns and forms a diagonal line or WALE Have technical face and back fewer interlacings makes softer more pliable and wrinkle resistant o Herringbone and hounds tooth o Warp Faced Twills high amnt of warp yarn on face stronger with higher twist denim chino Satin Weaves each weft yarn floats over 4 filling yarns and interlaces the 5th filling yarn Lustrous few interlacings meaning yarns can be packed close together producing dense fabrics Usually unbalanced Fancy Weaves design structure and pattern are permanent Cannot be removed without dismantling fabric Usually made w fancy yarns and special looms Fancy fabrics aka structural design fabrics o Dobby Weave small figured designs requiring fewer than 25 different warp arrangements to complete one design repeat 0 Includes madras dobby waffle cloth pique Bedford cloth momie 0 Jacquard Weave Large elaborate designs that require more than 25 different arrangements of the warp yarns to complete one repeat design 0 Include damask brocade and tapestry 0 Extra Yarn Weave weaving additional warp or filling yarns to create pattern 0 Eyelash most common 0 Leno warp yarns cross over each other before filling yarns are inserted o Pile Fabrics 3 dimensional construction made by weaving extra set of warp or filling yarns into ground weave that make short surface loops at ends Slack Tension seersucker terrycloth Chapter 7 Knit Fabrics Knitting forms fabrics by interloping one or more sets of yarns woven fabrics are interlacedinterlocked at right angles 0 Advantages o Knit equivalent to most woven fabrics o Stretches more than woven fabrics o Faster to make fabrics 0 Do not ravel but they do run 0 Disadvantages 0 Uses more yarn o Requires more uniform expensive yarn than weaving 0 Higher potential for shrinkage Wale Vertical column of stiches parallel to selvage Course horizontal row of stitches Gauge of needles in a specific distance in knitting machine Higher y 5 needlesinch quot3 v quot Knitting Methods j 39 1 FillingWeft Knitting 39 ll Yarns move horizontally 0 Made with knit tuck float and purl stitches 2 Warp Knitting 0 Yarns move vertically Machine process only 7 0 Makes only flat knits by means of vertical loop structure o Expensive bc requires very regular yarns o More guide bars more design flexibility Knit greater crosswise less lengthwise stretch Technical face is the smoother side Tuck creates patterns and textures in fabric Causes fabric to tuck bubble or pucker holes Float creates design by knitting in yarns of different types or colors one color will appear on face other will appear on back Purl forms fabric where both sides look identical Slow and expensive to knit Single Knit made on circular or flatbed machines with one set of needles Can be plain or fancy stretch more shrink more curl at edges run like a cheap t shirt Pile Knit fancy knits with pile of yarn loops of fibers Double Knit knitting machine w 2 beds of needles two way stretch dimensional stability Rib Knit lengthwise ridges on both side of fabric Pulling stitches to face and back of fabric in adjacent stitches Always double knits Chapter 8 Other fabrics Sources for Fabrics 0 Solutions 0 m thin layer of material made directly from solution wo fibers or yarns o Foam made by incorporating air into film 0 Fibers o Nonwoven fabrics made from fibrous webs bonded to form staple fabric 0 Fiberfill used in filling insulation and shaping components for ski jackets Batting made from new fiber Watting made from waste fiber 0 Yarns O O o Fab cs O O O O Braid flat three dimensional narrow fabrics which yarns interlace lengthwise and diagonally shoelaces and other technical products Lace openwork fabric with complex pattern Tufted Fabrics stitching pile yarns into fabric base Laminates fabrics that combine two separate fabrics into one using adhesive Knit Throuoh Fabrics made by knitting fabrics through nonwoven or laid warp fabric Quilted Fabrics combine 3 layer facefashion fabric center lofty layer backing Animal Products 0 O 0 Leather skin from mammal fish reptile processed to remain flexible Tanning treats skins and hides with chemicals to make water and rot resistant and pliable I Grain skin markings I Full grain top grain split Suede sanded leather Felt Mat or web of wool Chapter 9 Finishes Finish process done to a fiber yarn or fabric to change the appearance hand or performance Converts raw fabric into finished fabric Finish life 0 Permanent lasts for product s life mercerization Durable lasts for product s life but effectiveness decreases w useage Wrinkle resistance Temporary Lasts until cleaned calendaring Renewable can be applied by consumers or dry cleaners water repellant finish Classification of finishes o Routine prepare fabric for coloration aesthetic finishes and special purpose finishes 0 00000 0000 O Singeing burns away fiber ends projecting from fabric surface Biopolishing removes surface fuzz Scouring removes all foreign matter and soil Bleaching Optical brighteners Mercerization increases luster strength absorbency easier to dye Tension and Slack Mercerization Ammonia finish cotton and rayon Good crease recovery similar to mercerization Carbonizing for wool yarns Tentering applies tension during dying so fabric meets grain width and count specifications Heat Setting Calendaring produces smooth flat ironed finish by passing fabric through rollers 0 Aesthetic Change fabric appearance and hand and often fabric name 0 O 0 Applied design surface design Finishes that change luster I Glazed one roller rotates faster than others to smooth and polish surface I Cire hot metal roller slightly melts surface I Moire makes wood grain like finish I Schreiner Finish presses fine diagonal lines on surface I Embossed flat or raised designs fabric passes between one flat and one engraved metal roller Finishes that change drape I Parchmentized treated with sulfuric acid I Burn out finish one fiber dissolves leaving sheer areas I Sizing adds stiffness weight and body 0 Finishes that change texturehand I Pleating I Plisse printing with caustic soda I Embroidery I Eyelet I Napped produces 3 dimensional o Velour fleece flannel 0 Special Purpose 0 Shape Retention I Shrinkage control I Relaxation Shrinkage occurs during 1St cleaning cycle I Progressive Shrinkage may occur at smaller rates during additional cycles 0 Appearance retention I Stain release finish I Antislip finish I Fumefading resistant finish I Coating I Light stabilizing 0 Comfort Enhancing I Water repellent I Waterproof I Antistatic I Fabric softeners 0 Biological Control Finishes 0 Insect and moth control 0 Moldmildew o Antimicrobial 0 Safety Related Finishes 0 Flame retardant 0 Light reflecting Plisse imitates seersucker but waffle design created using chemicals applied Seersucker weaved using a slack tension warp to achieve design structural Water Bath Finish water used as solvent chemical placed in water fabric is dropped in Bad for environment 0 Alternatives 0 Foam chem finish uses less water and energy 0 Solvent chem finish uses something other than water as solvent expensive and environmental concerns Chapter 10 Dyeing and Printing Level Textile w same hue value and intensity Colorfast dyes that don t fade or change color Metamerism colors look different in different lights Tendering weakens fabric Bezold Effect merges two or more colors into a new color Dyes complex compound that adds color to materials by binding with their internal structures Dissolve in water excess dye creates problems rinsing after dying creates problems Pigment insoluble color particles that is bound to textile quick simple economical stiffening crocking fading poor abrasion resistance occur 9M 0Solution color added to fibers before spun Fiber expensive slow healthier tone on tone effects occurs before yarn production Yarn used for fabrics with structural designs More time needed to set up loom Less expensive than fiber dying more expensive than fabric or product dying Usually limited to plaids checks stripes etc Fabric less expensive color choice can be delayed until demand is known 0 Piece dying bolt of fabric 0 Union dying produces solid color when fabric has more than one generic fibers 0 Cross dying dying fabric with two or more generic fibers to create a colorpattered fabric 0 Product garment dying can choose color once you know demand great care must be taken of garments before dyed Resist Dying yarn or fabric is treated in way to block certain areas from taking color Batik hot wax applied on fabric before dying lkat yarn tied died then woven Tie Dye fabric tied before dying Printinq Method 0 Roller Printing engraved rollers apply color directly to fabric in patter and location desired Warp Printing warp yarns printed before weaving producing a soft hazy pattern ONLY WARP YARNS HAVE COLOR PATTERN WEFT YARNS ARE WHITE oDischarge color is removed from selected areas of piece dyed fabrics Screen made using mesh screen with openings only where you want color to go control where color is placed 0 Flatbed 0 Rotary screen 0 Digital computers control where tiny nozzles apply microdrops of colored liquid ink to fabric Heat Transfer design printed on paper and transferred with heat and pressure Problems in coloration Bleeding color loss in water Crocking color transfer to another surface due to rubbing or abrasion Migration color moves to surrounding area of product Fading loss of color when colorant s internal structure is damaged Frosting colored portion of fibers are abraded Out of register pattern does not line up as desired Offgrain print printed off grain and cannot be both straight with the print and cut on grain Chapter 11 Care of Textiles Soil defined types Detergent and other additives builders optical whiteners phosphates bleachingchlorine and nonchlorine fragrances softners Cleaning types launder vs dry cleaning Perchloroethylene PERC Energy uses over life cycle of product Characteristics of water in laundering Purpose of detergent when washing textiles Reaction of soap and water Energy Star Care label
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