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AU / History / HIST 1010 / What is a conquistadors ?

What is a conquistadors ?

What is a conquistadors ?

Description

School: Auburn University
Department: History
Course: World History I
Professor: Donna bohanan
Term: Fall 2015
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: History 1010 FINAL
Description: Final Exam Study Guide!!
Uploaded: 11/30/2016
27 Pages 7 Views 11 Unlocks
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HISTORY FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE


What is a conquistadors ?



Dates- Blue

TERMS- Pink

Siege of Constantinople

∙ Capture of byzantine empire  by the ottoman empire

∙ Conquest of Constantinople

Devshirme

∙ Took place under the ottoman  empire

∙ Collect Christian boys and  turned them into slaves

∙ Lowest social class

Janissaries

∙ Member of Turkish infantry  form the Sultan’s guard  

between 14th and 19th 

centuries

∙ Devoted follower of supporter

Akbar

∙ System that took place under  the Ottoman Empire

∙ Sultan (ruler) would collect  Christian boys from the  If you want to learn more check out what can be observed without changing chemical composition?
If you want to learn more check out What is peristalsis?

Balkans and turn them into his slaves

∙ Boys were ages 8-10

Maritime revolution

∙ Conqueror

∙ Especially a Spanish  

conqueror in Mexico or Peru in the 16th century

Plantation system

∙ A large tract of privately  We also discuss several other topics like Customer supplier relationships in terms.

owned land worked by many  slaves to produce a high-value commodity for export to an  


What is a humanism?



external market

Aztecs and Inca

∙ Aztec Empire  united  

numerous small, independent  states under a single monarch  who ruled with help of  

counselors, military leaders  

and priests

∙ Capital was Tenochtitlan

∙ Cortes and his conquestIf you want to learn more check out Why study sociology?

∙ Incan Empire quechua speaking rulers established  

impressive state

∙ Settled into Cuzco, Peru which  became the hub of south  

America’s greatest empire

∙ Combination of raiding  If you want to learn more check out Socrates’ delight at being what?

neighbors and intermarrying  

into elite’s families raised the  Inca’s to supremacy

∙ Inca warrior; Yupanqui  

renamed himself Pachacuti  

and began the royal line of  

Inca emperors

∙ Ruled from Chile to southern  Columbia

∙ Cuzco became the capital with the fortress Sacsayhuaman as  its head

∙ Citadel was nerve of complex  network of strongholds that  


What is a absolutism?



held the empire together

Conquistadors

∙ Newcomers to the  

Amerindians

∙ Different not only for their skin color but for their hairiness 

beard, breath and bad  

manners

∙ Inability to live off the land ∙ Had metal weapons and were  odd trading partners, they  

stayed and forced the local  

population to labor for them

Encomienda

∙ Grant by Spanish Crown to a  colonist in America conferring  to the right to demand tribute  to forced labor from the  

Indians living in the area Don't forget about the age old question of does “itis” means inflammation?

∙ Used to get landowners to  travel south

Mercantilism

∙ Competition between  

European powers for resources ∙ Desire to extract as much  wealth as possible from the

colonies

∙ Idea that there is a fixed  

amount of wealth/resources in  the world

Reformation

∙ Schism from the Roman  

Catholic Church initiated by  

Martin Luther and continued  

by John Calvin and other  

Protestant Reformers in 16th 

century Europe

∙ Catholic  Protestant

Printing press

∙ Helped print more books and  contribute to the spread of  

literacy

Silver

∙ Part of the transatlantic trade

Sugar

∙ High death toll from workers in field

∙ High heat and intense labor  conditions to produce mass  

amounts of sugar cane

∙ Part of the transatlantic trade

Mita

∙ Mandatory public service

∙ Created by historians to  

differentiate the system as it  was modified and intensified  by the Spanish colonial  

government  creating  

encomienda

Manchurians

∙ Manchus

Shoguns

∙ Name for leaders of tokugawa  japan

∙ Dynastic state, regulated  

foreign intrusion

Daimyo

∙ Regional ruling families

∙ Commanded private armies of  warriors known as samurai

∙ Villages paid taxes to daimyos  who then transferred  

resources to the seat of  

shogunate authority

∙ Sometimes brought order to  domains

Samurai

∙ Warriors (when there’s war)

otherwise apart of  

administration

Bushido

∙ Japanese term for samurai  way of life

∙ Like chivalry in Europe

∙ Combination of frugality,  

loyalty, martial arts mastery,  and honor until death

Gold coast

∙ Where ¾ slaves lived in the  late 17th century

∙ Gold fields

∙ Shift in captive taking

∙ Portuguese were first  

Europeans to arrive on this  

coast  built several forts  

along the coastline

∙ Sent majority of slaves to  

north American and the  

Caribbean

Atlantic creoles

∙ Used to describe the charter  generation of slaves during  

the European colonization of  the Americas before 1660

∙ Cultural roots in Africa, Europe and the Caribbean

Fictive kin

∙ Forms of kinship or social ties  that are based on neither  

blood ties nor marriage

∙ Important to slaves when  

pulled apart from their  

families

Columbian exchange

∙ Transfer of previously  

unknown plants, animals,  

people and products in the  

wake of Columbus’s voyages

∙ Transformed environments,  economies, and diets in both  old and new worlds

∙ Decimation of Amerindian  population by European  

diseases  therefore couldn’t  resist European settlement  

and colonization

∙ All sides adopted new forms of

agriculture from one another

∙ Important things traded:  

horses, wheat, grapevines,  

sugarcane, potatoes, corn,  

and disease

Potosi

∙ Location of much silver

∙ Flowed east

∙ Horrific labor conditions for  minors

∙ Encomienda: land grant to a  particular Spanish lord who  

would own the land, labor and  people on that land, supposed  to encourage Spanish lords to  move to the new world

∙ Repartimiento: reform to  

encomienda to deal with the  

abuse, mita applied to mines,  every 7 years the Spanish lord would spend working in the  

mines with the slaves

Tenochtitlan

∙ Aztec capital as populous as  Europe’s largest city

∙ Spread in concentric circles ∙ Main religious and political  buildings in the center with  

residences going outward

Isfahan

∙ Capital in Iran

Black death

∙ epidemic of bubonic plague ∙ caused by bacteria that  

circulates among rodents and  where they live in numbers  

and density and transmitted  

by fleas

∙ killed 25-65% of infected  

populations

∙ climate has to do with it too,  travels faster in cooler  

climates

∙ infected victims died very  quickly and in agony

∙ trading network that spread  germs across Afro-Eurasia and into famine-struck western

Europe

Transatlantic slave trade

1. Decision to enslave Africans  was NOT automatic or  

inevitable

2. The slave trade happened  differently in various places  

and time periods

3. Enslavement was a process of  trying to turn a person into  

property that was never  

complete

∙ “just” war – ensure that war is  morally justifiable, through a  series of criteria

∙ plantations had high demand  for labor

∙ slow process  indentured  servitude, slow legal change  

to permanent, hereditary  

enslavement

∙ Christianity

∙ 12.5 million people

∙ “saltwater slaves”- reference  to slaves who came over on  

the middle passage to the  

Americas

Middle passage

∙ Europeans packed ships full of  people to compensate for the  high costs of shipping slaves  across the ocean

∙ Race against time

∙ 2 meals a day, exercise to  keep them in some kind of  

shape, then put below deck  

for the night, tightly packed  

shoulder to shoulder

∙ many people resisted

∙ 15-25% did not survive

∙ first stop: Barbados

∙ value of slaves was doubled  yet their health diminished

∙ different strategies to help sell the slaves

∙ many people tried to run away

∙ diaspora: scattered population

gold coast- sent slaves to  

north America/Caribbean

west central Africa- sent  

slaves to south America

Portuguese exploration

∙ numerous territories and  

maritime routes discovered by Portuguese as a result of their  intensive maritime exploration during 15th and 16th centuries

Humanism

∙ system of thought attaching  prime importance to human  

rather than divine or  

supernatural matters

∙ stress potential value of  

goodness of humans

∙ emphasize common human  needs and seek rational ways  of solving human problems

∙ renaissance cultural  

movement

The thirty years war

∙ 1618-1648

∙ war between protestant  

princes and catholic emperor  for religious predominance in  central Europe

∙ struggle for regional control  among Catholic powers

∙ bid for independence by the  Dutch, who wanted trade and  worship as they liked

∙ **war for preeminence in  

Europe

∙ took lives of civilians as well  as soldiers

∙ fighting, disease, and famine  wiped out a third of the  

German states’ urban  

population and 2/5 of their  

rural population

European colonies in the Americas

∙ Spanish conquest of native  Americas  important factor =  spread of diseases

Glorious revolution

∙ where King James II fled to  France and Parliament offered  the crown to William and Mary as long as they ruled in  

conjunction with the  

parliament

∙ Presbyterians and Jews were  allowed to practice

∙ Catholic worship was still  

forbidden, but tolerated as  

long as kept quiet

Philosophes

∙ Intellectuals of the 18th 

century Enlightenment

∙ Primary philosophers, applied  reason to the study of many  

areas of learning

Encyclopedia

∙ Book or set of books giving  information on many subjects  or on many aspects of one  

subject and typically arranged  alphabetically

∙ Important when more people  become literate and can read  to themselves

Salons

∙ Places where the French elite  met to discuss the  

Enlightenment

∙ Women

∙ Fashionable

∙ Challenges  coffeehouses,  lending libraries

∙ elite

Age of revolutions

∙ 1774-1848

∙ number of significant  

revolutionary movements  

occurred in many parts of  

Europe and the Americas

∙ noted for the change in  

government from absolutist  

monarchies to constitutionalist states and republics

Seven years’ war

∙ 1756-1763

∙ Native Americans, African  slaves, Bengali princes,

Filipino militiamen, and  

European foot soldiers  

dragged into a contest over  

imperial possessions and  

control of the seas

∙ Sparked by skirmish of British  colonial troops allied with  

Seneca warriors against  

French soldiers in the Ohio  

valley

∙ British seized upper-hand

∙ Drove off French from Bengali  interior and crippled Indian  

rulers’ resistance against  

European intruders

∙ Changed balance of power  around the world, Britain  

emerged as foremost colonial  empire

James cook’s voyages

∙ captain cook

∙ first voyage was combined  Royal Navy and Royal Society  expedition to the south Pacific  Ocean, first of three voyages  where he was commander

Absolutism

∙ Form of government where  one body controls the right to  make war, tax, judge and coin  money.

∙ Often used to refer to state  monarchies in the 17th sand  

18th century Europe

Constitutionalism

∙ Form of government in which  power is limited by law and  

balanced between the  

authority and power of the  

government on the one hand,  and the rights and liberties of  the subject or citizen on the  

other

Serfs

∙ Peasants in Russia, legally  bound to the nobles and the  

tsar

∙ Had to perform obligatory

services and deliver part of  

their produce to their lords

∙ Increasingly worse and worse  conditions

Cossacks

∙ group of predominantly East  Slavic-speaking people who  

became known as members  

of democratic, self-governing,  semi-military communities,  

predominantly located in  

Ukraine and in Russia.

American revolution

∙ time of prosperity

∙ mid 18th century

∙ masked tensions  plantations are booming and European  

wealth is growing, moving  

west and running into native  Americans = tensions

∙ seven years’ war (1754-1763) ∙ British policies  escalating  tensions

∙ proclamation of 1763 =  

failure

∙ French forced to give up  

northern territories

∙ Expenses from war  protests, boycotts after British tried to  overtax

∙ Revenue act, stamp act etc. ∙ Boston massacre

∙ Tea act (1773)

∙ Boston tea party (1773)

∙ Thomas Paine’s “common  sense”

∙ Declaration of Independence ∙ Divided friends and family  and tribes

∙ Federal Constitution: checks  and balances, so no one  

branch of gov’t can become  

too powerful, branches  

oversee each other

French revolution

∙ Enlightenment

∙ Inspired Haitian revolution ∙ Louis xiv – expenses, peasants ∙ Louis xvi – king in 1774,  

supports American revolution ∙ 1789- Louis XVI convenes  Estates General, third estate,  protests

∙ Bastille (July 14, 1789)

∙ ‘tennis court’ oath – august  1789

∙ issues “declaration of the  

rights of man and citizens”

∙ Jacobins – Girondins  

(moderate Jacobins) with  

constitutional monarchy and  

“mountain” (radical Jacobins)  with gov’t represented by  

people

∙ Reign of Terror- (1793-94) –  Maximilian Robespierre led  

radical Jacobin group

∙ Thousands executed by  

guillotine as well as  

Robespierre

∙ Moderate takes control 

response = reinstitute  

property, limit popular vote

∙ General Napoleon Bonaparte  became emperor in 1804

Haitian revolution

∙ Santo Dominguez – huge slave population, gens du couleur

∙ 1789- Representatives to Paris to get information

∙ 1790 Vincent Orgé tortured  and murdered  leads to civil  war = white European  

population vs. gens du couleur ∙ 1793- France abolishes slavery ∙ Toussaint L’Ouverture – prior  slave, advocates for rational  

equality on island

∙ 1790’s Toussaint goes to  

Santo Domingo to try to free  

slaves in Spanish colony

∙ 1802- Napoleon’s response ∙ 1804- Haitian independence  republic

∙ **most successful slave revolt  and important bc it terrifies  

slave holders everywhere and  US bans migration from  

Caribbean and tries to  

suppress the news about it

Declaration of independence

∙ Thomas Jefferson

∙ enlightenment ideals

∙ Lexington and concord (1775) ∙ justified right for people to rise up if they felt they needed to

Declaration of the rights of man and  citizens

∙ guaranteed free expression of  ideas

∙ equality

∙ representative government

Jacobins

∙ a member of a democratic  club established in Paris in  

1789

∙ most radical and ruthless of  the political groups formed in  the wake of the French  

Revolution

∙ in association with  

Robespierre they instituted  

the Terror of 1793

Reign of terror

∙ Maximilian Robespierre  led  radical Jacobin group

∙ Thousands executed by  

guillotine

∙ Committee on Public Safety ∙ July 1794- Robespierre  

executed b/c he executed so  many close allies

∙ Campaign at height of French  Revolution in 1790’s that used

violence and execution to  

purge France of its enemies  

and to extend the revolution  

beyond its borders

Gens du couleur

∙ Free people of color

∙ Haitian

Feudalism

∙ the dominant social system in  medieval Europe, in which the  nobility held lands from the  

Crown in exchange for military service

∙ peasants were obliged to live  on their lord's land and give  

him homage, labor, and a  

share of the produce,  

notionally in exchange for  

military protection.

Crusades

∙ persecute Christians

Kilwa

∙ community on an island off  the southern coast of Africa

Grand canal

∙ longest canal or artificial river  in the world and a famous  

tourist destination

Chang’an

∙ Ancient capital of more than  ten dynasties in Chinese  

history

∙ today known as Xi’an

Mecca

∙ Islam’s holiest city, as it’s the  birthplace of the Prophet  

Muhammad and the faith itself ∙ millions of Muslims arrive for  the annual Hajj

Quran

∙ central religious text of Islam,  which Muslims believe to be a  revelation from God

∙ widely regarded as the finest  piece of literature in the  

Arabic language

Ramadan

∙ the ninth month of the Muslim  year, during which strict  

fasting is observed from  

sunrise to sunset.

Sharia

∙ law based on teachings of the  Quran and the traditions of

the Prophet, prescribing both  religious and secular duties  

and sometimes penalties for  

lawbreaking

Abbasid

∙ member of Abbasid dynasty

Bodhisattvas

∙ person who is able to reach  nirvana but delays doing so  

out of compassion in order to  save suffering beings

Bhagavad Gita

∙ ancient Indian text that  

became important work of  

Hindu tradition in terms of  

literature and philosophy

∙ “song of the Lord”

syncretism

∙ uniting of different religions,  cultures, or schools of thought

Mamluks

∙ Group that asserted Egypt’s  political and commercial  

autonomy were military men

∙ Ruled Egypt as an  

independent regime until the  Ottoman conquest

∙ Enhanced power by aligning  with Egyptian merchants and  catering to religious elites of  

Egypt  ulama

Enclosure

∙ Movement where landowners  took control of lands that  

traditionally had been  

common property serving  

local needs

∙ Landowners planted new  

crops or pastured sheep with  the aim of selling the products at distant markets

∙ Hired wage laborers to till,  plant and harvest

Absolute monarchy

∙ Ruler was not to be a tyrant,  but authority was to be  

complete and thorough and  

his state free of bloody  

disorders

∙ No sharing of power with  

aristocracy

EMPIRES- light blue

∙ Ottoman empire

o Rulers of Anatolia, the Arab world and much of southern and  eastern Europe in the early 16th century

o Transformed themselves from nomadic warrior bands who  roamed the borderlands between Islamic and Christian worlds in  Anatolia into sovereigns of a vast, bureaucratic empire

o Embraced a Sunni view

o Adapted traditional Byzantine governmental practices but tried  new ways of integrating the diverse peoples of their empire ∙ Safavid empire

o 1501-1736

o Persia ruled over much of southwestern Asia

∙ Delhi sultanate

o Turkish regime of northern India

o Regime strengthened the cultural diversity and tolerance that  were a hallmark of the Indian social order, which allowed it to  bring about political integration without enforcing cultural  homogeneity

∙ Mughal empire

o Extended domain over almost all of India

o Increased domestic and international trade

o Turned to the south

 Gained control by 1689

o Profited from seaborne trade

o Main source of wealth was land rents

 Increased via new incentives to bring new land into  

cultivation

∙ Imperial economy also benefitted from Europeans’  

increased demand for Indian goods

o Local warrior elites became more autonomous

 Regional leaders were well positioned to resist authority  Distant provinces began challenging central rulers

∙ Spain under Ferdinand and Isabella

o Marriage of royal cousins

o Brought stability to both kingdoms (Aragon and Castile) o Institutional reform in Castile and left Spain one of the best  administered countries in Europe

∙ Renaissance

o Means “rebirth” that historians use to characterize the expanded  cultural production of European nations between 1430-1550

o Break from church-centered medieval world and a new concept  of humankind as the center of the world

∙ Enlightenment

o An 18th century intellectual movement based on reason, the  scientific method and progress

o Science (reason)

o Scientific revolution?

o John Locke

 Tabula rasa

∙ Born as a blank slate, external influences are what  

shape you

o Printing industry helped spread ideas, made it easier o encyclopedias

 Reading changed and collection/access to knowledge ∙ People read out loud, became a social thing

o Literacy is increasing

∙ Ming china

o 1500- peak of Ming empire

 population growth/recovery

o traditional Chinese values

 “son of heaven”  Zhu Yijun

 civil service exam for citizens

 literal control over bureaucracy

 rarely ventured outside palace

o silver taxes (1571)

 piracy

 problems

∙ inflation, contraction

o declined under Wanli Emperor (1573-1620)

 bad leader for Chinese people

 corrupt

∙ spent tax revenue on personal issues

 promotes incompetent officials

o collapse

 disposed Chinese peasants and mutinous soldiers vented  their anger at local tax collectors and officials

∙ famous rebel leader  Li Zicheng

o arrived at outskirts of Beijing to seize

 existing emperor hung himself

∙ “dashing prince” Li Zicheng took  

power

∙ Qing china

o Started by the Manchurians

o 1644- Manchu warriors

 descendants of Turkish-speaking group known as Jurchen ∙ emerged as force early in 17th century

o when leader claimed title of khan after  

securing allegiance of various Mongol groups in

northeastern Asia, paving way for eventual  

conquest of China

o slow transition

 diplomacy and force

o cultural transition

 Confucianism

 language

 Buddhism

 Civil service exams

 Queue

∙ Forced all men to adapt same hairstyle

o Braid down the back with cut short in front

∙ Tokugawa japan

o Shoguns- name for the leaders

o Two eras:  

 1630-1710: prosperity

 1710-1800: challenges

o shoguns united the daimyo

 economic growth

∙ farms, improved irrigation

 tax system

 edo- Tokyo

 doctrine of bushido

∙ shift for samurai

o not just great fighters but also great scholars

o intellectual and cultural leaders for Japan

 established schools

 wrote works of confucist thought

o challenges:

 seclusion edicts: 1630’s

∙ laws trying to cut Japan off from the outside world

o Europeans are more worried because they  

want to maintain trade

 Ecological concerns

∙ Can only expand so much on an island

 Population growth

o Shogun Yoshimune (1716-1745)

 Instituted reforms

∙ Tax collection

o Make it easier for farmers

∙ Not ultimately successful

∙ Holy roman empire

o Multi-ethic complex of territories in central Europe

o Developed during early middle ages

o Charlemagne was emperor in 800

o Concept of ‘translatio imperil’

 Held supreme power inherited from the emperors of Rome,  fundamental to prestige of emperor

∙ Office was traditionally elective, yet frequently  

controlled by dynasties

o Evolved into a decentralized, elective  

monarchy, with hundreds of sub-units, cities  

and counties

o Power of emperor was limited

o Power of princes/bishops/lords etc. possessed  

an extent of privileges that gave them ‘de  

facto’ independence

∙ Kingdom of Mali

o Referred to as the Manden Kurufaba

o Empire in West Africa

o Renowned for wealth of its rulers, aka Mansa Musa

o Largest empire in west Africa

o Influenced culture of religion through spread of its language, laws and customs along lands adjacent to empire

∙ Saint Dominque

o French colony on Caribbean island of Hispaniola

 French established themselves on the western portion of  the islands

o In 1791, slaves and some free people of color started a rebellion  against French authority

 Colony declared its independence as Haiti in 1804

PEOPLE- dark purple

∙ Suleiman the magnificent

o 1494-1566

o Tenth and longest reigning sultan of the ottoman empire from  1520- 1566

o Under him, ottoman state ruled over 20-30 million people o Prominent monarch of 16th century Europe

 Major legislative changes relating to society, education,  taxation and criminal law

∙ Reforms carried out in conjunction with empire’s  

chief judicial official

 Poet and goldsmith

 Great patron of culture

∙ Overseeing “golden” age of the Ottoman Empire

∙ Christopher Columbus

o 1451-1506

o Italian explorer, navigator, colonizer and citizen of the Republic  of Genoa

o Under catholic monarchs of Spain, completed four voyages  across Atlantic Ocean

 Established permanent settlements on the island of  Hispaniola  

 First voyage in 1492

∙ Reached New World instead of arriving at Japan as  

intended, landing on an island in the Bahamas

o Not first European explorer to reach America’s, but first lasting  European contact with Americas

o Spearheaded the transatlantic slave trade and accused by  several historians of initiating the genocide of the Hispaniola  natives

o Saw himself as spreading Christian religion

∙ Hernan Cortes

o 1485-1547

o Spanish Conquistador

o Led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec empire and  brought large portions of mainland Mexico under the King of  Castile

o Part of the generation of Spanish colonizers of the Americas o Wanted to pursue New World

 Went to Hispaniola and then Cuba

∙ Received an encomienda and became  

alcalde/magistrate of the second town founded on  

that island

o Captain of third expedition to mainland

 Expedition was recalled but he ignored it

∙ Strategy was to ally with indigenous people against  others

o Used native woman as interpreter who later  

gave him a son

∙ Martin Luther

o 1483-1546

o German professor of theology, composer, priest, monk and  important figure in the Protestant Reformation

o Rejected several teachings and practices of Roman Catholic  Church

o Disputed claim that freedom from God’s punishment for sin could be purchased with money

 Proposed academic discussion of the practice and efficacy  of indulgences in his Ninety-five Theses

o Taught that salvation and eternal life are not earned by good  deeds by received as the free gift of God’s grace through the  believer’s faith

 Challenged authority and office of the Pope by teaching the Bible as only source of knowledge from God

∙ People who identify with his teachings are called  

Lutherans

∙ John Calvin

o 1509-1564

o Influential French theologian and pastor during Protestant  Reformation

o Principal figure in development of Christian theology system  Later called Calvinism

∙ Include doctrines of predestination and absolute  

sovereignty of God in salvation of human soul from  

death and eternal damnation

o Controversial writer

o Broke from Roman Catholic church around 1530

∙ Louis XIV

o Sun king

o 1682- moved to Versailles

 requires nobility to spend time there so he can watch them o destroys protestants

o economy

 self-sufficient

 wealth from colonies

o strong military

o Catholicism

∙ John Locke

o Second Treatise of Civil Government (1690)

o Natural rights of property

∙ Montesquieu

o 1689-1755

o The Spirit of Laws

o Separation of powers

 Define constitutionalism

∙ Voltaire

o François Marie Arouet

o 1684-1778

o praised the English

 political reformer

o believes in God but recognizes other religions

 challenges Catholic church a lot

o Madame du Chatelet-lomont

 Affair

∙ She’s funding him, allowing him to make thinking and writing his job

 Connected to larger movement because she’s a scholar ∙ Women can now be considered intellectuals in the  

Enlightenment

∙ Rousseau

o 1712-1778

o rationalism as corrupting

o dangers

o gender roles

o The Social Contract

 Will of the people

 Popular sovereignty

∙ Adam smith

o 1723-1790

o Scottish moral philosopher

o Pioneer of political economy

o Key figure in the Scottish Enlightenment

o Laid foundations of classical free market economic theory o Developed concept of division of labor

∙ Ivan the terrible

o 1533-1584

o Catholics in Poland

o protestants in Sweden

o Muslims to the south

o goals

 buffer zone

 orthodoxy

o economy

 serfdom

∙ peasants owing their labor to a lord or boyar

∙ lengthier in Russia

∙ worse condition

∙ Romanovs

o Powerful Russian dynasty that lasted into the 20th century o West

 St. Petersburg

 Western European culture

o Boyars vs. tsar

 European dress, beards

 Government/army service

o Built up army

o Conditions of serfs worsened

 Higher taxes

∙ Peter the great

o (1682-1725)

o Accomplished victory in Sweden

∙ Catherine the great

o 1729-1796

o Born in Germany

 German princess

o Converted to Russian orthodox faith

o Brought European ideas

 Without the political reform

o Serfs

 Worsening condition

 Cossack yemelyan pugachev

∙ Led the peasant revolt

∙ Leader caught and executed

∙ Robespierre

o 1758-1794

o Maximillian Robespierre

o French lawyer and politician, influential figure of French  Revolution, defense of the Republic and Reign of Terror o Member of Estates-General, Constituent Assembly and Jacobin  Club

o Outspoken advocate of poor and democratic institutions o Was against war with Austria

 Warned of possibility of military coup

o Opponent of death penalty

 Yet argued for execution of King Louis XVI and the French  republic

 Advocated for abolition of slavery in French colonies ∙ Toussaint l’Ouverture

o 1743-1803

o Best known leader of Haitian Revolution

o Military and political acumen saved gains of first Black  insurrection

o Fought for Spanish against French

 Then for France against Spain and Britain

∙ And then for Haiti against Napoleonic France

o Transformed insurgency to revolutionary movement

o Saint Dominque was the most prosperous slave colony at that  time

 Turned it into the first free colonial society to have rejected  race as social ranking

∙ Became governor for life of colony

∙ Louis xvi

o King of France from 1774-1792

 Killed by guillotine

o Attempted to reform France with Enlightenment ideas  Efforts to abolish serfdom, remove taille and increase  tolerance toward non-Catholics

∙ French nobility acted with hostility, opposing their  

implementation

∙ Elizabeth I

o 1533-1603

o Queen of England and Ireland

o Called Virgin Queen

o Last monarch of Tudor dynasty

o Annulled marriage to Henry VII, where she was declared  illegitimate

o Succeeded her half-sister to the throne after she was imprisoned  by her

 Depended heavily on advisors

∙ Establishment of English Protestant Church

o She was Supreme Governor

∙ James Cook

o Captain Cook

o 1728-1779

o introduced sheep

o first voyage had two tasks

 observe movement of the planet Venus from the Southern  Hemisphere

 secret mission of finding and claiming “the southern  

continent” for Britain

o voyages were about knowledge and exploitation

o domestication of Australia

 took official possession of the eastern half of Australia  intended to be a prison colony far from home or a  

strategic base against Dutch and French expansion

o sailed to Hawaii

 forced to return after leaving, for repairs

∙ killed by Hawaiians

∙ supposedly for religious reasons

∙ Ku the God of war and human sacrifice

o Cook was supposedly killed to mark the end of  

Mahakiki

∙ Mansa Musa

o 1280-1337

o Sultan king or emperor of Mali Empire

o Consisted of territory formerly belonging to Ghana Empire  Said that he conquered 2 cities with surrounding districts  containing villages and estates, during his reign

∙ Chinggis Khan

o 1162-1227

o Genghis Khan

o Founder and Great Khan (emperor) of Mongol Empire

 Became largest contiguous empire in history after his  

death

o Came to power by uniting many of the nomadic tribes of  Northeast Asia

o Started Mongol invasions that conquered most of Eurasia  His campaigns were accompanied by wholesale massacres  of civilian populations

Absolutism

Constitutionalism

One ruler

Power divided by authority and  people

France and Spain

England

Examples of European Government

∙ RUSSIA

o Muscovy

 Muscovite princes (from Moscow) and the Mongols

∙ Founded Russia and they were the ones who helped  

start the origins of absolutist Russia getting rid of the

Mongols

o Absolutist

o Ivan III

 Czar

∙ Has all the authority

 Boyars

∙ Landowners, nobility, elites

o Czar needs boyars to be okay with him  

because they control the serfs and their labor

 Buffer zone

∙ Trying to be protected from the Mongols

o Keep expanding, keeps people and land  

between Russia and the Mongols

o Ivan IV or Ivan the Terrible

 Involved with multiple wars and conflicts

∙ Fighting with people across the landmass

o Catholic in England, Muslims to the South, etc.

o Wanted to spread orthodoxy

 Adding to the buffer zone

 Economy improves at expense of serfs

 Condition of serfs (peasants, laborer for that area)

∙ Decreases

o Service lengthens

o Quality of life decreases

 **happening at time of feudalism

o The Romanovs

 Peter the Great

∙ Pretty heavily influenced by the Mongols before him

∙ Schooled in western Europe and uses that to reform

∙ Established St. Petersburg- very European

∙ Boyars are depending more on the czar

o Peter the Great is doing a lot of build-up in the  

army so he gives them power in office  

∙ Serfs condition has gotten even worse

o Taxes

 Building St. Petersburg and a strong army

is expensive

o Serfs basically drafted into the army

 Catherine the Great

∙ German princess

∙ Bring western culture and goods into Russia

∙ Serf condition gets even worse

o Push on serfs to produce more grain

 Peasant revolt led by pugachev

∙ Gets executed

∙ SPAIN

o Absolutist

o Exhaustion of silver mines

 Fortunes declined

o Catholic

o Drove Muslims out

 Spending money to get rid of them

o Increased colonial competition

o Spent too much money than they were making

 Filed for bankruptcy

o Increased colonial competition

∙ FRANCE

o Absolutist

o Louis XIV

 Peak

 Took complete control

 Makes nobility live in Versailles

∙ So he can control them and keep an eye on them,  

surveillance

o Strong military

o Protestant

 Driven out to have an all Catholic country

o Tried to increase in self-sufficiency

o Fronde uprising

∙ ENGLAND

o Constitutionalist

o William and Mary of Orange

 “Glorious Revolution”

∙ where King James II fled to France and Parliament  

offered the crown to William and Mary as long as  

they ruled in conjunction with the parliament

o Presbyterians and Jews were allowed to  

practice

o Catholic worship was still forbidden, but  

tolerated as long as kept quiet

 ended absolute monarchies

 peaceful transfer of power

 only become monarchs with support of parliament

∙ uses them to help become popular

o John Locke

 Natural rights of property

∙ Have to have property to vote or be in parliament

∙ Shared government between king and parliament

o Enlightenment

CHRONOLOGY- green

 Osman --1259-1323

 Black Death in China --1331

 Siege of Constantinople --1453  Columbus arrives in Hispanolia --1498  Martin Luther posts 95 Theses --1517  Cortés conquers the Aztecs --1519-1521  Founding of Mughal Empire --1526  Spanish arrive in Inca Empire --1532-1572  Opening of Potosi mines --1545  St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre --1572  Founding of Jamestown --1607

 Thirty Years War --1618-1648

 John Locke --1632-1704

 Louis XIV --1638-1715

 End of Ming Dynasty --1644

 Peter the Great’s reign --1682-1725  Voltaire --1694-1778

 Seven Years War --1754-1763

 American Revolution --1765-1783  James Cook’s voyages --1766, 68-71  French Revolution --1789-1799

 Haitian Revolution --1791-1801

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